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'''Consciousness causes collapse''' is the claim that [[observation]] by a [[conscious]] observer is responsible for the [[wavefunction collapse]] in [[quantum mechanics]]. It is an attempt to solve the [[Wigner's friend]] [[paradox]] by asserting that collapse occurs at the first "conscious" observer. Supporters assert this is not a revival of [[substance dualism]], since (in a ramification of this view) consciousness and objects are [[quantum entanglement|entangled]] and cannot be considered as separate. Opponents assert that it is [[falsifiability|unfalsifiable]], and that is does not simplify our physical understanding of the universe, and is therefore scientifically uninteresting.
   
'''Consciousness causes collapse''' is the [[theory]] that [[observation]] by a [[conscious]] observer is responsible for the [[wavefunction collapse]] in [[quantum mechanics]]. It is an attempt to solve the [[Wigner's friend]] [[paradox]] by simply stating that collapse occurs at the first "conscious" observer. Supporters claim this is not a revival of [[substance dualism]], since (in a ramification of this view) consciousness and objects are [[quantum entanglement|entangled]] and cannot be considered as separate. The consciousness causes collapse theory can be considered as a speculative appendage to almost any [[interpretation of quantum mechanics]] and many physicists reject it as unverifiable and introducing unnecessary elements into [[physics]].
+
It has been claimed that the theory meshes well with ancient Eastern mysticism and philosophy, including that of [[Hinduism]], [[Taoism]], and [[Buddhism]] which includes a belief in the transitory, interconnected nature of all things and the illusion of separation of thought and existence. This is one of the major themes of the book ''[[The Dancing Wu Li Masters]]''. It also meshes well with the views of the [[New Thought]] movement.
   
It has been claimed that the theory meshes well with ancient Eastern mysticism and philosophy, including that of [[Buddhism]] which includes a belief in the transitory, interconnected nature of all things and the illusion of separation of thought and existence. This is one of the major themes of the book ''[[The Dancing Wu Li Masters]]''. It also meshes well with the views of the [[New Thought]] movement.
 
 
The view is also presented in the popular and controversial documentary ''[[What the Bleep Do We Know!?]]'', alongside some unrelated biological discussions, and is a major plot point in [[Greg Egan]]'s novel ''[[Quarantine (novel)|Quarantine]]'', as well as playing a significant role in [[Charlie Stross]]'s novel ''[[The Atrocity Archives]]''.
 
   
 
==Proponents==
 
==Proponents==
  +
''Esse est Percipi'' ("to be is to be perceived"): The idea of consciousness somehow being related to the creation of reality was first proposed by [[Bishop Berkeley]]. With the publication of ''Die Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik'', it was [[John von Neumann|Von Neumann]] however who became the first person to hint that Quantum theory may imply an active role for consciousness in the process of reality creation. Others, such as [[Walter Heitler]], [[Fritz London]], [[Edmond Bauer]], and [[Eugene Wigner]] further carried Von Neumann's argument to a claimed logical conclusion that consciousness-created reality is the inevitable outcome of Von Neumann's picture of quantum theory.
   
