Wikia

Psychology Wiki

Cortisol and stress

Talk0
34,142pages on
this wiki

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)


Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). It is a vital hormone that is often referred to as the "stress hormone" as it is involved in the response to physical and psychological stress.

ReferencesEdit

  • Abercrombie, H. C., Giese-Davis, J., Sephton, S., Epel, E. S., Turner-Cobb, J. M., & Spiegel, D. (2004). Flattened cortisol rhythms in metastatic breast cancer patients: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 29(8) Sep 2004, 1082-1092.
  • Abercrombie, H. C., Kalin, N. H., & Davidson, R. J. (2005). Acute cortisol elevations cause heightened arousal ratings of objectively nonarousing stimuli: Emotion Vol 5(3) Sep 2005, 354-359.
  • Absi, M. a., & Petersen, K. L. (2003). Blood pressure but not cortisol mediates stress effects on subsequent pain perception in healthy men and women: Pain Vol 106(3) Dec 2003, 285-295.
  • Adeyemo, O., & Heath, E. (1982). Social behaviour and adrenal cortical activity in heifers: Applied Animal Ethology Vol 8(1-2) Jan 1982, 99-108.
  • Ahs, F., Furmark, T., Michelgard, A., Langstrom, B., Appel, L., Wolf, O. T., et al. (2006). Hypothalamic Blood Flow Correlates Positively With Stress-Induced Cortisol Levels in Subjects With Social Anxiety Disorder: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 68(6) Nov-Dec 2006, 859-862.
  • Al'Absi, M., Lovallo, W. R., McKey, B. S., & Pincomb, G. A. (1994). Borderline hypertensives produce exaggerated adrenocortical responses to mental stress: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 56(3) May-Jun 1994, 245-250.
  • Alehagen, S., Wijma, K., Lundberg, U., Melin, B., & Wijma, B. (2001). Catecholamine and cortisol reaction to childbirth: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine Vol 8(1) 2001, 50-65.
  • Alwin, J. (2006). Salivary cortisol in infants at daycare and at home. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Andreano, J. M., & Cahill, L. (2006). Glucocorticoid Release and Memory Consolidation in Men and Women: Psychological Science Vol 17(6) Jun 2006, 466-470.
  • Arango, C., Kirkpatrick, B., & Koenig, J. (2001). At issue: Stress, hippocampal neuronal turnover, and neuropsychiatric disorders: Schizophrenia Bulletin Vol 27(3) 2001, 477-480.
  • Argyropoulos, S. V., Bailey, J. E., Hood, S. D., Kendrick, A. H., Rich, A. S., Laszlo, G., et al. (2002). Inhalation of 35% CO-sub-2 results in activation of the HPA axis in healthy volunteers: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 27(6) Aug 2002, 715-730.
  • Ayada, K., Tadano, T., & Endo, Y. (2002). Gnawing behavior of a mouse in a narrow cylinder: A simple system for the study of muscle activity, fatigue, and stress: Physiology & Behavior Vol 77(1) Sep 2002, 161-166.
  • Bahr, N. I., Pryce, C. R., Dobeli, M., & Martin, R. D. (1998). Evidence from urinary cortisol that maternal behavior is related to stress in gorillas: Physiology & Behavior Vol 64(4) Jun 1998, 429-437.
  • Bakke, M., Tuxen, A., Thomsen, C. E., Bardow, A., Alkjaer, T., & Jensen, B. R. (2004). Salivary Cortisol Level, Salivary Flow Rate, and Masticatory Muscle Activity in Response to Acute Mental Stress: A Comparison between Aged and Young Women: Gerontology Vol 50(6) Nov-Dec 2004, 383-392.
  • Bales, K. L., French, J. A., Hostetler, C. M., & Dietz, J. M. (2005). Social and Reproductive Factors Affecting Cortisol Levels in Wild Female Golden Lion Tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia): American Journal of Primatology Vol 67(1) Sep 2005, 25-35.
  • Bandyopadhyay, S., Ghosh, K. K., Chattopadhyay, P. K., & Majumdar, A. (1986). Hormone correlates of life stress events in lung and oral cancer patients: Social Science International Vol 2(1-2) Jan-Jul 1986, 1-10.
  • Barreto, R. E., & Volpato, G. L. (2004). Caution for using ventilatory frequency as an indicator of stress in fish: Behavioural Processes Vol 66(1) Apr 2004, 43-51.
  • Barreto, R. E., Volpato, G. L., & Pottinger, T. G. (2006). The effect of elevated blood cortisol levels on the extinction of a conditioned stress response in rainbow trout: Hormones and Behavior Vol 50(3) Sep 2006, 484-488.
  • Barry, T. P. (1995). Ontogeny and manipulation of the corticosteroid stress response in rainbow trout. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Bartolomucci, A., Biurrun, G. d., Czeh, B., van Kampen, M., & Fuchs, E. (2002). Selective enhancement of spatial learning under chronic psychosocial stress: European Journal of Neuroscience Vol 15(11) Jun 2002, 1863-1866.
  • Beckner, V. E., Tucker, D. M., Delville, Y., & Mohr, D. C. (2006). Stress Facilitates Consolidation of Verbal Memory for a Film but Does Not Affect Retrieval: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 120(3) Jun 2006, 518-527.
  • Berbalk, H., Kollenbaum, V.-E., & Volkel, H. (1984). Biochemical effects of "stress inoculation": An important and neglected method of therapeutic control demonstrated on a group of ulcer patients: Zeitschrift fur Klinische Psychologie Vol 13(4) 1984, 276-287.
  • Berliner, S., Pshitizky, A., Liebowitz, E., Shirin, H., Pomerantz, M., Arber, N., et al. (1997). Complex relations between corticosteroids and the adhesive state of the white blood cells in the peripheral blood: Further analysis of the state of leukocyte adhesiveness/aggregation in the peripheral blood as a marker of stress: Stress Medicine Vol 13(2) Apr 1997, 123-130.
  • Bhagwagar, Z., Hafizi, S., & Cowen, P. J. (2002). Cortisol modulation of 5-HT-mediated growth hormone release in recovered depressed patients: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 72(3) Dec 2002, 249-255.
  • Biselli, R., Farrace, S., D'Amelio, R., & Fattorossi, A. (1993). Influence of stress on lymphocyte subset distribution: A flow cytometric study in young student pilots: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 64(2) Feb 1993, 116-120.
  • Blood, G. W., Blood, I. M., Bennett, S., Simpson, K. C., & et al. (1994). Subjective anxiety measurements and cortisol responses in adults who stutter: Journal of Speech & Hearing Research Vol 37(4) Aug 1994, 760-768.
  • Bollini, A. M., Walker, E. F., Hamann, S., & Kestler, L. (2004). The influence of perceived control and locus of control on the cortisol and subjective responses to stress: Biological Psychology Vol 67(3) Nov 2004, 245-260.
  • Brearley, J. C. (1992). Aspects of the stress response in cattle: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Breier, A., & Buchanan, R. W. (1992). The effects of metabolic stress on plasma progesterone in healthy volunteers and schizophrenic patients: Life Sciences Vol 51(19) 1992, 1527-1534.
  • Bremner, J. D., Vythilingam, M., Vermetten, E., Adil, J., Khan, S., Nazeer, A., et al. (2003). Cortisol response to a cognitive stress challenge in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood abuse: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 28(6) Aug 2003, 733-750.
  • Bristow, D. J., & Holmes, D. S. (2007). Cortisol levels and anxiety-related behaviors in cattle: Physiology & Behavior Vol 90(4) Mar 2007, 626-628.
  • Brody, S. (2002). Age at first intercourse is inversely related to female cortisol stress reactivity: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 27(8) Nov 2002, 933-943.
  • Brooks, G. A. (2000). Stress, depressive symptoms, interpersonal relatedness, and HPA axis functioning in women. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Buchanan, T. W., al'Absi, M., & Lovallo, W. R. (1999). Cortisol fluctuates with increases and decreases in negative affect: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 24(2) Feb 1999, 227-241.
  • Buchanan, T. W., & Tranel, D. (2008). Stress and emotional memory retrieval: Effects of sex and cortisol response: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory Vol 89(2) Feb 2008, 134-141.
  • Buchanan, T. W., Tranel, D., & Adolphs, R. (2006). Impaired memory retrieval correlates with individual differences in cortisol response but not autonomic response: Learning & Memory Vol 13(3) May 2006, 382-387.
