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'''Constructivist teaching''' techniques are based on the [[Constructivism (learning theory)|constructivist learning theory]]. This theoretical framework relies on an the earlier framework of [[Cognitivism|cognitivism]], which holds that learning should build upon knowledge that a student already knows; this prior knowledge is called a [[schema (psychology)|schema]]. Constructivists suggest learning is more effective when a student is actively engaged in the construction of knowledge rather than passively receiving it.<ref name="ssta">[http://www.ssta.sk.ca/research/instruction/97-07.htm#What%20is%20Constructivism? Constructivist Teaching and Learning]</ref>
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'''Constructivist teaching''' techniques are based on the [[Constructivism (learning theory)|constructivist learning theory]]. This theoretical framework relies on an the earlier framework of [[Cognitivism|cognitivism]], which holds that learning should build upon knowledge that a student already knows; this prior knowledge is called a [[schema (psychology)|schema]]. Constructivists suggest learning is more effective when a student is actively engaged in the construction of knowledge rather than passively receiving it.<ref name="ssta">[http://www.ssta.sk.ca/research/instruction/97-07.htm#What%20is%20Constructivism? Constructivist Teaching and Learning]</ref>
   
 
==History==
 
==History==
Constructivist teaching methods are based on the [[Constructivism (learning theory)|constructivist]] [[learning theory]] developed by a variety of philosophers. Along with [[John Dewey]], [[Jean Piaget|Piaget]] researched [[childhood development]] and education. Their theories are now encompassed in the broader movement of [[Educational progressivism|progressive education]].
+
Constructivist teaching methods are based on the [[Constructivism (learning theory)|constructivist]] [[learning theory]] developed by a variety of philosophers. Along with [[John Dewey]], [[Jean Piaget|Piaget]] researched [[childhood development]] and education. Their theories are now encompassed in the broader movement of [[Educational progressivism|progressive education]].
   
 
The constructivist learning theory says that children learn best when they construct a personal understanding based on experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences.<ref name="thirteenorg">[http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index_sub5.html Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning]</ref>
 
The constructivist learning theory says that children learn best when they construct a personal understanding based on experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences.<ref name="thirteenorg">[http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index_sub5.html Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning]</ref>
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====Examples of constructivist activities====
 
====Examples of constructivist activities====
Furthermore, in the constructivist classroom, students work primarily in groups and learning and knowledge are interactive and dynamic. There is a great focus and emphasis on social and communication skills, as well as collaboration and exchange of ideas <ref name="thirteenorg"/>. This is contrary to the traditional classroom in which students work primarily alone, learning is achieved through repetition, and the subjects are strictly adhered to and are guided by a textbook. Some activities encouraged in constructivist classrooms are:
+
Furthermore, in the constructivist classroom, students work primarily in groups and learning and knowledge are interactive and dynamic. There is a great focus and emphasis on social and communication skills, as well as collaboration and exchange of ideas <ref name="thirteenorg"/>. This is contrary to the traditional classroom in which students work primarily alone, learning is achieved through repetition, and the subjects are strictly adhered to and are guided by a textbook. Some activities encouraged in constructivist classrooms are:
 
*Experimentation: students individually perform an experiment and then come together as a class to discuss the results.
 
*Experimentation: students individually perform an experiment and then come together as a class to discuss the results.
 
*Research projects: students research a topic and can present their findings to the class.
 
*Research projects: students research a topic and can present their findings to the class.
*Field trips. This allows students to put the concepts and ideas discussed in class in a real-world context. Field trips would often be followed by class discussions.
+
*Field trips. This allows students to put the concepts and ideas discussed in class in a real-world context. Field trips would often be followed by class discussions.
*Films. These provide visual context and thus bring another sense into the learning experience.
+
*Films. These provide visual context and thus bring another sense into the learning experience.
*Class discussions. This technique is used in all of the methods described above. It is one of the most important distinctions of constructivist teaching methods.<ref name="templeedu">[http://www.temple.edu/CETP/temple_teach/CM-struc.html Strategies for Constructivist Teaching]</ref>
+
*Class discussions. This technique is used in all of the methods described above. It is one of the most important distinctions of constructivist teaching methods.<ref name="templeedu">[http://www.temple.edu/CETP/temple_teach/CM-struc.html Strategies for Constructivist Teaching]</ref>
   
 
====Role of teachers====
 
====Role of teachers====
In the constructivist classroom, the teacher’s role is to prompt and facilitate discussion. Thus, the teacher’s main focus should be on guiding students by asking questions that will lead them to develop their own conclusions on the subject.
+
In the constructivist classroom, the teacher’s role is to prompt and facilitate discussion. Thus, the teacher’s main focus should be on guiding students by asking questions that will lead them to develop their own conclusions on the subject.
   
