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?Coyote
Conservation status: Least concern[1]
File:Canis latrans.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Genus: Canis
Species: C. latrans
Binomial name
Canis latrans
Say, 1823
Coyote range
Coyote range

The coyote (IPA: /kaɪˈoʊti, ˈkaɪoʊt/[2]) (Canis latrans), also known as the prairie wolf [3], is a mammal of the order Carnivora. The species is found throughout North and Central America, ranging from Panama in the south, north through Mexico, the United States, and Canada. It occurs as far north as Alaska and all but the northernmost portions of Canada.[4] There are currently 19 recognized subspecies, with 16 in Canada, Mexico and the United States, and 3 in Central America.[5]

NameEdit

The name "coyote" is borrowed from Mexican Spanish, ultimately derived from the Nahuatl word coyotl (pronounced [ˈkojoːtɬ]). Its Latin name, Canis latrans, means "barking dog."

The word itself has two common pronunciations in the United States, used depending upon region or exposure to entertainment media. In northern areas such as Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado, the "e" in the word is not pronounced, making it a two syllable word (kai-oat), with the accent on the first syllable.

In southwestern areas such as Arizona and New Mexico, the "e" is pronounced, making it a three syllable word, with the accent on the second syllable. Hollywood has generally used the southern pronunciation in movies and television shows, leading to a wider acceptance of that pronunciation, to the point that many people are unaware of the alternative.

Genus controversyEdit

In 1816 in the third volume of Lorenz Oken’s Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte, the author found sufficient similarities in the dentition of coyotes and jackals to place these species into a new separate genus from Canis called Thos after the classical Greek word θώς. Oken’s idiosycratic nomenclatorial ways however, aroused the scorn of a number of zoological systematists. Nearly all the descriptive words used to justify the genus division were relative terms without a reference measure and that the argument did not take into account the size differences between the species which can be considerable. Angel Cabrera, in his 1932 monograph on the mammals of Morocco, briefly touched upon the question whether or not the presence of a cingulum on the upper molars of the jackals and its corresponding absence in the rest of Canis could justify a subdivision of the genus Canis. In practice, he chose the undivided-genus alternative and referred to the jackals as Canis.[6] A few authors however, Ernest Thompson Seton being among them, accepted Okens nomenclature, and went as far as referring to the coyote as American jackal.[7]

The Oken/Heller proposal of the new genus Thos did not affect the classification of the coyote. Gerrit S. Miller still had in his 1924 edition of List of North American Recent Mammals in the section “Genus Canis Linnaeas,” the subordinate heading “Subgenus Thos Oken” and backed it up with a reference to Heller. In the reworked version of the book in 1955, Philip Hershkovitz and Hartley Jackson led him to drop Thos both as an available scientific term and as a viable subgenus of Canis. In his definitive study of the taxonomy of the coyote, Jackson had, in response to Miller, queried whether Heller had seriously looked at specimens of coyotes prior to his 1914 article and thought the characters to be “not sufficiently important or stable to warrant subgeneric recognition for the group”.[6]

DescriptionEdit

File:Coyote portrait.jpg

The color of the coyote's pelt varies from grayish brown to yellowish gray on the upper parts, while the throat and belly tend to have a buff or white color. The forelegs, sides of the head, muzzle and feet are reddish brown. The back has tawn-colored underfur and long, black-tipped guard hairs that form a black dorsal stripe and a dark cross on the shoulder area. The black-tipped tail has a scent gland located on its dorsal base. Coyotes shed once a year, beginning in May with light hair loss, ending in July after heavy shedding. The ears are proportionately large in relation to the head, while the feet are relatively small in relation to the rest of the body.[4] Mountain dwelling coyotes tend to be dark furred while desert coyotes tend to be more yellowish in color.[5]

Coyotes typically grow from 75-100 centimeters (30–40 inches) in length and on average, weigh from 7–21 kilograms (15–46 pounds).[4] Northern coyotes are typically larger than southern subspecies, with the largest coyotes on record weighing 74¾ pounds (33.7 kg) and measuring over five feet in total length.[8] The coyote's dental formula is I 3/3, C 1/1, Pm 4/4, M usually 2/2, occasionally 3/3, 3/2, or 2/3 X 2 = 40, 42, or 44.[9] Normal spacing between the upper canine teeth is 1 1/8 to 1 3/8 inches (29 to 35 mm) and 1 to 1 1/4 inches (25 to 32 mm) between the lower canine teeth.[10] The upper frequency limit of hearing for coyotes is 80 kHZ, compared to the 60 kHz of domestic dogs.[11]