  • Bullinger, A. H., Hemmeter, U. M., Stefani, O., Angehrn, I., Mueller-Spahn, F., Bekiaris, E., et al. (2005). Stimulation of Cortisol During Mental Task Performance in a Provocative Virtual Environment: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback Vol 30(3) Sep 2005, 205-216.
  • Burke, H. M. (2003). Depression and cortisol stress responses in adults with rheumatoid arthritis. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Burke, H. M., Fernald, L. C., Gertler, P. J., & Adler, N. E. (2005). Depressive Symptoms Are Associated With Blunted Cortisol Stress Responses in Very Low-Income Women: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 67(2) Mar-Apr 2005, 211-216.
  • Burns, V. E., Ring, C., Drayson, M., & Carroll, D. (2002). Cortisol and cardiovascular reactions to mental stress and antibody status following hepatitis B vaccination: A preliminary study: Psychophysiology Vol 39(3) May 2002, 361-368.
  • Buske-Kirschbaum, A., Ebrecht, M., Kern, S., & Hellhammer, D. H. (2006). Endocrine stress responses in TH1-mediated chronic inflammatory skin disease (psoriasis vulgaris)--do they parallel stress-induced endocrine: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 31(4) May 2006, 439-446.
  • Canals, J., Colomina, M. T., Gallart, I., & Domingo, J. L. (1997). Stressful events and salivary cortisol: Psychological Reports Vol 80(1) Feb 1997, 305-306.
  • Capaldi, V. F., II, Handwerger, K., Richardson, E., & Stroud, L. R. (2005). Associations Between Sleep and Cortisol Responses to Stress in Children and Adolescents: A Pilot Study: Behavioral Sleep Medicine Vol 3(4) Dec 2005, 177-192.
  • Carlson, L. E., Speca, M., Patel, K. D., & Goodey, E. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction in relation to quality of life, mood, symptoms of stress and levels of cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and melatonin in breast and prostate cancer outpatients: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 29(4) May 2004, 448-474.
  • Carlstead, K., Brown, J. L., & Strawn, W. (1993). Behavioral and physiological correlates of stress in laboratory cats: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 38(2) Nov 1993, 143-158.
  • Carpenter, L. L., Carvalho, J. P., Tyrka, A. R., Wier, L. M., Mello, A. F., Mello, M. F., et al. (2007). Decreased adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol responses to stress in healthy adults reporting significant childhood maltreatment: Biological Psychiatry Vol 62(10) Nov 2007, 1080-1087.
  • Carter, S. L. (2003). The relationships among endogenous cortisol, subjective stress, and bone mineral density in non-elderly women. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Carvalhaes-Neto, N., Ramos, L. R., Suchecki, D., Tufik, S., Huayllas, M. K., & Kater, C. E. (2003). The effect of hospitalization on the sleep pattern and on cortisol secretion of healthy elderly: Experimental Aging Research Vol 29(4) Oct-Dec 2003, 425-436.
  • Caudell, K. A., & Gallucci, B. B. (1995). Neuroendocrine and immunological responses of women to stress: Western Journal of Nursing Research Vol 17(6) Dec 1995, 672-692.
  • Clarke, M. R., Koritnik, D. R., Martin, L. N., & Baskin, G. B. (1989). Cage enrichment, physiology, and behavior in nursery-reared rhesus monkeys: American Journal of Primatology Suppl 1 1989, 53-57.
  • Cohen, S., Hamrick, N., Rodriguez, M. S., Feldman, P. J., Rabin, B. S., & Manuck, S. B. (2002). Reactivity and vulnerability to stress-associated risk for upper respiratory illness: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 64(2) Mar-Apr 2002, 302-310.
  • Cook, C. J. (2002). Glucocorticoid feedback increases the sensitivity of the limbic system to stress: Physiology & Behavior Vol 75(4) Apr 2002, 455-464.
  • Corbett, B. A., Mendoza, S., Abdullah, M., Wegelin, J. A., & Levine, S. (2006). Cortisol circadian rhythms and response to stress in children with autism: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 31(1) Jan 2006, 59-68.
  • Cowen, P. J. (2002). Cortisol, serotonin and depression: All stressed out? : British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 180(2) Feb 2002, 99-100.
  • Creel, S., Creel, N. M., & Monfort, S. L. (1996). Social stress and dominance: Nature Vol 379(6562) Jan 1996, 212.
  • Crockett, C. M., Bowers, C. L., Sackett, G. P., & Bowden, D. M. (1993). Urinary cortisol responses of longtailed macaques to five cage sizes, tethering, sedation, and room change: American Journal of Primatology Vol 30(1) 1993, 55-74.
  • Croes, S., Merz, P., & Netter, P. (1993). Cortisol reaction in success and failure condition in endogenous depressed patients and controls: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 18(1) 1993, 23-35.
  • Cross, N., Pines, M. K., & Rogers, L. J. (2004). Saliva Sampling to Assess Cortisol Levels in Unrestrained Common Marmosets and the Effect of Behavioral Stress: American Journal of Primatology Vol 62(2) Feb 2004, 107-114.
  • Cummins, S. E., & Gevirtz, R. N. (1993). The relationship between daily stress and urinary cortisol in a normal population: An emphasis on individual differences: Behavioral Medicine Vol 19(3) Fal 1993, 129-134.
  • Curzon, G. (1972). Relationships between stress and brain 5-hydroxytryptamine and their possible significance in affective disorders: Journal of Psychiatric Research Vol 9(3) Sep 1972, 243-252.
  • Da Roza Davis, J. M., & Cowen, P. J. (2001). Biochemical stress of caring: Psychological Medicine Vol 31(8) Nov 2001, 1475-1478.
  • Da Roza Davis, J. M., & Cowen, P. J. (2002). "Biochemical stress of caring": Erratum: Psychological Medicine Vol 32(7) Oct 2002, 1327.
  • Dahlgren, A., Akerstedt, T., & Kecklund, G. (2004). Individual differences in the diurnal cortisol response to stress: Chronobiology International Vol 21(6) 2004, 913-922.
  • Dathe, H. H., Kuckelkorn, B., & Minnemann, D. (1992). Salivary cortisol assessment for stress detection in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus): A pilot study: Zoo Biology Vol 11(4) 1992, 285-289.
  • Davis, E. P., Glynn, L. M., Schetter, C. D., Hobel, C., Chicz-Demet, A., & Sandman, C. A. (2007). Prenatal exposure to maternal depression and cortisol influences infant temperament: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 46(6) Jun 2007, 737-746.
  • de Groot, J., Kranendonk, G., Fillerup, M., Hopster, H., Boersma, W., Hodgson, D., et al. (2007). Response to LPS in female offspring from sows treated with cortisol during pregnancy: Physiology & Behavior Vol 90(4) Mar 2007, 612-618.
  • Dedert, E. A., Studts, J. L., Weissbecker, I., Salmon, P. G., Banis, P. L., & Sephton, S. E. (2004). Religiosity may help preserve the cortisol rhythm in women with stress-related illness: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine Vol 34(1) 2004, 61-77.
  • Delahunt, J. W., & Mellsop, G. (1987). Hormone changes in stress: Stress Medicine Vol 3(2) Apr-Jun 1987, 123-134.
  • Dettenborn, L., James, G. D., van Berge-Landry, H., Valdimarsdottir, H. B., Montgomery, G. H., & Bovbjerg, D. H. (2005). Heightened cortisol responses to daily stress in working women at familial risk for breast cancer: Biological Psychology Vol 69(2) May 2005, 167-179.
  • Dickerson, S. S., Mycek, P. J., & Zaldivar, F. (2008). Negative social evaluation, but not mere social presence, elicits cortisol responses to a laboratory stressor task: Health Psychology Vol 27(1) Jan 2008, 116-121.
  • Dietl, T., Vogl, L., & Dirlich, G. (2004). Auditory information processing is altered in novelty stress conditions: First session effects in auditory-evoked potentials: International Journal of Neuroscience Vol 114(1) Jan 2004, 131-142.
  • Ditzen, B., Neumann, I. D., Bodenmann, G., von Dawans, B., Turner, R. A., Ehlert, U., et al. (2007). Effects of different kinds of couple interaction on cortisol and heart rate responses to stress in women: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 32(5) Jun 2007, 565-574.
