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Individual differences |
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Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD), ischaemic heart disease, atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) with oxygen and nutrients. It is the # 1 killer in the U.S. While the symptoms and signs of coronary heart disease are noted in the advanced state of disease, most individuals with coronary heart disease show no evidence of disease for decades as the disease progresses before the first onset of symptoms, often a "sudden" heart attack, finally arise. After decades of progression, some of these atheromatous plaques may rupture and (along with the activation of the blood clotting system) start limiting blood flow to the heart muscle. The disease is the most common cause of sudden death, and is also the most common reason for death of men and women over 20 years of age. According to present trends in the United States, half of healthy 40-year-old males will develop CHD in the future, and one in three healthy 40-year-old women. Northern Ireland is the country with the most occurrences of CHD. By contrast, the Maasai of Africa have almost no heart disease.
Atherosclerotic heart disease can be thought of as a wide spectrum of disease of the heart. At one end of the spectrum is the asymptomatic individual with atheromatous streaks within the walls of the coronary arteries (the arteries of the heart). These streaks represent the early stage of atherosclerotic heart disease and do not obstruct the flow of blood. A coronary angiogram performed during this stage of diseases may not show any evidence of coronary artery disease, because the lumen of the coronary artery has not ...decreased in calibre.
Over a period of many years, these streaks increase in thickness. While the atheromatous plaques initially expand into the walls of the arteries, eventually they will expand into the lumen of the vessel, affecting the flow of blood through the arteries. While it was originally believed that the growth of atheromatous plaques was a slow, gradual process, recent evidence suggests that the gradual buildup may be complemented by small plaque ruptures which cause the sudden increase in the plaque burden due to accumulation of thrombus material.Atheromatous plaques that cause obstruction of less than 70 percent of the diameter of the vessel rarely cause symptoms of obstructive coronary artery disease. As the plaques grow in thickness and obstruct more than 70 percent of the diameter of the vessel, the individual develops symptoms of obstructive coronary artery disease. At this stage of the disease process, the patient can be said to have ischemic heart disease. The symptoms of ischemic heart disease are often first noted during times of increased workload of the heart. For instance, the first symptoms include exertional angina or decreased exercise tolerance.
As the degree of coronary artery disease progresses, there may be near-complete obstruction of the lumen of the coronary artery, severely restricting the flow of oxygen-carrying blood to the myocardium. Individuals with this degree of coronary heart disease typically have suffered from one or more myocardial infarctions (heart attacks), and may have signs and symptoms of chronic coronary ischemia, including symptoms of angina at rest and flash pulmonary edema.
A distinction should be made between myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction. Ischemia means that the amount of oxygen supplied to the tissue is inadequate to supply the needs of the tissue. When the myocardium becomes ischemic, it does not function optimally. When large areas of the myocardium becomes ischemic, there can be impairment in the relaxation and contraction of the myocardium. If the blood flow to the tissue is improved, myocardial ischemia can be reversed. Infarction means that the tissue has undergone irreversible death due to lack of sufficient oxygen-rich blood.
An individual may develop a rupture of an atheromatous plaque at any stage of the spectrum of coronary heart disease. The acute rupture of a plaque may lead to an acute myocardial infarction (heart attack).
Limitation of blood flow to the heart causes ischemia (cell starvation secondary to a lack of oxygen) of the myocardial cells. When myocardial cells die from lack of oxygen, this is called a myocardial infarction (commonly called a heart attack). It leads to heart muscle damage, heart muscle death and later scarring without heart muscle regrowth.
Myocardial infarction usually results from the sudden occlusion of a coronary artery when a plaque ruptures, activating the clotting system and atheroma-clot interaction fills the lumen of the artery to the point of sudden closure. The typical narrowing of the lumen of the heart artery before sudden closure is typically 20%, according to clinical research completed in the late 1990s and using IVUS examinations within 6 months prior to a heart attack. High grade stenoses as such exceeding 75% blockage, such as detected by stress testing, were found to be responsible for only 14% of acute heart attacks the rest being due to plaque rupture/ spasm. The events leading up to plaque rupture are only partially understood. Myocardial infarction is also caused, far less commonly, by spasm of the artery wall occluding the lumen, a condition also associated with atheromatous plaque and CHD.