"Esse est Percipi": The idea of consciousness somehow being related to the creation of reality was first proposed by [[Bishop Berkeley]]. With the publication of ''Die Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik'', it was [[John von Neumann|Von Neumann]] however who became the first person to hint that Quantum theory may imply an active role for consciousness in the process of reality creation. His followers [[Fritz London]], [[Edmond Bauer]], and [[Eugene Wigner]] carried Von Neumann's argument to a claimed logical conclusion that consciousness-created reality is the inevitable outcome of Von Neumann's picture of quantum theory.
+
There are many variations and differences of opinion on how the collapse becomes involved with functions of the brain and our perception of reality. But among other names that have expressed the belief that a deep connection exists between mind and quantum physics are [[Henry Stapp]], [[Freeman Dyson]], [[John Carew Eccles]], [[Brian Josephson]],<ref>Joesphson B.D., Pallikari-Viras F. "Biological Utilisation of quantum non locality", ''Foundations of Physics'', 21, 197-207.</ref> [[David Bohm]],<ref>In the [[Bohm interpretation|Bohmeian interpretation]] the wave function does not collapse at all. However, to see David Bohm's ideas on how quantum theory suggests the existence of a deeper reality than the one presented by our senses [[Implicate and Explicate Order according to David Bohm|using holographic metaphors and entanglement]], see: [[David Bohm]]. 1980. ''Wholeness and the implicate order''. London. Routledge Classics.</ref> [[Bernard d'Espagnat]], and [[Roger Penrose]]. Wigner concluded from his own arguments about [[symmetry in physics]] that the action of matter upon mind must give rise to, as he put it, a "direct action of mind upon matter".<ref>[[Eugene Wigner|Wigner E.P.]] 1967. ''Symmetries and Reflections''. Cambridge MA. MIT Press. p.171-184</ref> Among the more recent followers one can find [[Evan Harris Walker]], [[Fred Alan Wolf]], [[William A. Tiller]], [[John Hagelin]], [[Stuart Hameroff]], [[Bernard Baars]], [[David Chalmers]], [[Amit Goswami]], [[Russell Targ]], [[Nick Herbert (physicist)|Nick Herbert]], [[Jeffrey M. Schwartz]], [[Menas Kafatos]], and the [[Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Lab]] in New Jersey. The British Philosopher-Theologian Keith Ward is also a major proponent of this idea.
   
Among other names that have expressed the belief that a deep connection exists between mind and quantum matter are [[Henry Stapp]], [[Freeman Dyson]], and [[Roger Penrose]]. Among the more recent followers one can find physicists [[Evan Harris Walker]], [[Fred Alan Wolf]], and
+
To say the least, numerous celebrities of science at least at some point or another have hinted to a belief in the existence of some form of connection between contemporary physics and ''metaphysical'' concepts related to consciousness, mind, our role as the observer of reality, or a deeper meaning of reality by itself:
[[Amit Goswami]]. However, none of these recent supporters hold any current positions at a reputable academic institution.
 
   
== Criteria for consciousness ==
+
:''"The distress which the reorientation of Quantum Mechanics caused continues to the present day. Basically, physicists have suffered a severe loss: their hold on reality."'' [[Bryce DeWitt]]
   
The process of "measurement" in [[quantum mechanics]] is regarded to as consciousness itself. However, it is not explained by this theory which animals, living creatures, or objects have consciousness, that is, the power to collapse the wavefunction. It is also not clear whether measuring devices might also be considered conscious, though generally measuring devices are considered simply a "chain of observations" that only ends at a conscious entity. Some even suggest that some beings have a "higher consciousness" and therefore more capability to collapse the wavefunction, whereas others believe all conscious entities have an equal capability. Others believe that "higher consciousness" is inherent in all, but some have tapped into it more fully.
+
:''"Some physicists would prefer to come back to the idea of an objective real world whose smallest parts exist objectively in the same sense as stones or trees exist independently of whether we observe them. This however is impossible."'' [[Werner Heisenberg]]
== Quantum immortality ==
 
   
Assuming that collapse of the wavefunction requires conscious observation suggests a curious type of immortality. Just prior to dying, a person necessarily loses consciousness; and an unconscious person cannot observe his death. Therefore, by the consciousness-collapse hypothesis, he does not register it. Moreover, by the [[Copenhagan interpretation]], without registration the event is not personally experienced. Thus, in the [[Schrodinger's cat]] experiment, although the outside observer may open the box to find a dead cat, the cat does not perceive himself as dead. Now lacking consciousness, presumably some subconscious aspect of his state lives on. Notice that this route to [[quantum immortality]] does not require the [[many-worlds]] interpretation. That is, it is immaterial 'where' the individual 'goes' after the event. The point is that in his frame of reference he remains alive, albeit in some presently unknown, subconscious state.
+
This sentiment was similarly echoed by French physicist [[Bernard d'Espagnat]]:
  +
:''"The doctrine that the world is made up of objects whose existence is independent of human consciousness turns out to be in conflict with [[Quantum Mechanics]] and with facts established by experiment."''<ref>[[Bernard d'Espagnat]], ''[[Scientific American]]'', Nov. 1979. ''The Quantum Theory and Reality'' 158-181</ref>
   