  • Dohnert, M., Wilz, G., Adler, C., Gunzelmann, T., & Brahler, E. (2001). The relationship between salivary cortisol and stress parameters: A quantitative single case analysis based on the reports of two caregivers of patients with dementia: Zeitschrift fur Klinische Psychologie, Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie Vol 49(2) 2001, 140-165.
  • Domes, G., Heinrichs, M., Rimmele, U., Reichwald, U., & Hautzinger, M. (2004). Acute Stress Impairs Recognition for Positive Words--Association with Stress-induced Cortisol Secretion: Stress: The International Journal on the Biology of Stress Vol 7(3) Sep 2004, 173-181.
  • Doyle, A., Pang, F. Y., Bristow, M., Hucklebridge, F., & et al. (1996). Urinary cortisol and endogenous monoamine oxidase inhibitor(s), but not isatin, are raised in anticipation of stress and/or arousal in normal individuals: Stress Medicine Vol 12(1) Jan 1996, 43-49.
  • Earley, R. L., Edwards, J. T., Aseem, O., Felton, K., Blumer, L. S., Karom, M., et al. (2006). Social interactions tune aggression and stress responsiveness in a territorial cichlid fish (Archocentrus nigrofasciatus): Physiology & Behavior Vol 88(4-5) Jul 2006, 353-363.
  • Ebrecht, M., Hextall, J., Kirtley, L.-G., Taylor, A., Dyson, M., & Weinman, J. (2004). Perceived stress and cortisol levels predict speed of wound healing in healthy male adults: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 29(6) Aug 2004, 798-809.
  • Edwards, S., Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A., & Evans, P. (2003). Components of the diurnal cortisol cycle in relation to upper respiratory symptoms and perceived stress: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 65(2) Mar-Apr 2003, 320-327.
  • Ellenbogen, M. A., Schwartzman, A. E., Stewart, J., & Walker, C.-D. (2002). Stress and selective attention: The interplay of mood, cortisol levels, and emotional information processing: Psychophysiology Vol 39(6) Nov 2002, 723-732.
  • Ellenbogen, M. A., Schwartzman, A. E., Stewart, J., & Walker, C.-D. (2006). Automatic and effortful emotional information processing regulates different aspects of the stress response: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 31(3) Apr 2006, 373-387.
  • Eller, N. H., Netterstrom, B., & Hansen, A. M. (2006). Psychosocial factors at home and at work and levels of salivary cortisol: Biological Psychology Vol 73(3) Oct 2006, 280-287.
  • Elzinga, B. M., Bakker, A., & Bremner, J. D. (2005). Stress-induced cortisol elevations are associated with impaired delayed, but not immediate recall: Psychiatry Research Vol 134(3) Apr 2005, 211-223.
  • Elzinga, B. M., & Roelofs, K. (2005). Cortisol-Induced Impairments of Working Memory Require Acute Sympathetic Activation: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 119(1) Feb 2005, 98-103.
  • Elzinga, B. M., Schmahl, C. G., Vermetten, E., van Dyck, R., & Bremner, J. D. (2003). Higher Cortisol Levels Following Exposure to Traumatic Reminders in Abuse-Related PTSD: Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 28(9) Sep 2003, 1656-1665.
  • Epel, E., McEwen, B., Seeman, T., Matthews, K., Castellazzo, G., Brownell, K. D., et al. (2000). Stress and body shape: Stress-induced cortisol secretion is consistently greater among women with central fat: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 62(5) Sep-Oct 2000, 623-632.
  • Epel, E. S. (1999). Can stress shape your body? Stress and cortisol reactivity among women with central body fat distribution. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Errico, A. L., Parsons, O. A., King, A. C., & Lovallo, W. R. (1993). Attenuated cortisol response to biobehavioral stressors in sober alcoholics: Journal of Studies on Alcohol Vol 54(4) Jul 1993, 393-398.
  • Essex, M. J., Klein, M. H., Cho, E., & Kalin, N. H. (2002). Maternal stress beginning in infancy may sensitize children to later stress exposure: Effects on cortisol and behavior: Biological Psychiatry Vol 52(8) Oct 2002, 776-784.
  • Evans, G. W., & Wener, R. E. (2006). Rail Commuting Duration and Passenger Stress: Health Psychology Vol 25(3) May 2006, 408-412.
  • Evans, G. W., Wener, R. E., & Phillips, D. (2002). The morning rush hour: Predictability and commuter stress: Environment and Behavior Vol 34(4) Jul 2002, 521-530.
  • Evans, P., Bristow, M., Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A., & et al. (1994). Stress, arousal, cortisol and secretory immunoglobulin A in students undergoing assessment: British Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 33(4) Nov 1994, 575-576.
  • Evans, P., Forte, D., Jacobs, C., Fredhoi, C., Aitchison, E., Hucklebridge, F., et al. (2007). Cortisol secretory activity in older people in relation to positive and negative well-being: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 32(8-10) Sep-Nov 2007, 922-930.
  • Fager, J. H. (2003). Stress, coping, and alcohol use in rural college adolescents. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Fekedulegn, D. B., Andrew, M. E., Burchfiel, C. M., Violanti, J. M., Hartley, T. A., Charles, L. E., et al. (2007). Area under the curve and other summary indicators of repeated waking cortisol measurements: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 69(7) Sep 2007, 651-659.
  • Ferreira, M. F., Sobrinho, L. G., Pires, J. S., Silva, M. E. S., & et al. (1995). Endocrine and psychological evaluation of women with recent weight gain: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 20(1) 1995, 53-63.
  • Flerov, M. A., Gerasimova, I. A., & Rakitskaya, V. V. (2003). Lipid Peroxidation in the Striatum of Rats during Stress after Administration of Cortisol: Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology Vol 33(9) Nov 2003, 889-891.
  • Flinn, M. V. (1999). Family environment, stress, and health during childhood. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Flinn, M. V., & England, B. G. (1995). Childhood stress and family environment: Current Anthropology Vol 36(5) Dec 1995, 854-866.
  • Floyd, K., Mikkelson, A. C., Tafoya, M. A., Farinelli, L., La Valley, A. G., Judd, J., et al. (2007). Human Affection Exchange: XIV. Relational Affection Predicts Resting Heart Rate and Free Cortisol Secretion During Acute Stress: Behavioral Medicine Vol 32(4) Win 2007, 151-156.
  • Flugge, G. (1999). Effects of cortisol on brain alpha-sub-2-adrenoceptors: Potential role in stress: Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews Vol 23(7) 1999, 949-956.
  • Gaab, J., Rohleder, N., Nater, U. M., & Ehlert, U. (2005). Psychological determinants of the cortisol stress response: The role of anticipatory cognitive appraisal: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 30(6) Jul 2005, 599-610.
  • Gaab, J., Sonderegger, L., Scherrer, S., & Ehlert, U. (2006). Psychoneuroendocrine effects of cognitive-behavioral stress management in a naturalistic setting-a randomized controlled trial: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 31(4) May 2006, 428-438.
  • Ganguli, R., Singh, A., Brar, J., Carter, C., & Mintun, M. (2002). Hydrocortisone induced regional cerebral activity changes in schizophrenia: A PET scan study: Schizophrenia Research Vol 56(3) Aug 2002, 241-247.
  • Garrett, V. D. (1993). The relation between stress and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Physiologic arousal or disruption of compliance? : Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Geers, R. (1995). A modulating effect of beta-endorphin on pigs' coping strategies during transport: Physiology & Behavior Vol 57(6) Jun 1995, 1057-1060.
  • Geoffroy, M.-C., Cote, S. M., Parent, S., & Seguin, J. R. (2006). Daycare attendance, stress, and mental health: The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry / La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie Vol 51(9) Aug 2006, 607-615.
  • Geverink, N. A., Schouten, W. G. P., Gort, G., & Wiegant, V. M. (2002). Individual differences in behavioral and physiology responses to restraint stress in pigs: Physiology & Behavior Vol 77(2-3) 2002, 451-457.
  • Giesbrecht, T., Smeets, T., Merckelbach, H., & Jelicic, M. (2007). Depersonalization experiences in undergraduates are related to heightened stress cortisol responses: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 195(4) Apr 2007, 282-287.