CHD is associated with coronary prone behavior, smoking, obesity, hypertension and a chronic sub-clinical lack of vitamin C. A family history of CHD is one of the strongest predictors of CHD. Screening for CHD includes evaluating homocysteine levels, high-density and low-density lipoprotein (cholesterol) levels and triglyceride levels.
Angina that occurs regularly with activity, upon awakening, or at other predictable times is termed stable angina and is associated with high grade narrowings of the heart arteries. The symptoms of angina are often treated with nitrate preparations such as nitroglycerin, which come in short-acting and long-acting forms, and may be administered transdermally, sublingually or orally. Many other more effective treatments, especially of the underlying atheromatous disease, have been developed.
Angina that changes in intensity, character or frequency is termed unstable. Unstable angina may precede myocardial infarction, and requires urgent medical attention. It is treated with morphine, oxygen, intravenous nitroglycerin, and aspirin. Interventional procedures such as angioplasty may be done.
Women and Coronary Heart Disease Edit
Over the last couple of years, the public today is much more attentive about the fact that heart disease is as big a problem in women as it is in men. Many are now aware that women with some types of heart disease – particularly, coronary heart disease – may not have the same symptoms as men, and for this reason the correct diagnosis in women is often missed or delayed. Here are some facts:
- Heart disease is the leading cause of death of American women, accounting for 32 percent of all deaths per year. Nearly 366,000 women in America die every year of heart disease.
- 8 million American women are currently living with heart disease and of those, 6 million have a family history of heart disease.
- Fewer than half of all women are aware that heart disease is the number 1 killer of American women. Most women identify cancer as the leading cause of death.
- In the United States, all cardiovascular diseases combined claim the lives of more women every year than the next 16 causes of death combined -- and almost twice as many as all forms of cancer.
- One in three women will die from heart disease, while one in 25 women die from breast cancer.
- Every year since 1984, more women than men have died of cardiovascular disease.
- There is no previous evidence of coronary heart disease in 63 percent of the women who suddenly die from the disease.
- Smoking is the most prevalent and preventable risk factor for cardiovascular disease in women younger than 45.
- 40 percent to 50 percent of women older than 45 have high blood pressure (hypertension) and an elevated total cholesterol level -- both well-documented risk factors.
Taking into account all deaths due to all types of cardiovascular disease, even 461,000 women per year are dying in the United States (compared to 410,000 men). Also, the prevalence of all cardiovascular diseases in the US is higher in women than in men – and increasing with age.
Special Pathophysiology Edit
Typically, coronary artery disease occurs when part of the smooth, elastic lining inside a coronary artery (the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle) develops atherosclerosis. With atherosclerosis, the artery's lining becomes hardened, stiffened, and swollen with all sorts of "grunge" - including calcium deposits, fatty deposits, and abnormal inflammatory cells - to form a plaque. Plaques can be thought of as large "pimples" that protrude into the channel of an artery, causing a partial obstruction to blood flow. Patients with coronary artery disease might have just one or two plaques, or might have dozens distributed throughout their coronary arteries. However, there is a term in medicine called “Cardiac Syndrome X”, which describes chest pain (Angina pectoris) and chest discomfort in people who do not show signs of blockages in the larger coronary arteries of their hearts when an angiogram (coronary angiogram) is being performed.
No one knows exactly what causes “Cardiac Syndrome X” and it is unlikely to have a single cause. Today, we know that the major contributing factor to “Cardiac Syndrome X” is “microvascular dysfunction”: The term “microvascular” refers to very small blood vessels and, in this case, very small arteries (arterioles, capillaries) of the heart. Studies have also shown that people – and the majority are women - with “Cardiac Syndrome X” have enhanced pain perception, meaning they feel chest pain more intensely than the average person.In women with “Cardiac Syndrome X”, or female-pattern coronary artery disease, the process of atherosclerosis does not form localized plaques; that is, the localized blockages are absent. Instead, the plaques in these women are more diffuse, involving to some degree the entire circumference of the artery. These women, in response to atherosclerosis, "remodel" the entire artery so that the lining of the artery becomes thickened throughout, making the plaques flush with the wall of the artery. This kind of arterial remodelling is apparently a unique capability of women, since they do something quite similar during pregnancy. On cardiac catheterization their coronary arteries appear smooth-walled and normal, though they may look "small" in diameter. By the way: in general, female coronary arteries (like all arteries) are somewhat smaller than in males.