 
David Jonassen identified three major roles for facilitators to support students in constructivist learning environments:
 
David Jonassen identified three major roles for facilitators to support students in constructivist learning environments:
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====Constructivist assessment====
 
====Constructivist assessment====
Traditionally, assessment in the classrooms is based on testing. In this style, it is important for the student to produce the correct answers. However, in constructivist teaching, the process of gaining knowledge is viewed as being just as important as the product. Thus, assessment is based not only on tests, but also on observation of the student, the student’s work, and the student’s points of view <ref name="thirteenorg"/>. Some assessment strategies include:
+
Traditionally, assessment in the classrooms is based on testing. In this style, it is important for the student to produce the correct answers. However, in constructivist teaching, the process of gaining knowledge is viewed as being just as important as the product. Thus, assessment is based not only on tests, but also on observation of the student, the student’s work, and the student’s points of view <ref name="thirteenorg"/>. Some assessment strategies include:
*Oral discussions. The teacher presents students with a “focus” question and allows an open discussion on the topic.
+
*Oral discussions. The teacher presents students with a “focus” question and allows an open discussion on the topic.
*KWL(H) Chart (What we '''know''', What we '''want''' to know, What we have '''learned''', '''How''' we know it). This technique can be used throughout the course of study for a particular topic, but is also a good assessment technique as it shows the teacher the progress of the student throughout the course of study.
+
*KWL(H) Chart (What we '''know''', What we '''want''' to know, What we have '''learned''', '''How''' we know it). This technique can be used throughout the course of study for a particular topic, but is also a good assessment technique as it shows the teacher the progress of the student throughout the course of study.
*Mind Mapping. In this activity, students list and categorize the concepts and ideas relating to a topic.
+
*Mind Mapping. In this activity, students list and categorize the concepts and ideas relating to a topic.
*Hands-on activities. These encourage students to manipulate their environments or a particular learning tool. Teachers can use a checklist and observation to assess student success with the particular material.
+
*Hands-on activities. These encourage students to manipulate their environments or a particular learning tool. Teachers can use a checklist and observation to assess student success with the particular material.
*Pre-testing. This allows a teacher to determine what knowledge students bring to a new topic and thus will be helpful in directing the course of study.<ref name="templeedu"/>
+
*Pre-testing. This allows a teacher to determine what knowledge students bring to a new topic and thus will be helpful in directing the course of study.<ref name="templeedu"/>
   
 
==An example of a Lesson Taught with a Constructivist background==
 
==An example of a Lesson Taught with a Constructivist background==
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==Arguments against constructivist teaching techniques==
 
==Arguments against constructivist teaching techniques==
 
{{main|Constructivism (learning theory)}}
 
{{main|Constructivism (learning theory)}}
A wide variety of authors from many fields have voiced the following arguments against constructivist based teaching instruction:
+
A wide variety of authors from many fields have voiced the following arguments against constructivist based teaching instruction:
   
 
* A group of cognitive scientists has also questioned the central claims of constructivism, saying that they are either misleading or contradict known findings.<ref>[http://act-r.psy.cmu.edu/papers/misapplied.html Applications and Misapplications of Cognitive Psychology to Mathematics Education]</ref>
 
* A group of cognitive scientists has also questioned the central claims of constructivism, saying that they are either misleading or contradict known findings.<ref>[http://act-r.psy.cmu.edu/papers/misapplied.html Applications and Misapplications of Cognitive Psychology to Mathematics Education]</ref>
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* One possible deterrent for this teaching method is that, due to the emphasis on group work, the ideas of the more active students may dominate the group’s conclusions.<ref name="thirteenorg"/>
 
* One possible deterrent for this teaching method is that, due to the emphasis on group work, the ideas of the more active students may dominate the group’s conclusions.<ref name="thirteenorg"/>
   
* Zhu and Simon (1987) state that because the emphasis is not based on acquiring and practicing basic skills, students in constructivist classrooms tend to lag behind those in traditional classrooms in these areas.
+
* Zhu and Simon (1987) state that because the emphasis is not based on acquiring and practicing basic skills, students in constructivist classrooms tend to lag behind those in traditional classrooms in these areas.
   