  • Giese-Davis, J., Wilhelm, F. H., Conrad, A., Abercrombie, H. C., Sephton, S., Yutsis, M., et al. (2006). Depression and Stress Reactivity in Metastatic Breast Cancer: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 68(5) Sep-Oct 2006, 675-683.
  • Gilbert, D. G., Stunkard, M. E., Jensen, R. A., Detwiler, F. R. J., & Martinko, J. M. (1996). Effects of exam stress on mood, cortisol, and immune functioning: Influences of neuroticism and smoker--non-smoker status: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 21(2) Aug 1996, 235-246.
  • Gilchriest, B. J., Tipping, D. J., Hake, L., Levy, A., & Baker, B. I. (2001). Differences in Arginine Vasotocin Gene Transcripts and Cortisol Secretion in Trout with High or Low Endogenous Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Secretion: Journal of Neuroendocrinology Vol 13(5) May 2001, 407-411.
  • Gluck, M. E. (2006). Stress response and binge eating disorder: Appetite Vol 46(1) Feb 2006, 26-30.
  • Gordis, E. B., Granger, D. A., Susman, E. J., & Trickett, P. K. (2008). Salivary alpha amylase-cortisol asymmetry in maltreated youth: Hormones and Behavior Vol 53(1) Jan 2008, 96-103.
  • Gordon, T. P., & Gust, D. A. (1993). Return of juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to the natal social group following an 18 week separation: Aggressive Behavior Vol 19(3) 1993, 231-239.
  • Green, M. W., Elliman, N. A., & Kretsch, M. J. (2005). Weight loss strategies, stress, and cognitive function: Supervised versus unsupervised dieting: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 30(9) Oct 2005, 908-918.
  • Grillon, C., Pine, D. S., Baas, J. M. P., Lawley, M., Ellis, V., & Charney, D. S. (2006). Cortisol and DHEA-S are associated with startle potentiation during aversive conditioning in humans: Psychopharmacology Vol 186(3) Jun 2006, 434-441.
  • Grossi, G., Perski, A., Lundberg, U., & Soares, J. (2001). Associations between financial strain and the diurnal salivary cortisol secretion of long-term unemployed individuals: Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science Vol 36(3) Jul-Sep 2001, 205-219.
  • Grunau, R. E., Holsti, L., Haley, D. W., Oberlander, T., Weinberg, J., Solimano, A., et al. (2005). Neonatal procedural pain exposure predicts lower cortisol and behavioral reactivity in preterm infants in the NICU: Pain Vol 113(3) Feb 2005, 293-300.
  • Guimont, F. S., & Wynne-Edwards, K. E. (2006). Individual variation in cortisol responses to acute 'on-back' restraint in an outbred hamster: Hormones and Behavior Vol 50(2) Aug 2006, 252-260.
  • Gunnar, M. R., & Donzella, B. (2002). Social regulation of the cortisol levels in early human development: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 27(1-2) Jan/Feb 2002, 199-220.
  • Gunnar, M. R., Mangelsdorf, S., Larson, M., & Hertsgaard, L. (1990). Attachment, temperament, and adrenocortical activity in infancy: A study of psychoendocrine regulation: Annual Progress in Child Psychiatry & Child Development 1990, 90-110.
  • Gunnar, M. R., Morison, S. J., Chisholm, K., & Schuder, M. (2001). Salivary cortisol levels in children adopted from Romanian orphanages: Development and Psychopathology Vol 13(3) Sum 2001, 611-628.
  • Gunnar, M. R., & Vazquez, D. M. (2001). Low cortisol and a flattening of expected daytime rhythm: Potential indices of risk in human development: Development and Psychopathology Vol 13(3) Sum 2001, 515-538.
  • Gust, D. A., Gordon, T. P., Brodie, A. R., & McClure, H. M. (1994). Effect of a preferred companion in modulating stress in adult female rhesus monkeys: Physiology & Behavior Vol 55(4) Apr 1994, 681-684.
  • Gustafsson, P. E., Gustafsson, P. A., & Nelson, N. (2006). Cortisol levels and psychosocial factors in preadolescent children: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress Vol 22(1) Feb 2006, 3-9.
  • Gutteling, B. M., de Weerth, C., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2005). Prenatal stress and children's cortisol reaction to the first day of school: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 30(6) Jul 2005, 541-549.
  • Gutteling, B. M., de Weerth, C., Zandbelt, N., Mulder, E. J. H., Visser, G. H. A., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2006). Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six? : Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Vol 34(6) Dec 2006, 789-798.
  • Harrell, E. H., Kelly, K., & Stutts, W. A. (1996). Situational determinants of correlations between serum cortisol and self reported stress measures: Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior Vol 33(1) 1996, 22-25.
  • Harris, A., Ursin, H., Murison, R., & Eriksen, H. R. (2007). Coffee, stress and cortisol in nursing staff: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 32(4) May 2007, 322-330.
  • Heber, R., Kellner, M., & Yehuda, R. (2002). Salivary cortisol levels and the cortisol response to dexamethasone before and after EMDR: A case report: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 58(12) Dec 2002, 1521-1530.
  • Heim, C., Ehlert, U., & Hellhammer, D. H. (2000). The potential role of hypocortisolism in the pathophysiology of stress-related bodily disorders: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 25(1) Jan 2000, 1-35.
  • Hellhammer, J., Schlotz, W., Stone, A. A., Pirke, K. M., & Hellhammer, D. (2004). Allostatic Load, Perceived Stress, and Health: A Prospective Study in Two Age Groups. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences.
  • Hemmeter, U. M., Burkhardt, H., & Netter, P. (1991). The influence of depression-related personality traits on cortisol levels under experimental stress and fasting: Zeitschrift fur Klinische Psychologie Vol 20(2) 1991, 166-176.
  • Hennessy, M. B. (1984). Presence of companion moderates arousal of monkeys with restricted social experience: Physiology & Behavior Vol 33(5) Nov 1984, 693-698.
  • Hennessy, M. B., Williams, M. T., Miller, D. D., Douglas, C. W., & Voith, V. L. (1998). Influence of male and female petters on plasma cortisol and behaviour: Can human interaction reduce the stress of dogs in a public animal shelter? : Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 61(1) Dec 1998, 63-77.
  • Hennig, J., Netter, P., & Voigt, K.-H. (2001). Cortisol mediates redistribution of CD8+ but not of CD56+ cells after the psychological stress of public speaking: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 26(7) Oct 2001, 673-687.
  • Hessing, M. J. C., Hagelso, A. M., Schouten, W. G. P., Wiepkema, P. R., & et al. (1994). Individual behavioral and physiological strategies in pigs: Physiology & Behavior Vol 55(1) Jan 1994, 39-46.
  • Het, S., Ramlow, G., & Wolf, O. T. (2005). A meta-analytic review of the effects of acute cortisol administration on human memory: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 30(8) Sep 2005, 771-784.
  • Heuser, I. (2002). Depression, endocrinologically a syndrome of premature aging? : Maturitas Vol 41(Suppl 1) Apr 2002, S19-S23.
  • Holden, C. A. (1986). A study on the effects of relaxation with guided imagery on psychophysiological stress factors mediating surgical wound healing: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Holsboer, F. (2001). Stress, hypercortisolism and corticosteroid receptors in depression: Implications for therapy: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 62(1-2) Jan 2001, 77-91.
  • Izawa, S., Sugaya, N., Ogawa, N., Nagano, Y., Nakano, M., Nakase, E., et al. (2007). Episodic stress associated with writing a graduation thesis and free cortisol secretion after awakening: International Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 64(2) May 2007, 141-145.
  • Jackson, E. D., Payne, J. D., Nadel, L., & Jacobs, W. J. (2006). Stress differentially modulates fear conditioning in healthy men and women: Biological Psychiatry Vol 59(6) Mar 2006, 516-522.
  • Jacobs, N., Myin-Germeys, I., Derom, C., Delespaul, P., van Os, J., & Nicolson, N. A. (2007). A momentary assessment study of the relationship between affective and adrenocortical stress responses in daily life: Biological Psychology Vol 74(1) Jan 2007, 60-66.
  • Jacobs, S., & et al. (1984). Urinary-free cortisol excretion in relation to age in acutely stressed persons with depressive symptoms: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 46(3) May-Jun 1984, 213-221.