“Cardiac Syndrome X” can and does cause acute heart attacks (myocardial infarction), since these plaques can erode and rupture, causing the blood to clot within the artery and producing sudden arterial blockage. This erosion and clotting is what causes heart attacks in men, too. Then, if the clot is successfully dissolved with clot-busting drugs, the subsequent heart catheterization usually shows "normal" coronary arteries, thus confounding the cardiologist. The prognosis with female-pattern coronary artery disease is thought to be better than with typical coronary artery disease, but this is not a benign condition. It is not completely clear why women are more likely than men to suffer from "Syndrome X"; however, hormones and other risk factors unique to women may play a role. Women’s blood vessels are exposed to changing levels of oestrogen throughout their lives, first during regular menstrual cycles and later during and after menopause as oestrogen levels decline with age. Oestrogen affects how blood vessels narrow and widen and how they respond to injury, so changes in oestrogen levels mean changes in the reactivity of the blood vessels. Women’s vessels may be “programmed” for more changes than men’s vessels, which could increase the risk of having problems in the lining of the arteries (endothelial cells) and the smooth muscle cells in the walls of the arteries. Many women with “Cardiac Syndrome X” have evidence of damage to the layer of smooth muscle cells in the small arteries. The endothelial dysfunction is likely to be multifactorial in these patients and it is conceivable that risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus and smoking can contribute to its development. Most patients with female-pattern coronary artery disease are postmenopausal women and oestrogen deficiency has been therefore proposed as a pathogenic factor in female patients. In addition to changing hormone levels, there are several other risk conditions for blood vessel problems that are unique to women, such as preeclampsia (a problem caused by high blood pressure during pregnancy) and delivering a low-birth weight baby.
There are often no typical symptoms as they are well known for coronary heart disease; Cardiac Syndrome X often is a diagnosis of exclusion. However, the following list may be helpful in diagnosing the disease:
- Chest pain or Angina, quite often at rest; the pain may spread to the left arm or the neck, back, throat, or jaw. There might be present a numbness (paresthesia) or a loss of feeling in the arms, shoulders, or wrists. Patients with female-pattern coronary artery disease often have chest pain after they exercise and a very variable duration of angina episodes.
- Coronary angiography demonstrates “normal” coronary arteries, i. e. no blockages or stenoses can be detected in the larger epicardial vessels.
- No inducible coronary artery spasm present during cardiac catheterization.
- Characteristic ischemic ECG changes during exercise testing.
- ST segment depression and angina in the absence of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities during pharmacological stress test.
- Reduction of platelet aggregation after exercise (aggregation time 10 seconds).
- Inconstant or partial response to sublingual nitrates.
- Absence of cardiac or systemic diseases potentially associated with microvascular dysfunction.
- Postmenopausal or menopausal status.
- Impaired quality of life.
The diagnosis of “Cardiac Syndrome W” - female-pattern coronary artery disease often is, as mentioned, an “exclusion” diagnosis. Therefore, usually the same tests are used as in any patient with the suspicion of coronary heart disease:
- Baseline ECG
- Exercise ECG – Stress test
- Exercise radioisotope test (nuclear stress test, myocardial scintigraphy).
- Echocardiography (including stress echocardiography).
- Coronary angiography.
- Intravascular ultrasound.
- MRI scan.
A variety of drugs are used in the attempt to treat the female-pattern coronary artery disease: beta blockers, nitrates, calcium channel antagonists, ACE-inhibitors, statins, imipramin (analgesia), aminophylline, hormone replacement therapy (oestrogen), even electrical spinal cord stimulation are tried to overcome the symptomatology -all with mixed results. Quite often the quality of life for these women remains poor.While not enough is known about female-pattern coronary artery disease to list specific prevention techniques, adopting heart-healthy habits can be a good start. These include monitoring cholesterol and blood pressure levels, maintaining a low-fat diet, exercising regularly, quitting smoking, avoiding recreational drugs, and moderating alcohol intake. However, there might be a new option for women suffering from “Cardiac Syndrome X”: Protein based Angiogenesis. This new protein-based angiogenic therapy - using fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) - might be used as sole therapy as well as adjunct to bypass surgery – thus overcoming the limitations of conventional bypass surgery. Beyond drug therapy, interventional procedures, and coronary artery bypass grafting, angiogenesis now offers a new, specific and – so far as we know from three human clinical trials – effective treatment targeted for women’s coronary heart disease.