One can speculate a bit further. The conscious and the subconscious are two different levels of mental activity. Therefore, presumably the subconscious state of the 'dead' cat is incapable of communicating with the conscious states of other living organisms. Rather, if communication is possible at all it would seem more likely to be with their subconscious states.
+
==Criteria for consciousness==
  +
Here, the process of "measurement" in [[quantum mechanics]] is attributed (directly, indirectly, or even partially) to consciousness itself. However, it is not explained by this theory which animals, living creatures, or objects have ''consciousness'', and thus, the ability to cause the collapse of the wave function ("Can undergraduates collapse the wavefunction?"). It is also not clear whether measuring devices might also be considered conscious, though generally measuring devices are considered simply a "chain of observations" that only ends at a conscious entity. Some even suggest that some beings have a "higher consciousness" and therefore more capability to collapse the wavefunction, whereas others believe all conscious entities have an equal capability. Others believe that "higher consciousness" is inherent in all, but some have tapped into it more fully{{Fact|date=February 2007}}.
   
== See also ==
+
However, regarding the relevance of the theory to animals, some tests have been performed. A study performed by Chester Wildey at the [[University of Texas at Arlington]] sought to investigate the Hameroff/Penrose "quantum mind" hypothesis in non-human animals by testing [[earthworm]]s in 231 trials for [[presentiment]], using [[skin conductance]] as a measure. Correlations were reported.<ref>C. Wildey. ''"Impulse response of Biological Systems."'' Department of Electrical Engineering. UT-Arlington. Thesis 2001. Also mentioned in: ''Entangled Minds''. [[Dean Radin]]. 2006. ISBN-13 978-1-4165-1677-4 p.170.171</ref> Similarly in 2005, physicist Johann Summhammer of [[Vienna University of Technology]] proposed that because quantum entanglement is everywhere in nature, it is conceivable that evolution has taken advantage of it.<ref>Johann Summhammer, "Quantum Cooperation of Insects". [[Vienna University of Technology]]. Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, A–1020 Wien, Austria. Link: http://www.ati.ac.at/~summweb/ifm/pc_experiments/Qu_Ant&Butterf.pdf</ref>
   
  +
==Counterarguments==
  +
Most physicists regard this theory as a non-scientific concept, claiming that it is experimentally [[falsifiability|unfalsifiable]], and that it introduces unnecessary elements into physics, rather than simplifying.
  +
  +
==See also==
  +
  +
* [[Quantum mind]]
  +
* [[Spin-Mediated Consciousness Theory]]
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* [[Mind Science Foundation]]
  +
* [[Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness]]
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* [[Ganzfeld experiment]]s
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* [[Extra-sensory perception]]
 
* [[Interpretation of quantum mechanics]]
 
* [[Interpretation of quantum mechanics]]
 
* [[Quantum indeterminacy]]
 
* [[Quantum indeterminacy]]
 
* [[Quantum measurement]]
 
* [[Quantum measurement]]
* [[Quantum mechanics]]
 
* [[Quantum mind]]
 
* [[Spin-Mediated Consciousness Theory]]
 
* [[Mind Science Foundation]]
 
* [[Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness]]
 
* [[Amit Goswami]]
 