  • Jansen, L. M. C., Gispen-de Wied, C. C., Van der Gaag, R. J., ten Hove, F., Willemsen-Swinkels, S. W. M., Harteveld, E., et al. (2000). Unresponsiveness to psychosocial stress in a subgroup of autistic-like children, multiple complex developmental disorder: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 25(8) Nov 2000, 753-764.
  • Johansen, O., Brox, J., & Flaten, M. A. (2003). Placebo and Nocebo Responses, Cortisol, and Circulating Beta-Endorphin: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 65(5) Sep-Oct 2003, 786-790.
  • Johansson, G. G., Laakso, M., Peder, M., & Karonen, S. L. (1989). Endocrine patterns before and after examination stress in males and females: Activitas Nervosa Superior Vol 31(2) Jun 1989, 81-88.
  • Keenan, K., Gunthorpe, D., & Young, D. (2002). Patterns of cortisol reactivity in African-American neonates from low-income environments: Developmental Psychobiology Vol 41(3) Nov 2002, 265-276.
  • Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., & et al. (1984). Urinary cortisol levels, cellular immunocompetency, and loneliness in psychiatric inpatients: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 46(1) Jan-Feb 1984, 15-23.
  • Kim, H. S. (2008). Culture and the cognitive and neuroendocrine responses to speech: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 94(1) Jan 2008, 32-47.
  • King, A., Munisamy, G., de Wit, H., & Lin, S. (2006). Attenuated cortisol response to alcohol in heavy social drinkers: International Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 59(3) Mar 2006, 203-209.
  • Kitayama, N., & Bremner, J. D. (2005). Stress in Dementia and Depression. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
  • Kleiman, R. M. (1982). Dynamic free cortisol functioning as a peripheral index of predisposition to major depressive disorder: Examination of a neuroendocrine stress response in subsyndromal persons at high risk: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Klein, P., & Sahoo, S. (2005). Effect of ACTH-induced hypercortisolemia on the EEG in patients with stress-related epilepsy: Epilepsy & Behavior Vol 6(2) Mar 2005, 187-190.
  • Klenerova, V., Sida, P., & Netopilova, M. (1997). Gabaergic activity in the rat brain after amphetamine and/or stress treatment: Homeostasis in Health and Disease Vol 38(3) Nov 1997, 141-144.
  • Koertge, J., Al-Khalili, F., Ahnve, S., Janszky, I., Svane, B., & Schenck-Gustafsson, K. (2002). Cortisol and vital exhaustion in relation to significant coronary artery stenosis in middle-aged women with acute coronary syndrome: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 27(8) Nov 2002, 893-906.
  • Korunka, C., Huemer, K. H., Litschauer, B., Karetta, B., & et al. (1996). Working with new technologies: Hormone excretion as an indicator for sustained arousal: A pilot study: Biological Psychology Vol 42(3) Apr 1996, 439-452.
  • Kranendonk, G., Hopster, H., Fillerup, M., Ekkel, E. D., Mulder, E. J. H., & Taverne, M. A. M. (2006). Cortisol administration to pregnant sows affects novelty-induced locomotion, aggressive behaviour, and blunts gender differences in their offspring: Hormones and Behavior Vol 49(5) May 2006, 663-672.
  • Kronberg, S. L., Wallker, J. W., & Fitzgerald, J. A. (1993). Feeding behavior of grazing ruminants experiencing stress: Physiology & Behavior Vol 54(6) Dec 1993, 1191-1194.
  • Kudielka, B. M., Bellingrath, S., & Hellhammer, D. H. (2007). Further support for higher salivary cortisol levels in "morning" compared to "evening" persons: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 62(5) May 2007, 595-596.
  • Kudriashov, B. A., Shapiro, F. B., & Ulyanov, A. M. (1982). Hormonal dependence of initial stages of the heparin clearance on the immobilization stress in rats: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR im I M Sechenova Vol 68(11) Nov 1982, 1531-1536.
  • Kurina, L. M., Schneider, B., & Waite, L. J. (2004). Stress, symptoms of depression and anxiety, and cortisol patterns in working parents: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress Vol 20(2) Apr 2004, 53-63.
  • Lai, J. C. L., Evans, P. D., Ng, S. H., Chong, A. M. L., Siu, O. T., Chan, C. L. W., et al. (2005). Optimism, positive affectivity, and salivary cortisol: British Journal of Health Psychology Vol 10(4) Nov 2005, 467-484.
  • Lawrence, A. B., Petherick, J. C., McLean, K. A., Deans, L. A., & et al. (1994). The effect of environment on behaviour, plasma cortisol and prolactin in parturient sows: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 39(3-4) Mar 1994, 313-330.
  • Leckliter, I. N. (1985). Social support, coping, and psychological distress: An interactional and transactional analysis: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Leserman, J. (2003). The Effects of Stressful Life Events, Coping, and Cortisol on HIV Infection: CNS Spectrums Vol 8(1) Jan 2003, 25-30.
  • Lewis, L. L. (1988). Premenstrual syndrome: Endocrine and psychosocial variables in relation to symptom severity: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Lewis, M., & Ramsay, D. (2002). Cortisol response to embarrassment and shame: Child Development Vol 73(4) Jul-Aug 2002, 1034-1045.
  • Lidgard, D. C., Boness, D. J., Bowen, W. D., & McMillan, J. I. (2008). The implications of stress on male mating behavior and success in a sexually dimorphic polygynous mammal, the grey seal: Hormones and Behavior Vol 53(1) Jan 2008, 241-248.
  • Loft, P., Thomas, M. G., Petrie, K. J., Booth, R. J., Miles, J., & Vedhara, K. (2007). Examination stress results in altered cardiovascular responses to acute challenge and lower cortisol: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 32(4) May 2007, 367-375.
  • Lovallo, W. R., Whitsett, T. L., Al'Absi, M., Sung, B. H., Vincent, A. S., & Wilson, M. F. (2005). Caffeine Stimulation of Cortisol Secretion Across the Waking Hours in Relation to Caffeine Intake Levels: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 67(5) Sep-Oct 2005, 734-739.
  • Luby, J. L., Heffelfinger, A., Mrakotsky, C., Brown, K., Hessler, M., & Spitznagel, E. (2003). Alterations in stress cortisol reactivity in depressed preschoolers relative to psychiatric and no-disorder comparison groups: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 60(12) Dec 2003, 1248-1255.
  • Lupien, S. J., & Schramek, T. E. (2006). The Differential Effects of Stress on Memory Consolidation and Retrieval: A Potential Involvement of Reconsolidation? Theoretical Comment on Beckner et al. (2006): Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 120(3) Jun 2006, 735-738.
  • Lutkus, C. A. (1991). Effects of stress on cortisol in preterm infants: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Maestripieri, D., Hoffman, C. L., Fulks, R., & Gerald, M. S. (2008). Plasma cortisol responses to stress in lactating and nonlactating female rhesus macaques: Hormones and Behavior Vol 53(1) Jan 2008, 170-176.
  • Magnano, C. L., Gardner, J. M., & Karmel, B. Z. (1992). Differences in salivary cortisol levels in cocaine-exposed and noncocaine-exposed NICU infants: Developmental Psychobiology Vol 25(2) Mar 1992, 93-103.
  • Malarkey, W. B., Pearl, D. K., Demers, L. M., Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., & et al. (1995). Influence of academic stress and season on 24-hour mean concentrations of ACTH, cortisol, and !b-endorphin: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 20(5) 1995, 499-508.
  • Maninger, N. (2006). Stress, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and immune function in adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Mason, J. W., Wang, S., Yehuda, R., Lubin, H., Johnson, D., Bremner, J. D., et al. (2002). Marked lability in urinary cortisol levels in subgroups of combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder during an intensive exposure treatment program: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 64(2) Mar-Apr 2002, 238-246.
  • McBride, S. D., & Cuddeford, D. (2001). The putative welfare-reducing effects of preventing equine stereotypic behaviour: Animal Welfare Vol 10(2) 2001, 173-189.
  • McCallister, J. M., Smith, T. E., & Elwood, R. W. (2004). Validation of Urinary Cortisol As an Indicator of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Function in the Bearded Emperor Tamarin (Saguinus imperator subgrisescens): American Journal of Primatology Vol 63(1) May 2004, 17-23.
  • McCool, W. F., Dorn, L. D., & Susman, E. J. (1994). The relation to cortisol reactivity and anxiety to perinatal outcome in primiparous adolescents: Research in Nursing & Health Vol 17(6) Dec 1994, 411-420.