While proponents of constructivism argue that constructivist students perform better than their peers when tested on higher-order reasoning, the critics of constructivism argue that this teaching technique forces students to "[[Reinventing the wheel|reinvent the wheel]]." Supporters counter that "Students do not reinvent the wheel but, rather, attempt to understand how it turns, how it functions."<ref name="thirteenorg"/> Proponents argue that students &mdash; especially [[elementary school]]-aged children &mdash; are naturally curious about the world, and giving them the tools to explore it in a guided manner will serve to give them a stronger understanding of it<ref name="thirteenorg"/>.
+
While proponents of constructivism argue that constructivist students perform better than their peers when tested on higher-order reasoning, the critics of constructivism argue that this teaching technique forces students to "[[Reinventing the wheel|reinvent the wheel]]." Supporters counter that "Students do not reinvent the wheel but, rather, attempt to understand how it turns, how it functions."<ref name="thirteenorg"/> Proponents argue that students &mdash; especially [[elementary school]]-aged children &mdash; are naturally curious about the world, and giving them the tools to explore it in a guided manner will serve to give them a stronger understanding of it<ref name="thirteenorg"/>.
   
Mayer (2004)<ref name="Mayer">[http://projects.ict.usc.edu/itw/vtt/MayerThreeStrikesAP04.pdf Should There Be a Three-Strikes Rule Against Pure Discovery Learning?], Mayer, 2004, ''American Psychologist, 59''(1), 14–19</ref> developed an literature review spanning fifty years and concluded "The research in this brief review shows that the formula constructivism = hands-on activity is a formula for educational disaster." His argument is that [[active learning]] is often suggested by those subscribing to this philosophy. In developing this instruction these educators produce materials that require learning to be behaviorally active and not be "cognitively active."<ref name="Mayer" /> That is, although they are engaged in activity, they may not be learning (Sweller, 1988). Mayer recommends using guided discovery, a mix of direct instruction and hands-on activity, rather than pure discovery: "In many ways, guided discovery appears to offer the best method for promoting constructivist learning."<ref name="Mayer" />
+
Mayer (2004)<ref name="Mayer">[http://projects.ict.usc.edu/itw/vtt/MayerThreeStrikesAP04.pdf Should There Be a Three-Strikes Rule Against Pure Discovery Learning?], Mayer, 2004, ''American Psychologist, 59''(1), 14–19</ref> developed an literature review spanning fifty years and concluded "The research in this brief review shows that the formula constructivism = hands-on activity is a formula for educational disaster." His argument is that [[active learning]] is often suggested by those subscribing to this philosophy. In developing this instruction these educators produce materials that require learning to be behaviorally active and not be "cognitively active."<ref name="Mayer" /> That is, although they are engaged in activity, they may not be learning (Sweller, 1988). Mayer recommends using guided discovery, a mix of direct instruction and hands-on activity, rather than pure discovery: "In many ways, guided discovery appears to offer the best method for promoting constructivist learning."<ref name="Mayer" />
   
 
Kirchner et al (2006) agree with the basic premise of constructivism, that learners construct knowledge, but are concerned with the instructional design recommendations of this theoretical framework. "The constructivist description of learning is accurate, but the instructional consequences suggested by constructivists do not necessarily follow." (Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark, 2006, p. 78). Specifically, they say instructors often design unguided instruction that that relies on the learner to "discover or construct essential information for themselves" (Kirchner et al, 2006, p75).
 