   
== Further links and references ==
+
==Notes and References==
  +
<references/>
   
*[http://www.edge.org/q2005/q05_4.html#hoffman Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research labs]
+
==Further links and references==
**[http://www.princeton.edu/~pear/FP_PEAR.pdf Sample relevant publication]
+
===Articles and links in support of Quantum Consciousness===
*[http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/qt-consciousness/ Quantum approaches to consciousness]
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*[http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1511/is_n6_v15/ai_15447461 Discover: "Quantum consciousness - physicist Roger Penrose's theory of consciousness based on non-computable quantum-mechanic brain processes"]
*[http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/0305-4470/37/26/B01 On Henry Stapp on QM and consciousness]
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*[http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v2/psyche-2-21-globus.html "Quantum Consciousness is Cybernetic"]
*[http://www.iam-spirit.com/articles/article/2925041/43156.htm "Is Consciousness Quantum?"] Article discussing consciousness causes collapse theory in a spiritual context
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*[http://www.quantumconsciousness.org/penrose-hameroff/quantumcomputation.html "Quantum computation in brain microtubules? The Penrose-Hameroff "Orch OR" model of consciousness"]
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*[http://www.marilia.unesp.br/atividades/extensao/revista/v3/artigo3.html "The Quantum Mind/Classical Brain Problem"]
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*[http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/archive/00001643/01/qscfpl.pdf "Quantum Collapse, Consciousness and Superluminal Communication."]
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*[http://www.qsmithwmu.com/why_cognitive_scientists_cannot_ignore_by_quentin_smith.htm "Why Cognitive Scientists Cannot Ignore Quantum Mechanics"]
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*[http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v2/psyche-2-05-stapp.html "Why Classical Mechanics Cannot Naturally Accommodate Consciousness but Quantum Mechanics Can"]
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*[http://www.marilia.unesp.br/atividades/extensao/revista/v3/artigo4.html "Why Quantum Correlates of Consciousness Are Fine, But Not Enough"]
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*[http://www-physics.lbl.gov/~stapp/stappfiles.html Papers on Quantum Consciousness by Henry Stapp]
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*[http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/qt-consciousness/ "Quantum approaches to consciousness"]
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*[http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/0305-4470/37/26/B01 IOP on Henry Stapp on QM and consciousness]
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*[http://brainethics.wordpress.com/2006/04/03/koch-on-against-quantum-consciousness-theory/ Challenge and rebuttal between Koch and Stapp on Consciousness and Quantum Mechanics]
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*[http://www.edge.org/q2005/q05_4.html#hoffman Donald Hoffman on Consciousness created reality]
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*[http://www.tcm.phy.cam.ac.uk/~bdj10/ Brian Josephson on QM and consciousness]
  +
*[http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/quant-ph/pdf/0108/0108039.pdf Mindful Sensationalism: A Quantum Frramework for Consciousness.]
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*[http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v2/psyche-2-03-klein.html Is Quantum Mechanics Relevant To Understanding Consciousness?]
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*[http://members.aol.com/Mszlazak/BOHM.html David Bohm: A new theory of the relationship of mind and matter]
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*[http://www.rialian.com/rnboyd/intention-symmetry.htm Robert Boyd on William Tiller: "Consciousness Alters Space"]
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*[http://www.zynet.co.uk/imprint/Tucson/4.htm "Time, the mind/body problem and the semiotic state vector collapse in quantum mechanics"] and other related papers presented at TSC-1998.
  +
*[http://www.fourmilab.ch/rpkp/teleo-quant.html "Comparison of a teleological model with a quantum collapse model of psi"]
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*[http://www.iafe.uba.ar/e2e/phys230/history/moon.pdf PHYSICS TODAY: "Is the moon there when nobody looks? Reality and the quantum theory"] (pdf)
   