Risk factors Edit
- Blood fats lipoprotein (a) and triglycerides
- Clotting factors
- Depression and isolation
- Family history of CAD
- Hemostatic Factors: High levels of fibrinogen and coagulation factor VII are associated with an increased risk of CAD. Factor VII levels are higher in individuals with a high intake of dietary fat. Decreased fibrinolytic activity has been reported in patients with coronary atherosclerosis.
- Hereditary differences in such diverse aspects as lipoprotein structure and that of their associated receptors, homocysteine processing/metabolism, etc.
- High blood pressure (Hypertension), high systolic pressure seems to be most significant in this regard
- High LDL Cholesterol or low HDL Cholesterol
- Hyperglycemia (due to diabetes mellitus or otherwise)
- Inflammation and infection
- Lack of exercise
- Stress and anger
- Tobacco smoking or exposure to tobacco
- Type A Behavioural Patterns, TABP. Added in 1981 as an independent risk factor after a majority of research into the field discovered that TABP's were twice as likely to cause CHD than any other personality type.
Risk factors can be classified as
- Fixed: age, sex, family history
- Modifiable: smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity and etc.
Coronary heart disease is the most common form of heart disease in the Western world. Prevention centers on the modifiable risk factors, which include decreasing cholesterol levels, addressing obesity and hypertension, avoiding a sedentary lifestyle, making healthy dietary choices, and stopping smoking. There is some evidence that lowering uric acid and homocysteine levels may contribute. In diabetes mellitus, there is little evidence that blood sugar control actually improves cardiac risk. Some recommend a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin C. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends "low to moderate alcohol intake" to reduce risk of coronary heart disease.
An increasingly growing number of other physiological markers and homeostatic mechanisms are currently under scientific investigation. Among these markers are low density lipoprotein and asymmetric dimethylarginine. Patients with CHD and those trying to prevent CHD are advised to avoid fats that are readily oxidized (e.g., saturated fats and trans-fats), limit carbohydrates and processed sugars to reduce production of Low density lipoproteins while increasing High density lipoproteins, keeping blood pressure normal, exercise and stop smoking. These measures limit the progression of the disease. Recent studies have shown that dramatic reduction in LDL levels can cause mild regression of coronary heart disease.
Separate to the question of the benefits of exercise; it is unclear whether doctors should spend time counseling patients to exercise. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), based on a systematic review of randomized controlled trials, found 'insufficient evidence' to recommend that doctors counsel patients on exercise, but "it did not review the evidence for the effectiveness of physical activity to reduce chronic disease, morbidity and mortality", it only examined the effectiveness of the counseling itself. However, the American Heart Association, based on a non-systematic review, recommends that doctors counsel patients on exercise 
Preventive diets Edit
- Main article: Diet and Heart Disease
It has been suggested that coronary heart disease is partially reversible using an intense dietary regimen coupled with regular cardio exercise.
- Vegetarian diet: Vegetarians have been shown to have a 24% reduced risk of dying of heart disease.
- Cretan Mediterranean diet: The Seven Country Study found that Cretan men had exceptionally low death rates from heart disease, despite moderate to high intake of fat. The Cretan diet is similar to other traditional Mediterranean diets: consisting mostly of olive oil, bread, abundant fruit and vegetables, a moderate amount of wine and fat-rich animal products such as lamb, sausage and goat cheese. However, the Cretan diet consisted of less fish and wine consumption than some other Mediterranean-style diets, such as the diet in Corfu, another region of Greece, which had higher death rates.[How to reference and link to summary or text]
Foods containing fiber, potassium, nitric oxide (in green leafy vegetables), monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, saponins, or lecithin are said to lower cholesterol levels. Foods high in grease, salt, trans fat, or saturated fat are said to raise cholesterol levels.