  • Mikolajczak, M., Roy, E., Luminet, O., Fillee, C., & de Timary, P. (2007). The moderating impact of emotional intelligence on free cortisol responses to stress: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 32(8-10) Sep-Nov 2007, 1000-1012.
  • Morelius, E., Nelson, N., & Gustafsson, P. A. (2007). Salivary cortisol response in mother-infant dyads at high psychosocial risk: Child: Care, Health and Development Vol 33(2) Mar 2007, 128-136.
  • Morgan, C. A., III, Rasmusson, A. M., Wang, S., Hoyt, G., Hauger, R. L., & Hazlett, G. (2002). Neuropeptide-Y, cortisol and subjective distress in humans exposed to acute stress: Replication and extension of previous report: Biological Psychiatry Vol 52(2) Jul 2002, 136-142.
  • Morgan, C. A., III, Southwick, S., Hazlett, G., Rasmusson, A., Hoyt, G., Zimolo, Z., et al. (2004). Relationships Among Plasma Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate and Cortisol Levels, Symptoms of Dissociation, and Objective Performance in Humans Exposed to Acute Stress: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 61(8) Aug 2004, 819-825.
  • Morgan, C. A., III, Wang, S., Rasmusson, A., Hazlett, G., Anderson, G., & Charney, D. S. (2001). Relationship among plasma cortisol, catecholamines, neuropeptide Y, and human performance during exposure to uncontrollable stress: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 63(3) May-Jun 2001, 412-422.
  • Newcomer, J. W., Selke, G., Melson, A. K., Hershey, T., Craft, S., Richards, K., et al. (1999). Decreased memory performance in healthy humans induced by stress-level cortisol treatment: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 56(6) Jun 1999, 527-533.
  • Ng, V., Koh, D., & Chia, S.-E. (2003). Examination Stress, Salivary Cortisol, and Academic Performance: Psychological Reports Vol 93(3,Pt2) Dec 2003, 1133-1134.
  • Nicolson, N. A., & van Diest, R. (2000). Salivary cortisol patterns in vital exhaustion: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 49(5) Nov 2000, 335-342.
  • Obel, C., Hedegaard, M., Henriksen, T. B., Secher, N. J., Olsen, J., & Levine, S. (2005). Stress and salivary cortisol during pregnancy: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 30(7) Aug 2005, 647-656.
  • O'Brien, S. N. (1992). Effect of plasma cortisol on DNA repair: Comparisons of hormonal and psychometric measurements of stress: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ockenfels, M., Smyth, J., Porter, L., Kirschbaum, C., & et al. (1995). The effect of daily hassles on salivary cortisol: Verhaltenstherapie Vol 5(Suppl 1) Mar 1995, 16-20.
  • Ohl, F., Michaelis, T., Vollmann-Honsdorf, G. K., Kirschbaum, C., & Fuchs, E. (2000). Effect of chronic psychosocial stress and long-term cortisol treatment on hippocampus-mediated memory and hippocampal volume: A pilot-study in tree shrews: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 25(4) May 2000, 357-363.
  • O'Leary, M. M., Loney, B. R., & Eckel, L. A. (2007). Gender differences in the association between psychopathic personality traits and cortisol response to induced stress: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 32(2) Feb 2007, 183-191.
  • Osika, W., Friberg, P., & Wahrborg, P. (2007). A new short self-rating questionnaire to assess stress in children: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine Vol 14(2) 2007, 108-117.
  • Otte, C., Hart, S., Neylan, T. C., Marmar, C. R., Yaffe, K., & Mohr, D. C. (2005). A meta-analysis of cortisol response to challenge in human aging: Importance of gender: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 30(1) Jan 2005, 80-91.
  • Payne, J. D., & Nadel, L. (2004). Sleep, dreams, and memory consolidation: The role of the stress hormone cortisol: Learning & Memory Vol 11(6) Nov-Dec 2004, 671-678.
  • Peavy, G. M., Lange, K. L., Salmon, D. P., Patterson, T. L., Goldman, S., Gamst, A. C., et al. (2007). The effects of prolonged stress and APOE genotype on memory and cortisol in older adults: Biological Psychiatry Vol 62(5) Sep 2007, 472-478.
  • Peeke, H. V., Dark, K., Ellman, G., McCurry, C., & et al. (1987). Prior stress and behaviorally conditioned histamine release: Physiology & Behavior Vol 39(1) 1987, 89-93.
  • Penza, K. M. (2003). Cortisol recovery from stress: The roles of childhood abuse, recent adversity, and affect among depressed and never-depressed women. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Peoples, D. M. (1997). The relationship of psychosocial stress and physiological reactivity in pregnant Caucasian-American and African-American women. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Petitto, J. M., Leserman, J., Perkins, D. O., Stern, R. A., Silva, S. G., Gettes, D., et al. (2000). High versus low basal cortisol secretion in asymptomatic, medication-free HIV-infected men: Differential effects of severe life stress on parameters of immune status: Behavioral Medicine Vol 25(4) Win 2000, 143-151.
  • Pettingale, K. W., Watson, M., Bhakri, H. L., Jones, H., & et al. (1989). Changes in hormonal, immunological and autonomic measures during the performance of a laboratory "stress" task: Stress Medicine Vol 5(1) Jan-Mar 1989, 9-15.
  • Pine, D. S., & Charney, D. S. (2002). Children, stress, and sensitization: An integration of basic and clinical research on emotion? : Biological Psychiatry Vol 52(8) Oct 2002, 773-775.
  • Pollard, T., Ungpakorn, G., & Harrison, G. A. (1992). Some determinants of population variation in cortisol levels in a British urban community: Journal of Biosocial Science Vol 24(4) Oct 1992, 477-485.
  • Pomerleau, O. F., & Pomerleau, C. S. (1990). Cortisol response to a psychological stressor and/or nicotine: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 36(1) May 1990, 211-213.
  • Pride, R. E. (2005). Optimal group size and seasonal stress in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta): Behavioral Ecology Vol 16(3) May 2005, 550-560.
  • Pruessner, J. C., Hellhammer, D. H., & Kirschbaum, C. (1999). Low self-esteem, induced failure and the adrenocortical stress response: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 27(3) Sep 1999, 477-489.
  • Pruessner, M., Hellhammer, D. H., Pruessner, J. C., & Lupien, S. J. (2003). Self-reported depressive symptoms and stress levels in healthy young men: Associations with the cortisol response to awakening: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 65(1) Jan-Feb 2003, 92-99.
  • Putterman, E., & Linden, W. (2006). Cognitive dietary restraint and cortisol: Importance of pervasive concerns with appearance: Appetite Vol 47(1) Aug 2006, 64-76.
  • Ramsay, D. S., Bendersky, M. I., & Lewis, M. (1996). Effect of prenatal alcohol and cigarette exposure on two- and six-month-old infants' adrenocortical reactivity to stress: Journal of Pediatric Psychology Vol 21(6) Dec 1996, 833-840.
  • Regan, M. F., Brown, K., & Howard, R. C. (1991). Cortisol excretion and mood during predictable phobic stimulation: Medical Science Research Vol 19(15) Aug 1991, 481-483.
  • Regestein, Q. R., Jackson, W. J., & Peterson, H. F. (1986). Effects of various hippocampal lesions on monkey plasma cortisol levels in two experimental conditions: Behavioral & Neural Biology Vol 45(3) May 1986, 329-341.
  • Reuter, M. (2002). Impact of cortisol on emotions under stress and nonstress conditions: A pharmacopsychological approach: Neuropsychobiology Vol 46(1) Aug 2002, 41-48.
  • Robles, T. F., Shaffer, V. A., Malarkey, W. B., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (2006). Positive behaviors during marital conflict: Influences on stress hormones: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships Vol 23(2) Apr 2006, 305-325.
  • Roelofs, K., Bakvis, P., Hermans, E. J., van Pelt, J., & van Honk, J. (2007). The effects of social stress and cortisol responses on the preconscious selective attention to social threat: Biological Psychology Vol 75(1) Apr 2007, 1-7.
  • Roelofs, K., Elzinga, B. M., & Rotteveel, M. (2005). The effects of stress-induced cortisol responses on approach-avoidance behavior: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 30(7) Aug 2005, 665-677.