Kirchner et al (2006) agree with the basic premise of constructivism, that learners construct knowledge, but are concerned with the instructional design recommendations of this theoretical framework. "The constructivist description of learning is accurate, but the instructional consequences suggested by constructivists do not necessarily follow." (Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark, 2006, p. 78). Specifically, they say instructors often design unguided instruction that that relies on the learner to "discover or construct essential information for themselves" (Kirchner et al, 2006, p75).
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*[http://www.disciplineassociates.com Classroom Management Discipline with Dignity]
 
*[http://www.disciplineassociates.com Classroom Management Discipline with Dignity]
   
[[Category:Learning theory (education)]]
 
[[Category:Educational psychology]]
 
   
 
{{enWP|Constructivist teaching methods}}
 
{{enWP|Constructivist teaching methods}}
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[[Category:Learning theory (education)]]
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[[Category:Educational psychology]]

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Constructivist teaching techniques are based on the constructivist learning theory. This theoretical framework relies on an the earlier framework of cognitivism, which holds that learning should build upon knowledge that a student already knows; this prior knowledge is called a schema. Constructivists suggest learning is more effective when a student is actively engaged in the construction of knowledge rather than passively receiving it.[1]

HistoryEdit

Constructivist teaching methods are based on the constructivist learning theory developed by a variety of philosophers. Along with John Dewey, Piaget researched childhood development and education. Their theories are now encompassed in the broader movement of progressive education.

The constructivist learning theory says that children learn best when they construct a personal understanding based on experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences.[2]

Constructivist teaching strategiesEdit

Characteristics of Constructivist TeachingEdit

One of the primary goals of using constructivist teaching is that students learn how to learn by giving them the training to take initiative for their own learning experiences.

According to Audrey Gray, the characteristics of a constructivist classroom are as follows:

  • the learners are actively involved
  • the environment is democratic
  • the activities are interactive and student-centered
  • the teacher facilitates a process of learning in which students are encouraged to be responsible and autonomous

Examples of constructivist activitiesEdit

Furthermore, in the constructivist classroom, students work primarily in groups and learning and knowledge are interactive and dynamic. There is a great focus and emphasis on social and communication skills, as well as collaboration and exchange of ideas [2]. This is contrary to the traditional classroom in which students work primarily alone, learning is achieved through repetition, and the subjects are strictly adhered to and are guided by a textbook. Some activities encouraged in constructivist classrooms are:

  • Experimentation: students individually perform an experiment and then come together as a class to discuss the results.
  • Research projects: students research a topic and can present their findings to the class.
  • Field trips. This allows students to put the concepts and ideas discussed in class in a real-world context. Field trips would often be followed by class discussions.
  • Films. These provide visual context and thus bring another sense into the learning experience.
  • Class discussions. This technique is used in all of the methods described above. It is one of the most important distinctions of constructivist teaching methods.[3]

Role of teachersEdit

In the constructivist classroom, the teacher’s role is to prompt and facilitate discussion. Thus, the teacher’s main focus should be on guiding students by asking questions that will lead them to develop their own conclusions on the subject.

David Jonassen identified three major roles for facilitators to support students in constructivist learning environments:

  • Modeling
  • Coaching
  • Scaffolding[4]

Constructivist Learning Environments (CLEs)Edit

Jonassen has proposed a model for developing constructivist learning environments (CLEs) around a specific learning goal. This goal may take one of several forms, from least to most complex:

  • Question or issue
  • Case study
  • Long-term Project
  • Problem (multiple cases and projects integrated at the curriculum level)

Jonassen recommends making the learning goals engaging and relevant but not overly structured.

Learning is driven in CLEs by the problem to be solved; students learn content and theory in order to solve the problem. This is different from traditional objectivist teaching where the theory would be presented first and problems would be used afterwards to practice theory.

Depending on students' prior experiences, related cases and scaffolding may be necessary for support. Instructors also need to provide an authentic context for tasks, plus information resources, cognitive tools, and collaborative tools.[4]

Constructivist assessmentEdit

Traditionally, assessment in the classrooms is based on testing. In this style, it is important for the student to produce the correct answers. However, in constructivist teaching, the process of gaining knowledge is viewed as being just as important as the product. Thus, assessment is based not only on tests, but also on observation of the student, the student’s work, and the student’s points of view [2]. Some assessment strategies include:

  • Oral discussions. The teacher presents students with a “focus” question and allows an open discussion on the topic.
  • KWL(H) Chart (What we know, What we want to know, What we have learned, How we know it). This technique can be used throughout the course of study for a particular topic, but is also a good assessment technique as it shows the teacher the progress of the student throughout the course of study.
  • Mind Mapping. In this activity, students list and categorize the concepts and ideas relating to a topic.
  • Hands-on activities. These encourage students to manipulate their environments or a particular learning tool. Teachers can use a checklist and observation to assess student success with the particular material.
  • Pre-testing. This allows a teacher to determine what knowledge students bring to a new topic and thus will be helpful in directing the course of study.[3]