  +
===Articles and links against Quantum Consciousness===
  +
*[http://www.colorado.edu/philosophy/vstenger/Quantum/QuantumConsciousness.pdf "The Myth of Quantum Consciousness"]
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*[http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v2/psyche-2-19-mulhauser.html "On the End of a Quantum Mechanical Romance"]
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*[http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v2/psyche-2-16-ludwig.html "Why the Difference Between Quantum and Classical Physics is Irrelevant to the Mind/Body Problem"]
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*[http://www.klab.caltech.edu/refweb/paper/528.pdf Christof Koch: "Quantum Mechanics in the Brain"]
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*[http://www.marilia.unesp.br/atividades/extensao/revista/v3/artigo1.html "What is an Essentially Quantum Mechanical Effect?"]
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*[http://www.csicop.org/si/9701/quantum-quackery.html "Quantum Quackery", Victor Stenger]
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*[http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?chanID=sa006&colID=13&articleID=0006F4CB-F090-11BE-AD0683414B7F0000 "Quantum Quackery", Michael Shermer]
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*[http://skepdic.com/pear.html The ''Skeptics Dictionary'' on PEAR]
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*[http://www.randi.org/jr/061005smug.html#6 Skeptic James Randi attacking PEAR]
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*[http://www.emergentmind.org/CorredoiraI3.htm "Quantum mechanics and free will: counter-arguments"]
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===Related organizations, centers of research, conferences, and further information===
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*[http://www.consciousness.arizona.edu/ Center for Consciousness Studies, University of Arizona]
  +
*[http://www.sbg.ac.at/brain2007/ International Conference: "Quantum Mind", University of Salzburg]
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*[http://www.princeton.edu/~pear/ Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research labs]
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*[http://consc.net/master.html David Chalmers' links to consciousness papers]
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[[Category:Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics]]
 
[[Category:Consciousness studies]]
 
[[Category:Consciousness studies]]
 
[[Category:Quantum measurement]]
 
[[Category:Quantum measurement]]
   
 
[[pt:Consciência causa colapso]]
 
[[pt:Consciência causa colapso]]
 
 
 
 
 
 
{{enWP|Consciousness causes collapse}}
 
{{enWP|Consciousness causes collapse}}

Revision as of 17:30, March 3, 2007

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Consciousness causes collapse is the claim that observation by a conscious observer is responsible for the wavefunction collapse in quantum mechanics. It is an attempt to solve the Wigner's friend paradox by asserting that collapse occurs at the first "conscious" observer. Supporters assert this is not a revival of substance dualism, since (in a ramification of this view) consciousness and objects are entangled and cannot be considered as separate. Opponents assert that it is unfalsifiable, and that is does not simplify our physical understanding of the universe, and is therefore scientifically uninteresting.

It has been claimed that the theory meshes well with ancient Eastern mysticism and philosophy, including that of Hinduism, Taoism, and Buddhism which includes a belief in the transitory, interconnected nature of all things and the illusion of separation of thought and existence. This is one of the major themes of the book The Dancing Wu Li Masters. It also meshes well with the views of the New Thought movement.


Proponents

Esse est Percipi ("to be is to be perceived"): The idea of consciousness somehow being related to the creation of reality was first proposed by Bishop Berkeley. With the publication of Die Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik, it was Von Neumann however who became the first person to hint that Quantum theory may imply an active role for consciousness in the process of reality creation. Others, such as Walter Heitler, Fritz London, Edmond Bauer, and Eugene Wigner further carried Von Neumann's argument to a claimed logical conclusion that consciousness-created reality is the inevitable outcome of Von Neumann's picture of quantum theory.

There are many variations and differences of opinion on how the collapse becomes involved with functions of the brain and our perception of reality. But among other names that have expressed the belief that a deep connection exists between mind and quantum physics are Henry Stapp, Freeman Dyson, John Carew Eccles, Brian Josephson,[1] David Bohm,[2] Bernard d'Espagnat, and Roger Penrose. Wigner concluded from his own arguments about symmetry in physics that the action of matter upon mind must give rise to, as he put it, a "direct action of mind upon matter".[3] Among the more recent followers one can find Evan Harris Walker, Fred Alan Wolf, William A. Tiller, John Hagelin, Stuart Hameroff, Bernard Baars, David Chalmers, Amit Goswami, Russell Targ, Nick Herbert, Jeffrey M. Schwartz, Menas Kafatos, and the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Lab in New Jersey. The British Philosopher-Theologian Keith Ward is also a major proponent of this idea.