Unlike wolves, but similarly to domestic dogs, coyotes have sweat glands on their paw pads. This trait is however absent in the large New England coyotes which are thought to have some wolf ancestry.[12]

During pursuit, a coyote may reach speeds up to 43 mph[13], and can jump over 4 meters.[4]

Behavior Edit

Though coyotes have been observed to travel in large groups, they primarily hunt in pairs. Typical packs consist of six closely related adults, yearlings and young. Coyote packs are generally smaller than wolf packs and associations between individuals are less stable. It has been theorised that this is due to an earlier expression of aggression, and the fact that coyotes reach their full growth in their first year, unlike wolves who reach it in their second.[14] Common names of coyote groups are a band, a pack, or a rout[15]. Coyotes are primarily nocturnal but can occasionally be seen during daylight hours.[4] Coyotes were once essentially diurnal, but have adapted to more nocturnal behavior with pressure from humans (McClennen et al, 2001).

Coyotes are capable of digging their own burrows, though they often appropriate the burrows of woodchucks or American badgers. Coyote territorial ranges can be as much as 19 kilometers in diameter around the den and travel occurs along fixed trails.[4]

In areas where wolves have been exterminated, coyotes usually flourish. For example, as New England became increasingly settled and the resident wolves were eliminated, the coyote population increased, filling the empty biological niche. Coyotes appear better able than wolves to live among people.[16]

Coyotes have been known to live a maximum of 10 years in the wild and 18 years in captivity.[4] They seem to be better than dogs at observational learning.[12]

ReproductionEdit

Female coyotes are monoestrus and remain in heat for 2–5 days between late January and late March, during which mating occurs. Once the female chooses a partner, the mated pair may remain temporarily monogamous for a number of years. Depending on geographic location, spermatogenesis in males takes around 54 days and occurs between January and February. The gestation period lasts from 60 to 63 days. Litter size ranges from 1 to 19 pups; though the average is 6.[4] These large litters act as compensatory measures against the high juvenile mortality rate, with approximately 50-70% of pups not surviving to adulthood.[17] The pups weigh approximately 250 grams at birth and are initially blind and limp-eared.[4] Coyote growth rate is faster than that of wolves, being similair in length to that of the dhole.[18] The eyes open and ears erect after 10 days. Around 21-28 days after birth, the young begin to emerge from the den and by 35 days they are fully weaned. Both parents feed the weaned pups with regurgitated food. Male pups will disperse from their dens between months 6 and 9, while females usually remain with the parents and form the basis of the pack. The pups attain full growth between 9 and 12 months. Sexual maturity is reached by 12 months.[4]

Interspecific hybridizationEdit

Coyotes will sometimes mate with domestic dogs, usually in areas like Texas and Oklahoma where the coyotes are plentiful and the breeding season is extended because of the warm weather. The resulting hybrids called coydogs maintain the coyote's predatory nature, along with the dog's lack of timidity toward humans, making them a usually more serious threat to livestock than pure blooded animals. This cross breeding has the added effect of confusing the breeding cycle. Coyotes usually breed only once a year, while coydogs will breed year-round, producing many more pups than a wild coyote. Differences in the ears and tail are generally what can be used to distinguish coydogs from pure coyotes.[19]

Coyotes have also been known on occasion to mate with wolves though this less common as with dogs due to the wolf's hostility to the coyote. The offspring, known as a coywolf, is generally intermediate in size to both parents, being larger than a pure coyote, but smaller than a pure wolf. A study showed that of 100 coyotes collected in Maine, 22 had half or more wolf ancestry, and one was 89 percent wolf. A theory has been proposed that the large eastern coyotes in Canada are actually hybrids of the smaller western coyotes and wolves that met and mated decades ago as the coyotes moved toward New England from their earlier western ranges.[16] The red wolf is considered by some to be a wolf/coyote hybrid, due to its habit of readily mating with coyotes and the fact that it carries no unique genetic trait that would make it distinct from coyotes and grey wolves.[20]

CommunicationEdit

Hearing a coyote is much more common than seeing one. The calls a coyote makes are high-pitched and variously described as howls, yips, yelps and barks. These calls may be a long rising and falling note (a howl) or a series of short notes (yips). These calls are most often heard at dusk or night, less often during the day. Although these calls are made throughout the year, they are most common during the spring mating season and in the fall when the pups leave their families to establish new territories.