Aspirin, in doses of less than 75 to 81 mg/d, can reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force 'strongly recommends that clinicians discuss aspirin chemoprevention with adults who are at increased risk for coronary heart disease'. The Task Force defines increased risk as 'Men older than 40 years of age, postmenopausal women, and younger persons with risk factors for coronary heart disease (for example, hypertension, diabetes, or smoking) are at increased risk for heart disease and may wish to consider aspirin therapy'. More specifically, high-risk persons are 'those with a 5-year risk ≥ 3%'. A risk calculator is available.
Regarding healthy women, the more recent Women's Health Study randomized controlled trial found insignficant benefit from aspirin in the reduction of cardiac events; however there was a signficant reduction in stroke. Subgroup analysis showed that all benefit was confined to women over 65 years old. In spite of the insignficant benefit for women < 65 years old, recent practice guidelines by the American Heart Association recommend to 'consider' aspirin in 'healthy women' <65 years of age 'when benefit for ischemic stroke prevention is likely to outweigh adverse effects of therapy'.
Omega-3 fatty acids Edit
The benefit of fish oil is controversial with conflicting conclusions reached by a negative meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials by the international Cochrane Collaboration and a partially positive systematic review by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Since these two reviews, a randomized controlled trial reported a reduction on coronary events in Japanese hypercholesterolemic patients.
Omega-3 fatty acids are also found in some plant sources including flax seed oil, hemp seed oil, and walnuts. Plant sources may be safer as fish products have been shown to contain heavy metals and other fat soluble pollutants.
Secondary prevention Edit
Secondary prevention is preventing further sequelae of already established disease. Regarding coronary heart disease, this can mean risk factor management that is carried out during cardiac rehabilitation, a 4-phase process beginning in hospital after MI, angioplasty or heart surgery and continuing for a minimum of three months. Exercise is a main component of cardiac rehabilitation along with diet, smoking cessation, and blood pressure and cholesterol management. Beta blockers may also be used for this purpose.
A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials by the international Cochrane Collaboration found "that the use of clopidogrel plus aspirin is associated with a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular events compared with aspirin alone in patients with acute non-ST coronary syndrome. In patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease but not presenting acutely, there is only weak evidence of benefit and hazards of treatment almost match any benefit obtained.".
Therapy - Principles of Treatment Edit
Therapeutic options for coronary heart disease today are based on three principles: 1. Medical treatment - drugs (e.g. nitroglycerin, beta-blockers, calcium antagonists, etc.); 2. Coronary interventions as angioplasty and stent-implantation; 3. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG - coronary artery bypass surgery). Recent research efforts focus on new angiogenic treatment modalities (angiogenesis) and various (adult) stem cell therapies.
Recent research Edit
A more controversial link is that between Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection and atherosclerosis. While this intracellular organism has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic plaques, evidence is inconclusive as to whether it can be considered a causative factor.[How to reference and link to summary or text] Treatment with antibiotics in patients with proven atherosclerosis has not demonstrated a decreased risk of heart attacks or other coronary vascular diseases.
Since the 1990s the search for new treatment options for coronary heart disease patients, particularly for so called "no-option" coronary patients, focused on usage of angiogenesis and (adult) stem cell therapies. Numerous clinical trials were performed, either applying protein (angiogenic growth factor) therapies, such as FGF-1 or VEGF, or cell therapies using different kinds of adult stem cell populations. Research is still going on - with first promising results particularly for FGF-1 and utilization of endothelial progenitor cells.