  • Roelofs, K., Elzinga, B. M., & Rotteveel, M. (2005). Erratum to 'The effects of stress-induced cortisol responses on approach-avoidance behavior": Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 30(9) Oct 2005, 930.
  • Roger, D., & Najarian, B. (1998). The relationship between emotional rumination and cortisol secretion under stress: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 24(4) Apr 1998, 531-538.
  • Rosal, M. C., King, J., Ma, Y., & Reed, G. W. (2004). Stress, Social Support, and Cortisol: Inverse Associations? : Behavioral Medicine Vol 30(1) Spr 2004, 11-21.
  • Rosmalen, J. G. M., Oldehinkel, A. J., Ormel, J., de Winter, A. F., Buitelaar, J. K., & Verhulst, F. C. (2005). Determinants of salivary cortisol levels in 10-12 year old children; A population-based study of individual differences: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 30(5) Jun 2005, 483-495.
  • Roy, M. P., Steptoe, A., & Kirschbaum, C. (1998). Life events and social support as moderators of individual differences in cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 75(5) Nov 1998, 1273-1281.
  • Rushen, J., Schwarze, N., Ladewig, J., & Foxcroft, G. (1993). Opioid modulation of the effects of repeated stress on ACTH, cortisol, prolactin, and growth hormone in pigs: Physiology & Behavior Vol 53(5) May 1993, 923-928.
  • Sachsse, U., von der Heyde, S., & Huether, G. (2002). Stress regulation and self-mutilation: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 159(4) Apr 2002, 672.
  • Saito, Y., & Tada, H. (2007). Effects of color images on stress reduction: Using images as mood stimulants: Japan Journal of Nursing Science Vol 4(1) Jun 2007, 13-20.
  • Saphier, D., Farrar, G. E., & Welch, J. E. (1995). Differential inhibition of stress-induced adrenocortical responses by 5-HT-sub(1A ) agonists and by 5-HT-sub-2 and 5-HT-sub-3 antagonists: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 20(3) 1995, 239-257.
  • Sauer, J., Polack, E., Wilkinski, S., Holsboer, F., & et al. (1995). The glucocorticoid sensitivity of lymphocytes changes according to the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 20(3) 1995, 269-280.
  • Schaffner, C. M., & Smith, T. E. (2005). Familiarity May Buffer the Adverse Effects of Relocation on Marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii): Preliminary Evidence: Zoo Biology Vol 24(1) Jan-Feb 2005, 93-100.
  • Scheidt, C. E., Waller, E., Malchow, H., Ehlert, U., Becker-Stoll, F., Schulte-Monting, J., et al. (2000). Attachment representation and cortisol response to the Adult Attachment Interview in idiopathic spasmodic torticollis: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics Vol 69(3) May-Jun 2000, 155-162.
  • Schelling, G., Kilger, E., Roozendaal, B., de Quervain, D. J. F., Briegel, J., Dagge, A., et al. (2004). Stress Doses of Hydrocortisone, Traumatic Memories, and Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Patients After Cardiac Surgery: A Randomized Study: Biological Psychiatry Vol 55(6) Mar 2004, 627-633.
  • Schiefelbein, V. L. (2005). Trauma/stress, pubertal timing, and antisocial behavior. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Schjolden, J., Pulman, K. G. T., Pottinger, T. G., Tottmar, O., & Winberg, S. (2006). Serotonergic characteristics of rainbow trout divergent in stress responsiveness: Physiology & Behavior Vol 87(5) May 2006, 938-947.
  • Schlotz, W., Schulz, P., Hellhammer, J., Stone, A. A., & Hellhammer, D. H. (2006). Trait anxiety moderates the impact of performance pressure on salivary cortisol in everyday life: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 31(4) May 2006, 459-472.
  • Schmidt, N. A. (1997). Salivary cortisol testing in children: Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing Vol 20(3) Jul-Sep 1997, 183-190.
  • Schubert, C., Lampe, A., Geser, W., Noisternig, B., Fuchs, D., Konig, P., et al. (2003). Daily psychosocial stressors and cyclic response patterns in urine cortisol and neopterin in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 28(3) Apr 2003, 459-473.
  • Seaton, K. (1995). Cortisol: The aging hormone, the stupid hormone: Journal of the National Medical Association Vol 87(9) Sep 1995, 667, 683.
  • Sethre-Hofstad, L. M. (1998). Maternal sensitivity, cortisol, and emotion regulation: Relations between maternal and child response to stress. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Shanahan, S. (2003). Trailer Loading Stress in Horses: Behavioral and Physiological Effects of Nonaversive Training (TTEAM): Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science Vol 6(4) 2003, 263-274.
  • Shannon, C., Champoux, M., & Suomi, S. J. (1998). Rearing condition and plasma cortisol in rhesus monkey infants: American Journal of Primatology Vol 46(4) 1998, 311-321.
  • Simeon, D., Knutelska, M., Smith, L., Baker, B. R., & Hollander, E. (2007). A Preliminary study of cortisol and norepinephrine reactivity to psychosocial stress in borderline personality disorder with high and low dissociation: Psychiatry Research Vol 149(1-3) Jan 2007, 177-184.
  • Smeets, T., Jelicic, M., & Merckelbach, H. (2006). Stress-induced cortisol responses, sex differences, and false recollections in a DRM paradigm: Biological Psychology Vol 72(2) May 2006, 164-172.
  • Smith, T. E., & French, J. A. (1997). Psychosocial stress and urinary cortisol excretion in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix kuhli): Physiology & Behavior Vol 62(2) Aug 1997, 225-232.
  • Smyth, J., Ockenfels, M. C., Porter, L., Kirschbaum, C., Hellhammer, D. H., & Stone, A. A. (1998). Stressors and mood measured on a momentary basis are associated with salivary cortisol secretion: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 23(4) May 1998, 353-370.
  • Solomon, A. (2007). The noonday demon: An atlas of depression. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
  • Spangler, G., & Schieche, M. (1994). Biobehavioral organization in one-year-olds: Quality of mother-infant attachment and immunological and adrenocortical regulation: Psychologische Beitrage Vol 36(1-2) 1994, 30-35.
  • Spangler, G., & Schieche, M. (1994). Biobehavioral organization in one-year-olds: Quality of mothernfant attachment and immunological and adrenocortical regulation: Psychologische Beitrage Vol 36(1-2) 1994, 30-35.
  • Spotte, S., Bubucis, P. M., & Anderson, G. (1991). Plasma cortisol response of seawater-adapted mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus) during deep MS-222 anesthesia: Zoo Biology Vol 10(1) 1991, 75-79.
  • Stanton, M. E., Patterson, J. M., & Levine, S. (1985). Social influences on conditioned cortisol secretion in the squirrel monkey: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 10(2) 1985, 125-134.
  • Stones, A., Groome, D., Perry, D., Hucklebridge, F., & Evans, P. (1999). The effect of stress on salivary cortisol in panic disorder patients: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 52(1-3) Jan-Mar 1999, 197-201.
  • Taenzler, J. J. (1995). Effect of early stress on spatial ability in adult golden hamsters. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Tafet, G. E., Idoyaga-Vargas, V. P., Abulafia, D. P., Calandria, J. M., Roffman, S. S., Chiovetta, A., et al. (2001). Correlation between cortisol level and serotonin uptake in patients with chronic stress and depression: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 1(4) Dec 2001, 388-393.
  • Tafet, G. E., Toister-Achituv, M., & Shinitzky, M. (2001). Enhancement of serotonin uptake by cortisol: A possible link between stress and depression: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 1(1) Mar 2001, 96-104.
  • Tahera, Y., Meltser, I., Johansson, P., & Canlon, B. (2006). Restraint stress modulates glucocorticoid receptors and nuclear factor kappa B in the cochlea: Neuroreport: For Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research Vol 17(9) Jun 2006, 879-882.
  • Thatcher, J., Reeves, S., Dorling, D., & Palmer, A. (2003). Motivation, stress, and cortisol responses in skydiving: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 97(3, Pt 1) Dec 2003, 995-1002.
  • Theorell, T., Hasselhorn, H.-M., Vingard, E., Andersson, B., & Group, M. U.-N. S. (2000). Interleukin 6 and cortisol in acute musculoskeletal disorders: Results from a case-referent study in Sweden: Stress Medicine Vol 16(1) Jan 2000, 27-35.