Ecology Edit

Diet and huntingEdit

Coyotes are versatile carnivores with a 90% mammalian diet, depending on the season. They primarily eat small mammals, such as voles, eastern cottontails, ground squirrels, and mice, though they will eat birds, snakes, lizards, deer, javalina, and livestock as well as large insects and other large invertebrates. Though they will consume large amounts of carrion, they tend to prefer fresh meat. Part of the coyote's success as a species is its dietary adaptability. As such, coyotes have been known to eat human rubbish and domestic pets. Fruits and vegetables are a significant part of the coyote's diet in the autumn and winter months.[4]

Coyotes shift their hunting techniques in accordance to their prey. When hunting small animals such as mice, they slowly stalk through the grass and use their acute sense of smell to track down the prey. When the prey is located, the coyotes stiffen and pounce on the prey in a cat-like manner. Coyotes will commonly work in teams when hunting large ungulates such as deer. Coyotes may take turns in baiting and pursuing the deer to exhaustion, or they may drive it towards a hidden member of the pack.[4] When attacking large prey, coyotes attack from the rear and the flanks of their prey. Occasionally they also grab the neck and head, pulling the animal down to the ground. Coyotes are persistent hunters, with successful attacks sometimes lasting from 14 minutes to about 21 hours; even unsuccessful ones can vary from 2 minutes to more than 8 hours before the coyotes give up. Depth of snow can affect the likelihood of a successful kill.[21]

The average distance covered in a night's hunting is 4 km (2½ mi).[4]

Interspecific predatory relationshipsEdit

The gray wolf is a significant predator of coyotes wherever their ranges overlap. Since the Yellowstone Gray Wolf Reintroduction in 1995 and 1996, the local coyote population went through a dramatic restructuring. Until the wolves returned, Yellowstone National Park had one of the densest and most stable coyote populations in America due to a lack of human impacts. Two years after the wolf reintroductions, 50% of the pre-wolf population of coyotes had been reduced, through both competitive exclusion and predation. In Grand Teton, coyote densities were 33% lower than normal in the areas where they coexisted with wolves, and 39% lower in the areas of Yellowstone where wolves were reintroduced. In one study, about 16% of radio-collared coyotes were preyed upon by wolves. Yellowstone coyotes have had to shift their territories as a result, moving from open meadows to steep terrain. Carcasses in the open no longer attract coyotes; when a coyote is chased on flat terrain, it is often killed. They feel more secure on steep terrain where they will often lead a pursuing wolf downhill. As the wolf comes after it, the coyote will turn around and runs uphill. Wolves, being heavier, cannot stop and the coyote gets a huge lead. Though physical confrontations between the two species are usually dominated by the larger wolves, coyotes have been known to attack wolves if they outnumber them. Both species will kill each other's pups given the opportunity.[22][23] Wolf urine has been marketed and claimed to be an organic coyote deterrent, such as for deterring attacks on sheep. [24]

Cougars sometimes kill coyotes. The coyote's instinctive fear of cougars has led to the development of anti-coyote sound systems which repel coyotes from public places by replicating the sounds of a cougar.[25]

In sympatric populations of coyotes and red foxes, fox territories tend to be located largely outside of coyote territories. The principal cause of this separation is believed to be active avoidance of coyotes by the foxes. Interactions between the two species vary in nature, ranging from active antagonism to indifference. The majority of aggressive encounters are initiated by coyotes, and there are few reports of red foxes acting aggressively toward coyotes except when attacked or when their pups were approached. Conversely, foxes and coyotes have sometimes been seen feeding together.[26]

Coyotes will sometimes form a symbiotic relationship with American badgers. Because coyotes are not very effective at digging rodents out of their burrows, they will chase the animals while they are above ground. Badgers on the other hand are not fast runners, but are well-adapted to digging. When hunting together, they effectively leave little escape for prey in the area.[4]

In some areas, coyotes share their ranges with bobcats. It is rare for these two similarly sized species to physically confront one another, though bobcat populations tend to diminish in areas with high coyote densities. Coyotes (both single individuals and groups) have been known to occasionally kill bobcats, but in all known cases, the victims were relatively small specimens, such as adult females and juveniles. [27]

Coyotes have also competed with and occasionally eaten Canadian lynxes in areas where both species overlap.[28][29]