To say the least, numerous celebrities of science at least at some point or another have hinted to a belief in the existence of some form of connection between contemporary physics and metaphysical concepts related to consciousness, mind, our role as the observer of reality, or a deeper meaning of reality by itself:

"The distress which the reorientation of Quantum Mechanics caused continues to the present day. Basically, physicists have suffered a severe loss: their hold on reality." Bryce DeWitt
"Some physicists would prefer to come back to the idea of an objective real world whose smallest parts exist objectively in the same sense as stones or trees exist independently of whether we observe them. This however is impossible." Werner Heisenberg

This sentiment was similarly echoed by French physicist Bernard d'Espagnat:

"The doctrine that the world is made up of objects whose existence is independent of human consciousness turns out to be in conflict with Quantum Mechanics and with facts established by experiment."[4]

Criteria for consciousness

Here, the process of "measurement" in quantum mechanics is attributed (directly, indirectly, or even partially) to consciousness itself. However, it is not explained by this theory which animals, living creatures, or objects have consciousness, and thus, the ability to cause the collapse of the wave function ("Can undergraduates collapse the wavefunction?"). It is also not clear whether measuring devices might also be considered conscious, though generally measuring devices are considered simply a "chain of observations" that only ends at a conscious entity. Some even suggest that some beings have a "higher consciousness" and therefore more capability to collapse the wavefunction, whereas others believe all conscious entities have an equal capability. Others believe that "higher consciousness" is inherent in all, but some have tapped into it more fully[How to reference and link to summary or text].

However, regarding the relevance of the theory to animals, some tests have been performed. A study performed by Chester Wildey at the University of Texas at Arlington sought to investigate the Hameroff/Penrose "quantum mind" hypothesis in non-human animals by testing earthworms in 231 trials for presentiment, using skin conductance as a measure. Correlations were reported.[5] Similarly in 2005, physicist Johann Summhammer of Vienna University of Technology proposed that because quantum entanglement is everywhere in nature, it is conceivable that evolution has taken advantage of it.[6]

Counterarguments

Most physicists regard this theory as a non-scientific concept, claiming that it is experimentally unfalsifiable, and that it introduces unnecessary elements into physics, rather than simplifying.

See also

Notes and References

  1. Joesphson B.D., Pallikari-Viras F. "Biological Utilisation of quantum non locality", Foundations of Physics, 21, 197-207.
  2. In the Bohmeian interpretation the wave function does not collapse at all. However, to see David Bohm's ideas on how quantum theory suggests the existence of a deeper reality than the one presented by our senses using holographic metaphors and entanglement, see: David Bohm. 1980. Wholeness and the implicate order. London. Routledge Classics.
  3. Wigner E.P. 1967. Symmetries and Reflections. Cambridge MA. MIT Press. p.171-184
  4. Bernard d'Espagnat, Scientific American, Nov. 1979. The Quantum Theory and Reality 158-181
  5. C. Wildey. "Impulse response of Biological Systems." Department of Electrical Engineering. UT-Arlington. Thesis 2001. Also mentioned in: Entangled Minds. Dean Radin. 2006. ISBN-13 978-1-4165-1677-4 p.170.171
  6. Johann Summhammer, "Quantum Cooperation of Insects". Vienna University of Technology. Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, A–1020 Wien, Austria. Link: http://www.ati.ac.at/~summweb/ifm/pc_experiments/Qu_Ant&Butterf.pdf

Further links and references

Articles and links in support of Quantum Consciousness

Articles and links against Quantum Consciousness

Related organizations, centers of research, conferences, and further information

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