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Individual differences |
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In terms of avoidant personality disorder, the counterphobic represents the less usual, but not totally uncommon, response of apparently seeking out what is feared: codependents may fall into a subcategory of this group, hiding their fears of attachment in over-dependency.
Dare-devil activities are often undertaken in a counterphobic spirit, as a denial of the fears attached to them - a denial that may be only partially successful. Acting out in general may have a counterphobic source, reflecting a false self over-concerned with compulsive doing to preserve a sense of power and control.
Sex is a key area for counterphobic activity, sometimes powering hypersexuality in people who are actually afraid of the objects they believe they love. Adolescents, fearing sex play, may jump over to a kind of spurious full sexuality; adults may overvalue sex to cover an unconscious fear of the harm it may do. Such a counterphobic approach may indeed be socially celebrated in a postmodern vision of sex as gymnastic performance or hygiene - fuelled by what Ken Wilbur described as "an exuberant and fearless shallowness".
Didier Anzieu saw Freud's theorisation of psychoanalysis as a counterphobic defence against anxiety through intellectualisation - permanently ruminating on the instinctive, emotional world that was the actual object of fear.
Otto Fenichel considered that underdoing systematised counterphobic defences was only a first step in therapy, needing to be followed by analysis of the original anxiety itself. He also considered that psychological trauma could break down counterphobic defences, with results that "may be very painful for the patient; they are, from a therapeutic point of view, favorable".
The attraction of horror movies has been seen to lie in a counterphobic impulse.
Actors often have a shy personality, released counterphobically in conditions of performance.
- Exposure therapy
- Positive thinking
- Reaction formation
- Screen memory
- Schizoid personality disorder
- Sexual fetishism
- ↑ Otto Fenichel, The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis (1946) p. 480-1
- ↑ Martin Kantor, The Essential Guide to Overcoming Avoidant Personality Disorder (2010) p. 30
- ↑ Kantor, p. 36
- ↑ Salman Akhtar, Comprehensive Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (2009) p. 60
- ↑ Judy Cooper, Speak of Me as I Am (2011) p. 66
- ↑ Rosalind Minsky, Psychoanalysis and Gender (1996) p. 122
- ↑ Fenichel, p. 518
- ↑ D. W. Winnicott, The Child, the Family, and the Outside World (1973) p. 218
- ↑ Julia Segal, Melanie Klein (2001) p. 46
- ↑ Lesley Caldwell ed., Sex and Sexuality (2010) p. 116
- ↑ Elisabeth Roudinesco, Philosophy in Turbulent Times (2008) p. xi
- ↑ Ken Wilbur, Sex, Ecology, Spirituality (2000) p. 7
- ↑ Graham P. Bartley, Traffic Accidents (2008) p. 166
- ↑ Julia Kristeva, Powers of Horror (1982) p. 41
- ↑ Adam Phillips, On Flirtation (1994) p. 82-3
- ↑ Selma H. Fraiberg, The Magic Years (1987) p. 123-5
- ↑ Didier Anzieu, Freud's Self-Analysis (1986) p. 182 and p. 577-581
- ↑ Lydia Flem, Freud the Man (2003) p. 59
- ↑ Fenichel, p. 485
- ↑ Fenichel, p. 549-53
- ↑ David Rapaport, 'The Autonomy of the Ego', in Glen T. Morris ed., Dimensions of Psychology (nd) p. 14
- ↑ Robert Newman, Transgressions of Reading (1993) p. 63
- ↑ Kantor, p. 62
- Ernst Kris, 'Ego Development and the Comic', International Journal of Psychoanalysis XIX (1938)
- Nina Searl, 'The Flight to Reality', International Journal of Psychoanalysis X (1929)
- Thomas S. Langer, Choices for Living (2002)
- Francis Drossart, 'Counterphobic'
- 'Counterphobic Behavior'
- E. Poznanski/B. Arthur, 'The Counterphobic Defence in Children'
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