Relationship with humansEdit

Coyotes are significant predators of a wide variety of rodents and rabbits and keep the populations of such animals from increasing to levels that humans may find undesirable. Although coyotes will eat nearly anything to some degree, studies of coyotes in rural areas have consistently shown that the most numerous food item of coyotes (both by weight and by number of individuals consumed) are rodents and rabbits. Also, because coyotes eat carrion readily (and thus are easily poisoned), the presence of larger animals (deer of many species, sheep, cattle, and even larger ungulates) in stomach contents of coyotes may not indicate that the larger animal was killed by the coyote. [How to reference and link to summary or text]

Adaptation to human environmentEdit

File:Coyote arizona.jpg

Despite being extensively hunted, the coyote is one of the few medium-to-large-sized animals that has enlarged its range since human encroachment began. It originally ranged primarily in the western half of North America, but it has adapted readily to the changes caused by human occupation and, since the early 19th century, has been steadily and dramatically extending its range [30]. Sightings now commonly occur in California, Oregon, New England,New Jersey, and eastern Canada. Coyotes have been seen in nearly every continental U.S. state, including Alaska. Coyotes have moved into most of the areas of North America formerly occupied by wolves, and are often observed foraging in suburban trashcans.

Coyotes also thrive in suburban settings and even some urban ones. A study by wildlife ecologists at Ohio State University yielded some surprising findings in this regard. Researchers studied coyote populations in Chicago over a seven-year period (2000–2007), proposing that coyotes have adapted well to living in densely populated urban environments while avoiding contact with humans. They found, among other things, that urban coyotes tend to live longer than their rural counterparts, kill rodents and small pets, and live anywhere from parks to industrial areas. The researchers estimate that there are up to 2,000 coyotes living in "the greater Chicago area" and that this circumstance may well apply to many other urban landscapes in North America.[31] In Washington DC's Rock Creek Park, coyotes den and raise their young, scavenge roadkill, and hunt rodents. "I don't see it as a bad thing for a park," the assigned National Park Service biologist told a reporter for Smithsonian Magazine (March 2006). "I see it as good for keeping animal populations in control, like the squirrels and the mice." As a testament to the coyote's habitat adaptability, a coyote (known as "Hal the Central Park Coyote") was even captured in Manhattan's Central Park in March 2006 after being chased by city wildlife officials for two days.

Attacks on humansEdit

Coyote attacks on humans are uncommon and rarely cause serious injuries, due to the relatively small size of the coyote. However, coyote attacks on humans have increased within the past 5 years in the state of California. Data from USDA Wildlife Services, the California Department of Fish & Game, and other sources show that while 41 attacks occurred during the period of 1988-1997, 48 attacks were verified from 1998 through 2003. The majority of these incidents occurred in Southern California near the suburban-wildland interface.[32]

Due to an absence of harassment by residents, urban coyotes lose their natural fear of humans, which is further worsened by people intentionally feeding coyotes. In such situations, some coyotes begin to act aggressively toward humans, chasing joggers and bicyclists, confronting people walking their dogs, and stalking small children.[32]

There is currently only one recorded fatal attack on a human. In 1981 in Glendale, California, a coyote attacked a toddler, who despite being rescued by her father, died in surgery due to blood loss and a broken neck.[33][32]

Livestock and pet predationEdit

Coyotes are presently the most abundant livestock predators in western North America, causing the majority of sheep, goat and cattle losses.[10] For example: according the National Agricultural Statistics Service, coyotes were responsible for 60.5% of the 224,000 sheep deaths that were attributed to predation in 2004.[34] However, the total number of sheep deaths in 2004 comprised only 2.22% of the total sheep and lamb population in the United States. [35] According to the National Agricultural Statistics Service USDA report, "All sheep and lamb inventory in the United States on July 1, 2005, totaled 7.80 million head, 2 percent above July 1, 2004. Breeding sheep inventory at 4.66 million head on July 1, 2005 was 2 percent above July 1, 2004." Sheep and Lamb Inventory, US data.Released July 22, 2005.