- ↑ Community study of the causes of "natural" sudden death
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 American Heart Association: Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2007 Update. AHA, Dallas, Texas, 2007
- ↑ Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2007 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee - Rosamond et al. 115 (5): e69 - Circulation
- ↑ Shaw, L.J., Merz, C.N.B., Pepine, C.J., MD, Reis, S.E., Bittner, V., Kelsey, Olson, M., Johnson, D., Mankad, S., Sharaf, B.L., Rogers W.J., Wessel, T.R., Arant, C.B., Pohost, G.M., Lerman, A., Quyyumi, A.A., Sopko, G.: Insights From the NHLBI-Sponsored Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study. Part I: Gender Differences in Traditional and Novel Risk Factors, Symptom Evaluation, and Gender-Optimized Diagnostic Strategies. J Am Coll Cardiol 47: 4S–20S, 2006
- ↑ Merz, C.N.B., Shaw, L.J., Reis, S.E., Bittner, V., Kelsey, S.F., Olson, M., Johnson, D., Pepine, C.J., Mankad, S., Sharaf, B.L., Rogers, W.J., Pohost, G.M., Lerman, A., Quyyumi, A.A., Sopko, G.: Insights From the NHLBI-Sponsored Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study. Part II: Gender Differences in Presentation, Diagnosis, and Outcome With Regard to Gender-Based Pathophysiology of Atherosclerosis and Macrovascular and Microvascular Coronary Disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 47: 21S–29S, 2006
- ↑ Lanza, G.A.: Cardiac syndrome X: A critical overview and future perspectives. Heart 93:159-166, 2007
- ↑ Kaski, J.C.: Pathophysiology and management of patients with chest pain and normal coronary arteriograms (cardiac syndrome X). Circulation 109: 568-572, 2004
- ↑ Stegmann, T.J.: New Vessels for the Heart. Angiogenesis as New Treatment for Coronary Heart Disease: The Story of its Discovery and Development. Henderson, Nevada 89012, USA, 2004. ISBN 0-976558-30-5
- ↑ Stegmann, T.J.: Protein promise in heart disease. GCPj, March 2007, 21-24
- ↑ Simon, Harvey B. (2002). The Harvard Medical School guide to men's health, 37-8, New York: Free Press.
- ↑ Women and heart disease - includes related information on heart attack, gender bias in research, and tests for coronary artery disease. URL accessed on 2008-02-11.
- ↑ WHO | 5. Population nutrient intake goals for preventing diet-related chronic diseases
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- ↑ Erkkilä AT, Booth SL (2008). Vitamin K intake and atherosclerosis. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 19 (1): 39–42.
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- ↑ (2002) Behavioral counseling in primary care to promote physical activity: recommendation and rationale. Ann. Intern. Med. 137 (3): 205-7.
- ↑ Thompson PD, Buchner D, Pina IL, et al (2003). Exercise and physical activity in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: a statement from the Council on Clinical Cardiology (Subcommittee on Exercise, Rehabilitation, and Prevention) and the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism (Subcommittee on Physical Activity). Circulation 107 (24): 3109-16. http://www.ngc.gov/summary/summary.aspx?ss=15&doc_id=5360&string=#s23
- ↑ Ornish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW, Billings JH, Armstrong WT, Ports TA, McLanahan SM, Kirkeeide RL, Brand RJ, Gould KL. (1990). Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial.. Lancet 336 (8708): 129-33. PMID 1973470.
- ↑ Key TJ, Fraser GE, Thorogood M, Appleby PN, Beral V, Reeves G, Burr ML, Chang-Claude J, Frentzel-Beyme R, Kuzma JW, Mann J, McPherson K (1998). Mortality in vegetarians and non-vegetarians: a collaborative analysis of 8300 deaths among 76,000 men and women in five prospective studies.. Public Health Nutr 1 (1): 33-41. PMID 10555529.
- ↑ Willett WC, Sacks F, Trichopoulou A, Drescher G, Ferro-Luzzi A, Helsing E, Trichopoulos D. (1995). Mediterranean diet pyramid: a cultural model for healthy eating.. Am J Clin Nutr 61 (6 Suppl): 1402S-1406S. PMID 7754995.
- ↑ Perez-Llamas, F., et.al., J Hum Nutr Diet, Dec 1996, 9:6:463-471
- ↑ Alberti-Fidanza A, Paolacci CA, Chiuchiu MP, Coli R, Fruttini D, Verducci G, Fidanza F. (1994). Dietary studies on two rural Italian population groups of the Seven Countries Study. 1. Food and nutrient intake at the thirty-first year follow-up in 1991.. Eur J Clin Nutr 48 (2): 85-91. PMID 8194497.
- ↑ Lopez-Garcia E, Schulze MB, Meigs JB, Manson JE, Rifai N, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Hu FB. (2005). Consumption of trans fatty acids is related to plasma biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.. J Nutr 135 (3): 562-6. PMID 15735094.
- ↑ Campbell CL, Smyth S, Montalescot G, Steinhubl SR (2007). Aspirin dose for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review. JAMA 297 (18): 2018-24.
