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Cooperation in animals

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Cooperation amongst animals is a form of Social behavior which exists not only in humans but in animals as well. This behavior appears, however, to occur mostly between relatives. Spending time and resources assisting a related individual may at first seem destructive to the organism’s chances of survival but is actually beneficial over the long-term. Since relatives share part of their genetic make-up, enhancing each other’s chances of survival may actually increase the likelihood that the helper’s genetic traits will be passed on to future generations.[1]

Some researchers assert that cooperation is more complex than this. They maintain that helpers may receive more direct, and less indirect, gains from assisting others than is commonly reported. Furthermore, they insist that cooperation may not solely be an interaction between two individuals but may be part of the broader goal of unifying populations.[2]

Kin selectionEdit

One specific form of cooperation in animals is kin selection, which can be defined as animals helping to rear a relative’s offspring in order to enhance their own fitness.[2]

Different theories explaining kin selection have been proposed, including the “pay-to-stay” and “territory inheritance” hypotheses. The “pay-to-stay” theory suggests that individuals help others rear offspring in order to return the favor of the breeders allowing them to live on their land. The “territory inheritance” theory contends that individuals help in order to have improved access to breeding areas once the breeders depart. These two hypotheses both appear to be valid, at least in cichlid fish.[3]

Studies conducted on red wolves support previous researchers' [2] contention that helpers obtain both immediate and long-term gains from cooperative breeding. Researchers evaluated the consequences of red wolves’ decisions to stay with their packs for extended periods of time after birth. It was found that this “delayed dispersal,” while it involved helping other wolves rear their offspring, extended male wolves’ life spans. These findings suggest that kin selection may not only benefit an individual in the long-term in terms of increased fitness but in the short-term as well through enhanced chance of survival [4]

Some research even suggests that certain species provide more help to the individuals with which they are more closely related. This phenomenon is known as kin discrimination.[5] In their meta-analysis, researchers compiled data on kin selection as mediated by genetic relatedness in 18 species, including the Western bluebird, Pied kingfisher, Australian magpie, and Dwarf Mongoose. They found that different species exhibited varying degrees of kin discrimination, with the largest frequencies occurring among those who have the most to gain from cooperative interactions.[5]

Cooperative huntingEdit

Main article: Cooperative hunting

Cooperative hunting occurs where a pair or group of animals coordinate their activites as part of their hunting behavior in order to improve their chances of making a kill and feeding. This type of cooperation] is found in many species.

See alsoEdit

referencesEdit

  1. Hamilton, W.D. (1964). The Genetical Evolution of Social Behaviour I. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7, 1-16.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Clutton-Brock, T. (2002). Breeding together: Kin selection and mutualism in cooperative vertebrates. Science, 296(5565), 69-72. doi:10.1126/science.296.5565.69
  3. Balshine-Earn, S., Neat, F.C., Reid, H., & Taborsky, M. (1998). Paying to stay or paying to breed? Field evidence for direct benefits of helping behavior in a cooperatively breeding fish. Behavioral Ecology, 9 (5), 432-438.
  4. Sparkman, A. M., Adams, J. R., Steury, T. D., Waits, L. P., & Murray, D. L. (2011). Direct fitness benefits of delayed dispersal in the cooperatively breeding red wolf (Canis rufus). Behavioral Ecology, 22(1), 199-205. doi:10.1093/beheco/arq194
  5. 5.0 5.1 Griffin, A. S., & West, S. A. (2003). Kin Discrimination and the Benefit of Helping in Cooperatively Breeding Vertebrates. Science, 302(5645), 634-636. doi:10.1126/science.1089402

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