Coyotes will typically bite the throat just behind the jaw and below the ear when attacking adult sheep or goats, with death commonly resulting from suffocation. Blood loss is usually a secondary cause of death. Calves and heavily fleeced sheep are killed by attacking the flanks or hind-quarters, causing shock and blood loss. When attacking smaller prey, such as young lambs and kids, the kill is made by biting the skull and spinal regions, causing massive tissue and ossular damage. Small or young prey may be completely carried off, leaving only blood as evidence of a kill. Coyotes will usually leave the hide and most of the skeleton of larger animals relatively intact unless food is scarce, in which case they may leave only the largest bones. Scattered bits of wool, skin and other parts are characteristic where coyotes feed extensively on larger carcasses.[10]

File:Coyote with typical hold on lamb.jpg

Coyote predation can usually be distinguished from dog or coydog predation by the fact that coyotes partially consume their victims. Tracks are also an important factor in distinguishing coyote from dog predation. Coyote tracks tend to be more oval-shaped and compact than those of domestic dogs, plus, claw marks are less prominent and the tracks tend to follow a straight line more closely than those of dogs. With the exception of sighthounds, most dogs of similar weight to coyotes have a slightly shorter stride.[10] Coyote kills can be distinguished from wolf kills by the fact that there is less damage to the underlying tissues. Also, coyote scats tend to be smaller than wolf scats.[36]

Coyotes are often attracted to dog food and animals that are small enough to appear as prey. Items like garbage, pet food and sometimes even feeding stations for birds and squirrels will attract coyotes into backyards. Approximately 3 to 5 pets attacked by coyotes are brought into the Animal Urgent Care hospital of South Orange County each week, the majority of which are dogs, since cats typically do not survive the attacks.[37] Scat analysis collected near Claremont, California revealed that coyotes relied heavily on pets as a food source in winter and spring.[32] At one location in Southern California, coyotes began relying on a colony of feral cats as a food source. Over time, the coyotes killed most of the cats and then continued to eat the cat food placed daily at the colony site by citizens who were maintaining the cat colony.[32] Coyotes will usually attack smaller or similar sized dogs, though they have been known to occasionally attack large, powerful breeds such as Rhodesian ridgebacks[38] and Rottweilers.[39]

PeltsEdit

In the early days of European settlement in North Dakota, American Beavers were the most valued and sought after furbearers, though other species were also taken, including coyotes.[40] Currently, coyotes are still an important furbearer in the region. During the 1983-86 seasons, North Dakota buyers purchased an average of 7,913 pelts annually, for an average annual combined return to takers of $255,458. In 1986-87, South Dakota buyers purchased 8,149 pelts for a total of $349,674 to takers.[41]

The harvest of coyote pelts in Texas has varied over the past few decades, but has generally followed a downward trend. A study from the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, however, found that there was no indication of population decline, and suggested that, as pelt prices were not increasing, the decrease in harvest was likely due to decreasing demand, and not increasing scarcity (where pelt prices would go up.) It suggested that fashion, and the changing custom of wearing fur garments, may be significant among these factors.[42]

Today, coyote fur is still used for full coats and trim and is particularly popular for men’s coats.[43]

Character in mythology Edit

Main article: Coyote (mythology)

Many myths from Native American peoples include a character whose name is translated into English as "Coyote". He can play the role of trickster or culture hero (or both), and also often appears in creation myths and etiological myths.

Contemporary cultural references Edit

Main article: Coyotes in popular culture

The Coyote is a popular figure in folklore and popular culture. Reference may invoke either the animal or the mythological figure. Traits commonly described in pop culture appearances include inventiveness, mischievousness, and evasiveness. By far the best known representation is the animated Wile E. Coyote, whose popularity has spread the Spanish pronunciation of the word "coyote" throughout anglophone North America.[citation needed]

SubspeciesEdit

External links Edit

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ReferencesEdit

  • Robert M. Timm, Hopland Research & Extension Center, University of California, Hopland, California ; Rex O. Baker, California State Polytechnic University-Pomona (retired), Corona, California ; Joe R. Bennett, USDA APHIS Wildlife Services, Taft, California ; and Craig C. Coolahan, USDA APHIS Wildlife Services, Sacramento, California, "Coyote Attacks: An Increasing Suburban Problem" (March 3, 2004). Hopland Research & Extension Center. Paper timm_baker_P047.
  • http://repositories.cdlib.org/anrrec/hrec/timm_baker_P047
  • Bekoff, Marc. 1977. Canis Latrans, Species Account. American Society of Mammalogists.
  • McClennen, N., R. Wigglesworth, and S. H. Anderson. 2001. "The effect of suburban and agricultural development on the activity patterns of coyotes (Canis latrans), American Midland Naturalist, vol. 146: 27-36.
  • Moehlman, P., and H. Hofer. 1997. "Cooperative breeding, reproductive suppression, and body mass in canids", chapter in Cooperative Breeding in Canids, ed. N. G. Solomon and J. A. French. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
  • Morey, Paul. 2004. "Landscape use and diet of coyotes, Canis latrans, in the Chicago metropolitan area", Masters Thesis, Utah State University.
  • Parker, Gerry. 1995. "Eastern Coyote: Story of Its Success", Nimbus Publishing, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
  • Voigt, D. R., and W. E. Berg. 1999. "Coyote", chapter 28 in Wild Furbearer Management and Conservation in North America, Section IV: Species Biology, Management, and Conservation. Queen's Printer for Ontario, Ontario, Canada.

NotesEdit

  1. Sillero-Zubiri & Hoffmann (2004). Canis latrans. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 05 May 2006. Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern
  2. coyote - Definitions from Dictionary.com
  3. prairie wolf. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 Canis latrans. Animal Diversity Web. URL accessed on 2007-08-15.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Coyote. Lioncrusher's Domain. URL accessed on 2007-08-15.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Thos vs Canis. Holger Homann’s Home Page. URL accessed on 2008-03-29.
  7. Seton, Ernest Thompson (2006). Art Anatomy of Animals, pp.160. ISBN 0486447472.
  8. Coyote
  9. Coyote (Canis latrans)
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Coyote Predation - Description. A. Wade, Dale & E. Bowns, James. Procedures for Evaluating Predation on Livestock and Wildlife. URL accessed on 2007-08-19.
  11. David L. Mech & Luigi Boitani (2003). Wolves: Behaviour, ecology and conservation, pp.448. ISBN 0226516962.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Coppinger, Ray (2001). Dogs: a Startling New Understanding of Canine Origin, Behavior and Evolution, p352. 0684855305.
  13. http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0004737.html
  14. Macdonald, David (1984). The Encyclopedia of Mammals: 1, pp.446. ISBN 0-04-500028-x.
  15. collective nouns : Java Glossary
  16. 16.0 16.1 Eastern Coyotes Are Becoming Coywolves. David Zimmerman. Caledonian record. URL accessed on 2007-08-17.
  17. Coyote (Canis latrans). Michigan Department of Natural Resources. URL accessed on 2008-03-06.
  18. Fox, Michael W. (1984). The Whistling Hunters: Field Studies of the Asiatic Wild Dog (Cuon Alpinus), pp.150. ISBN 0873958438.
  19. Coydogs
  20. Pharmacy Catalog
  21. Yellowstone National Park- Coyotes. nps.gov. URL accessed on 2007-08-17.
  22. Weaving A New Web: Wolves Change An Ecosystem - National Zoo| FONZ
  23. Coyotes Cower in Wolf Territory. Livescience. URL accessed on 2008-03-20.
  24. Predators and Prey
  25. Coyote In the Suburbs. Q&A websites. URL accessed on 2007-09-02.
  26. NPWRC :: Observed Interactions Between Coyotes and Red Foxes
  27. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0038-4909(200209)47%3A3%3C511%3ABKBAC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-7
  28. Canada Lynx — Conservation Northwest
  29. UNNELL KD, FLINDERS JT, WOLFE ML (2006) Potential Impacts of Coyotes and Snowmobiles on Lynx Conservation in the Intermountain West. Wildlife Society Bulletin: Vol. 34, No. 3 pp. 828–838
  30. Gompper, M. 2002. Top Carnivores in the Suburbs? Ecological and conservation issues raised by colonization of North-eastern North America by coyotes. BioScience 52:185-190.
  31. [1]. Thriving under our noses, stealthily: coyotes URL accessed on January 9, 2006.
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 32.3 32.4 COYOTE ATTACKS: AN INCREASING SUBURBAN PROBLEM. URL accessed on 2007-08-19.
  33. Coyote Attacks on Children
  34. Sheep and Goats Death Loss, National Agricultural Statistics Service, May 6, 2005, http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/MannUsda/viewDocumentInfo.do?documentID=1628, retrieved on 2007-12-27 
  35. National Agricultural Statistics Service
  36. Extension, Animal & Range Sciences
  37. For coyotes, pets are prey. Greg Hardesty. Orange County Register. URL accessed on 2007-08-19.
  38. Coyotes attack dogs in Golden Gate Park
  39. WHDH-TV - New England News - A coyote attacks in Weymouth and kills a dog
  40. NPWRC :: History of the Fur Trade
  41. NPWRC :: Dakotas Prairie Basin Wetlands
  42. Coyotes As Part Of Texas' Fur Trade
  43. International Fur Trade Federation (IFTF) for Fur Fashion, Fur Style, Fur Trade News & much more fur Information from IFTF - fourrure

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