- ↑ Berger J, Roncaglioni M, Avanzini F, Pangrazzi I, Tognoni G, Brown D (2006). Aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events in women and men: a sex-specific meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 295 (3): 306-13.
- ↑ (2002)Aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events: recommendation and rationale. Ann Intern Med 136 (2): 157-60.
- ↑ Welcome to Med-decisions!
- ↑ 28.0 28.1 Ridker P, Cook N, Lee I, Gordon D, Gaziano J, Manson J, Hennekens C, Buring J (2005). A randomized trial of low-dose aspirin in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in women. N Engl J Med 352 (13): 1293-304.
- ↑ Evidence-Based Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Women: 2007 Update - Mosca et al., 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.181546 - Circulation
- ↑ Hooper L, Thompson RL, Harrison RA, Summerbell CD, Ness AR, Moore HJ, Worthington HV, Durrington PN, Higgins JP, Capps NE, Riemersma RA, Ebrahim SB, Davey Smith G (2006). Risks and benefits of omega 3 fats for mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review. BMJ 332 (7544): 752-60.
- ↑ Wang C, Harris WS, Chung M, Lichtenstein AH, Balk EM, Kupelnick B, Jordan HS, Lau J (2006). n-3 Fatty acids from fish or fish-oil supplements, but not alpha-linolenic acid, benefit cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary- and secondary-prevention studies: a systematic review. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 84 (1): 5-17. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=hstat1a.chapter.38290
- ↑ Yokoyama M, Origasa H, Matsuzaki M, et al (2007). Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis. Lancet 369 (9567): 1090-8.
- ↑ Awtry, Eric H.; Joseph Loscalzo (2004). "Coronary Heart Disease" Cecil Essentials of Medicine, 6, 87-108, Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.
- ↑ Keller T, Squizzato A, Middeldorp S (2007). Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone for preventing cardiovascular disease. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (3): CD005158.
- ↑ Kasper, D.L., Braunwald, E., Fauci, A.S., Hauser, S.L., Longo, D.L., Jameson, J.L. (Eds.): Harrison's principles of internal medicine. 16th edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2005
- ↑ Farrall M, Green FR, Peden JF, Olsson PG, Clarke R, Hellenius ML, Rust S, Lagercrantz J, Franzosi MG, Schulte H, Carey A, Olsson G, Assmann G, Tognoni G, Collins R, Hamsten A, Watkins H, on behalf of the PROCARDIS Consortium (2006). Genome-Wide Mapping of Susceptibility to Coronary Artery Disease Identifies a Novel Replicated Locus on Chromosome 17. PLoS Genetics 2 (5): e72. PMID 16710446.
- ↑ Saikku P, Leinonen M, Tenkanen L, Linnanmaki E, Ekman MR, Manninen V, Manttari M, Frick MH, Huttunen JK. (1992). Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in the Helsinki Heart Study.. Ann Intern Med 116 (4): 273-8. PMID 1733381.
- ↑ Andraws R, Berger JS, Brown DL. (2005). Effects of antibiotic therapy on outcomes of patients with coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.. JAMA 293 (21): 2641-7. PMID 15928286.
- ↑ Simons, M., Bonow, R.O., Chronos, N.A., Cohen, D.J., Giordano, F.J., Hammond, H.K., Laham, R.J., Li, W., Pike, M., Sellke, F.W., Stegmann, T.J., Udelson, J.E., Rosengart, T.K.: Clinical trials in coronary angiogenesis: issues, problems, consensus: an expert panel summary. Circulation. 2000; 102: E73-E86
- ↑ Stegmann, T.J.: A human growth factor in the induction of neoangiogenesis. Exp.Opin.Invest.Drugs 7: 2011-2015, 1998
- ↑ Wagoner, L.E., Merrill, W., Jacobs, J., Conway, G., Boehmer, J., Thomas, K., Stegmann, T.J.: Angiogenesis Protein Therapy With Human Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-1): Results Of A Phase I Open Label, Dose Escalation Study In Subjects With CAD Not Eligible For PCI Or CABG. Circulation 116: 443, 2007
- Risk Assessment of having a heart attack or dying of coronary heart disease, from the American Heart Association.
- The InVision Guide to a Healthy Heart An interactive website on the development and function of the cardiovascular system and cardiovascular diseases and consequences. The website also features treatment options and preventative measures for maintaining a healthy heart.
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