An example of a Lesson Taught with a Constructivist backgroundEdit

A good example of a lesson being taught in a constructivist way, with the teacher mediating learning rather than directly teaching the class is shown by the example of Faraday's candle. There are various forms of this lesson, but all are developed from the Christmas lectures Faraday gave on the the functioning of candles. In open constructivist lessons using these lectures as a basis, students are encouraged to discover for themselves how candles work. They do this first by making simple observations, from which they later build ideas and hypotheses which they then go on to test. The teachers acts to encourage this learning. If successful students can use this lesson to understand the components of combustion—an important chemical topic.

Arguments against constructivist teaching techniquesEdit

Main article: Constructivism (learning theory)

A wide variety of authors from many fields have voiced the following arguments against constructivist based teaching instruction:

  • A group of cognitive scientists has also questioned the central claims of constructivism, saying that they are either misleading or contradict known findings.[5]
  • One possible deterrent for this teaching method is that, due to the emphasis on group work, the ideas of the more active students may dominate the group’s conclusions.[2]
  • Zhu and Simon (1987) state that because the emphasis is not based on acquiring and practicing basic skills, students in constructivist classrooms tend to lag behind those in traditional classrooms in these areas.

While proponents of constructivism argue that constructivist students perform better than their peers when tested on higher-order reasoning, the critics of constructivism argue that this teaching technique forces students to "reinvent the wheel." Supporters counter that "Students do not reinvent the wheel but, rather, attempt to understand how it turns, how it functions."[2] Proponents argue that students — especially elementary school-aged children — are naturally curious about the world, and giving them the tools to explore it in a guided manner will serve to give them a stronger understanding of it[2].

Mayer (2004)[6] developed an literature review spanning fifty years and concluded "The research in this brief review shows that the formula constructivism = hands-on activity is a formula for educational disaster." His argument is that active learning is often suggested by those subscribing to this philosophy. In developing this instruction these educators produce materials that require learning to be behaviorally active and not be "cognitively active."[6] That is, although they are engaged in activity, they may not be learning (Sweller, 1988). Mayer recommends using guided discovery, a mix of direct instruction and hands-on activity, rather than pure discovery: "In many ways, guided discovery appears to offer the best method for promoting constructivist learning."[6]

Kirchner et al (2006) agree with the basic premise of constructivism, that learners construct knowledge, but are concerned with the instructional design recommendations of this theoretical framework. "The constructivist description of learning is accurate, but the instructional consequences suggested by constructivists do not necessarily follow." (Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark, 2006, p. 78). Specifically, they say instructors often design unguided instruction that that relies on the learner to "discover or construct essential information for themselves" (Kirchner et al, 2006, p75).

For this reason they state that it "is easy to agree with Mayer’s (2004)[6] recommendation that we “move educational reform efforts from the fuzzy and nonproductive world of ideology—which sometimes hides under the various banners of constructivism—to the sharp and productive world of theory- based research on how people learn” (p. 18). Finally Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006) cite Mayer[6] to conclude fifty years of empirical results do not support unguided instruction.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Constructivist Teaching and Learning
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning
  3. 3.0 3.1 Strategies for Constructivist Teaching
  4. 4.0 4.1 Jonassen, D. H. (1999). Constructing learning environments on the web: Engaging students in meaningful learning. EdTech 99: Educational Technology Conference and Exhibition 1999: Thinking Schools, Learning Nation.
  5. Applications and Misapplications of Cognitive Psychology to Mathematics Education
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Should There Be a Three-Strikes Rule Against Pure Discovery Learning?, Mayer, 2004, American Psychologist, 59(1), 14–19
  • Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., and Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: an analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist 41 (2): 75-86.
  • Mayer, R. (2004). Should there be a three-strikes rule against pure discovery learning? The case for guided methods of instruction. American Psychologist 59 (1): 14-19.
  • Zhu, X., & Simon, H.A. (1987). Learning mathematics from examples and by doing. Cognition and Instruction 4 (3): 137-166..
  • Walker, M et al. (2008). A bright spark: open teaching of science using Faraday's lectures on candles. Journal of Chemical Education 85 (1): 59-63..

External linksEdit


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