  • Toda, M., & Morimoto, K. (2007). Effect of snack eating on salivary alpha -amylase, a novel stress marker: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress Vol 23(4) Oct 2007, 243-247.
  • Tordjman, S., Anderson, G. M., McBride, P. A., Hertzig, M. E., Snow, M. E., Hall, L. M., et al. (1997). Plasma beta -endorphin, adrenocorticotropin hormone, and cortisol in autism: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry Vol 38(6) Sep 1997, 705-715.
  • Troy, C. K. (1989). Coping behaviors of autistic children in stressful situations with consideration of adrenocortical functioning: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Tu, M. T., Grunau, R. E., Petrie-Thomas, J., Haley, D. W., Weinberg, J., & Whitfield, M. F. (2007). Maternal stress and behavior modulate relationships between neonatal stress, attention, and basal cortisol at 8 months in preterm infants: Developmental Psychobiology Vol 49(2) Mar 2007, 150-164.
  • Tull, E. S., Sheu, Y.-T., Butler, C., & Cornelious, K. (2005). Relationships between Perceived Stress, Coping Behavior and Cortisol Secretion in Women with High and Low Levels of Internalized Racism: Journal of the National Medical Association Vol 97(2) Feb 2005, 206-212.
  • Urizar, G. G., Jr., Milazzo, M., Le, H.-N., Delucchi, K., Sotelo, R., & Munoz, R. F. (2004). Impact of stress reduction instructions on stress and cortisol levels during pregnancy: Biological Psychology Vol 67(3) Nov 2004, 275-282.
  • Ushijima, K., Morikawa, T., To, H., Higuchi, S., & Ohdo, S. (2006). Chronobiological disturbances with hyperthermia and hypercortisolism induced by chronic mild stress in rats: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 173(2) Sep 2006, 326-330.
  • van Eck, M. M., Berkhof, H., Nicolson, N., & Sulon, J. (1996). The effects of perceived stress, traits, mood states and stressful daily events on salivary control: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 58(5) Sep-Oct 1996, 447-458.
  • van Eck, M. M., & Nicolson, N. A. (1994). Perceived stress and salivary cortisol in daily life: Annals of Behavioral Medicine Vol 16(3) Sum 1994, 221-227.
  • van Eck, M. M. M., Nicolson, N. A., Berkhof, H., & Sulon, J. (1996). Individual differences in cortisol responses to a laboratory speech task and their relationship to responses to stressful daily events: Biological Psychology Vol 43(1) Mar 1996, 69-84.
  • van Eekelen, A. P. J., Kerkhof, G. A., & van Amsterdam, J. G. C. (2003). Circadian variation in cortisol reactivity to an acute stressor: Chronobiology International Vol 20(5) 2003, 863-878.
  • van Goozen, S. H. M., Matthys, W., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., Gispen-de Wied, C., Wiegant, V. M., & Engeland, H. v. (1998). Salivary cortisol and cardiovascular activity during stress in oppositional-defiant disorder boys and normal controls: Biological Psychiatry Vol 43(7) Apr 1998, 531-539.
  • van Praag, H. M. (1997). Demoralization and melancholy: Concerning the biological interface between traumatic life experiences and depression. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
  • Van Waes, V., Enache, M., Dutriez, I., Lesage, J., Morley-Fletcher, S., Vinner, E., et al. (2006). Hypo-response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis after an ethanol challenge in prenatally stressed adolescent male rats: European Journal of Neuroscience Vol 24(4) Aug 2006, 1193-1200.
  • Verwey, B., Derikx, R. L. E., van Waarde, J. A., Essink, G., van Rooij, I. A. L. M., & Zitman, F. G. (2007). A within-subjects comparison of learning and memory performance before and after cardiac catheterization: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Vol 31(3) Apr 2007, 731-734.
  • Volkmann, E. R., & Weekes, N. Y. (2006). Basal SIgA and cortisol levels predict stress-related health outcomes: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress Vol 22(1) Feb 2006, 11-23.
  • Watamura, S. E. (2006). Cortisol patterns at home and child care: Afternoon differences and evening recovery in children attending high-quality full-day center-based care. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Waye, K. P., Bengtsson, J., Rylander, R., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P., & Clow, A. (2002). Low frequency noise enhances cortisol among noise sensitive subjects during work performance: Life Sciences Vol 70(7) Jan 2002, 745-758.
  • Weizman, R., & Laor, N. (1995). "Lack of significant cortisol and growth hormone changes in Israeli civilians during the Gulf War": Reply: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 152(4) Apr 1995, 653.
  • Weizman, R., Laor, N., Barber, Y., Selman, A., & et al. (1994). Impact of the Gulf War on the anxiety, cortisol, and growth hormone levels of Israeli civilians: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 151(1) Jan 1994, 71-75.
  • Weizman, R., Laor, N., Karp, L., Dagan, E., & et al. (1994). Alteration of platelet benzodiazepine receptors by stress of war: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 151(5) May 1994, 766-767.
  • West, T. M. (2004). The effects of music attention and music imagery on mood and salivary cortisol following a speech stress task. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Whitten, P. L., Stavisky, R., Aureli, F., & Russell, E. (1998). Response of fecal cortisol to stress in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): American Journal of Primatology Vol 44(1) 1998, 57-69.
  • Williams, E., Magid, K., & Steptoe, A. (2005). The impact of time of waking and concurrent subjective stress on the cortisol response to awakening: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 30(2) Feb 2005, 139-148.
  • Wirth, M. M., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2006). Effects of affiliation arousal (hope of closeness) and affiliation stress (fear of rejection) on progesterone and cortisol: Hormones and Behavior Vol 50(5) Dec 2006, 786-795.
  • Wirtz, P. H., Elsenbruch, S., Emini, L., Rudisuli, K., Groessbauer, S., & Ehlert, U. (2007). Perfectionism and the cortisol response to psychosocial stress in men: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 69(3) Apr 2007, 249-255.
  • Wolf, O. T., Schommer, N. C., Hellhammer, D. H., McEwen, B. S., & Kirchbaum, C. (2001). The relationship between stress induced cortisol levels and memory differs between men and women: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 26(7) Oct 2001, 711-720.
  • Wolf, O. T., Schommer, N. C., Hellhammer, D. H., Reischies, F. M., & Kirschbaum, C. (2002). Moderate psychosocial stress appears not to impair recall of words learned 4 weeks prior to stress exposure: Stress: The International Journal on the Biology of Stress Vol 5(1) 2002, 59-64.
  • Woodman, D. D., Hinton, J. W., & O'Neill, M. T. (1978). Cortisol secretion and stress in maximum security hospital patients: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 22(2) 1978, 133-136.
  • Wright, C. E., Valdimarsdottir, H. B., Erblich, J., & Bovbjerg, D. H. (2007). Poor sleep the night before an experimental stress task is associated with reduced cortisol reactivity in healthy women: Biological Psychology Vol 74(3) Mar 2007, 319-327.
  • Wrona, D., Trojiniar, W., Borman, A., Ciepielewski, Z., & Tokarski, J. (2001). Stress-induced changes in peripheral natural killer cell cytotoxicity in pigs may not depend on plasma cortisol: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Vol 15(1) Mar 2001, 54-64.
  • Wust, S., Entringer, S., Federenko, I. S., Schlotz, W., & Hellhammer, D. H. (2005). Birth weight is associated with salivary cortisol responses to psychosocial stress in adult life: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 30(6) Jul 2005, 591-598.
  • Wust, S., Federenko, I., Hellhammer, D. H., & Kirschbaum, C. (2000). Genetic factors, perceived chronic stress, and the free cortisol response to awakening: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 25(7) Oct 2000, 707-720.
  • Yehuda, R., Teicher, M. H., & Giller, E. L. (1995). Lack of significant cortisol and growth hormone changes in Israeli civilians during the Gulf War: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 152(4) Apr 1995, 652-653.
  • Zimmer, C., Basler, H.-D., Vedder, H., & Lautenbacher, S. (2003). Sex differences in cortisol response to noxious stress: Clinical Journal of Pain Vol 19(4) Jul-Aug 2003, 233-239.
  • Zlotnik, G., & Elsborg, T. (2005). School, Stress, and the Sea Horse: Psykologisk Paedagogisk Radgivning Vol 42(4) Sep 2005, 519-523.

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki