Wikia

Psychology Wiki

Conscientiousness

Talk0
34,135pages on
this wiki

Redirected from Conscientious

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Personality: Self concept · Personality testing · Theories · Mind-body problem


In psychology, Conscientiousness is the trait of being painstaking and careful, or the quality of acting according to the dictates of one's conscience. It includes such elements as self-discipline, carefulness, thoroughness, organization, deliberation (the tendency to think carefully before acting), and need for achievement. It is an aspect of what was traditionally called character.

Conscientiousness is related to emotional intelligence and impulse control, but it should not be confused with the kind of impulsiveness found in neuroticism. People high on impulsiveness are unable to resist temptation or delay gratification. Individuals who are low on self-discipline (conscientiousness) are unable to motivate themselves to perform a task that they would like to accomplish. These are conceptually similar but empirically distinct (Costa & McCrae, 1992).

Conscientious individuals are generally hard working and reliable. When taken to an extreme, they may also be workaholics, perfectionists, and compulsive in their behavior. People who are low on conscientiousness are not necessarily lazy or immoral, but they tend to be more laid back, less goal oriented, and less driven by success.


Personality modelsEdit

Conscientiousness is one of five superordinate traits in the "Big Five model" of personality which also consists of Extraversion, Neuroticism, Openness to experience, and Agreeableness (but note that different researchers use different names). Example Big Five personality tests are Costa and McCrae's (1992) NEO PI-R and Goldberg's NEO-IPIP. According to these models, conscientiousness is considered to be a continuous dimension of personality, rather than a categorical "type" of person. Scores in conscientiousness fall on a bell curve.

The trait cluster of conscientiousness overlaps with other models of personality, such as Cloninger's TCI, in which it is called self-directedness. It also includes the specific traits of rule consciousness and perfectionism in Cattell's 16 PF model. Traits associated with conscientiousness are frequently assessed by self-report integrity tests given by various corporations to prospective employees.

PerformanceEdit

A considerable amount of research indicates that conscientiousness is one of the best predictors of performance in the workplace (Salgado, 1997). It is the only personality trait that correlates with performance across all categories of jobs. However, agreeableness and emotional stability may also be important, particularly in jobs that involve a significant amount of social interaction (Mount, Barrick, & Stewart, 1998). Additionally, conscientiousness is related to successful academic performance in students (e.g., Wagerman & Funder, 2007).

See alsoEdit


ReferencesEdit

  • Costa, P. T. & McCrae, R. R. (1992). NEO personality Inventory professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
  • Mount, M. K., Barrick, M. R., & Stewart, G. L. (1998). five-factor model of personality and Performance in jobs involving interpersonal interactions. Human Performance, 11, 145-165.

Further readingEdit

  • Salgado, J. F. (1997). The five factor model of personality and job performance in the European community. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 30-43.
  • Abraham, J. D., & Morrison, J. D., Jr. (2003). Relationship between the Performance Perspectives Inventory's Conscientiousness Scale and Job Performance of Corporate Security Guards: Applied H R M Research Vol 8(1-2) 2003, 45-48.
  • Adams, B. J. (2003). Personality characteristics of responsive parents: The relationship to symptomatology in children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Anderson, K. W., & McLean, P. D. (1997). Conscientiousness in depression: Tendencies, predictive utility, and longitudinal stability: Cognitive Therapy and Research Vol 21(2) Apr 1997, 223-238.
  • Anderson, L. J., & Jones, R. G. (2000). Affective, behavioral, and cognitive acceptance of feedback: Individual difference moderators. Westport, CT: Quorum Books/Greenwood Publishing Group.
  • Arthur, W., Jr., & Doverspike, D. (2001). Predicting motor vehicle crash involvement from a personality measure and a driving knowledge test: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community Vol 22(1) 2001, 35-42.
  • Arthur, W., Jr., & Graziano, W. G. (1996). The five-factor model, conscientiousness, and driving accident involvement: Journal of Personality Vol 64(3) Sep 1996, 593-618.
  • Austin, E. J., Deary, I. J., & Gibson, G. J. (1997). Relationships between ability and personality: Three hypotheses tested: Intelligence Vol 25(1) 1997, 49-70.
  • Austin, E. J., Farrelly, D., Black, C., & Moore, H. (2007). Emotional intelligence, Machiavellianism and emotional manipulation: Does EI have a dark side? : Personality and Individual Differences Vol 43(1) Jul 2007, 179-189.
  • Avis, J. M., Kudisch, J. D., & Fortunato, V. J. (2002). Examining the incremental validity and adverse impact of cognitive ability and conscientiousness on job performance: Journal of Business and Psychology Vol 17(1) Fal 2002, 87-105.
  • Bacha, R. R. (2004). Specifying personality and self-monitoring effects on overall, task, and contextual job performance. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Bajor, J. K. (2002). Selective optimization with compensation as a mediator of the relationship between conscientiousness and job performance. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Bajor, J. K., & Baltes, B. B. (2003). The relationship between selection optimization with compensation, conscientiousness, motivation, and performance: Journal of Vocational Behavior Vol 63(3) Dec 2003, 347-367.
  • Barbaranelli, C., Fida, R., Paciello, M., Di Giunta, L., & Caprara, G. V. (2008). Assessing personality in early adolescence through self-report and other-ratings a multitrait-multimethod analysis of the BFQ-C: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 44(4) Mar 2008, 876-886.
  • Barry, B., & Stewart, G. L. (1997). Composition, process, and performance in self-managed groups: The role of personality: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 82(1) Feb 1997, 62-78.
  • Bauer, T. N., Truxillo, D. M., Paronto, M. E., Weekley, J. A., & Campion, M. A. (2004). Applicant Reactions to Different Selection Technology: Face-to-Face, Interactive Voice Response, and Computer-Assisted Telephone Screening Interviews: International Journal of Selection and Assessment Vol 12(1-2) Mar-Jun 2004, 135-148.
  • Beauchamp, K., & McKelvie, S. J. (2006). Personality Traits and University Program: Psychological Reports Vol 99(1) Aug 2006, 277-291.
  • Bernardin, H. J., Cooke, D. K., & Villanova, P. (2000). Conscientiousness and agreeableness as predictors of rating leniency: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 85(2) Apr 2000, 232-236.
  • Berry, J. W., Worthington, E. L., Jr., Wade, N. G., van Oyen Witvliet, C., & Kiefer, R. P. (2005). Forgiveness, moral identity, and perceived justice in crime victims and their supporters: Humboldt Journal of Social Relations Vol 29(2) 2005, 136-162.
  • Bhattacharya, T., Singh, V., Kaur, R., & Neeti. (2006). Judgment of subjective well-being: Influences of personality and affect: Psychological Studies Vol 51(2-3) Apr-Jul 2006, 132-138.
  • Biderman, M. D., Nguyen, N. T., & Sebren, J. (2008). Time-on-task mediates the conscientiousness-performance relationship: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 44(4) Mar 2008, 887-897.
  • Biesanz, J. C., West, S. G., & Graziano, W. G. (1998). Moderators of self-other agreement: Reconsidering temporal stability in personality: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 75(2) Aug 1998, 467-477.
  • Billings, S. W. (2002). Clarifications of the relationship between conscientiousness and integrity. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Blalock, J. M. (2000). The development of a conscientiousness measure for African-American college students. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Bogg, T., & Roberts, B. W. (2004). Conscientiousness and Health-Related Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis of the Leading Behavioral Contributors to Mortality: Psychological Bulletin Vol 130(6) Nov 2004, 887-919.
  • Bogg, T. D. (2007). Conscientiousness and the transtheoretical model of change in exercise: Integrating trait and social cognitive frameworks in the prediction of behavior. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Bolton, T. L. (1908). Meaning As Adjustment: Psychological Review Vol 15(3) May 1908, 169-172.
  • Bott, J. P. (2005). The effects of a manipulation of recruitment information on applicant motivation: Investigating responses, reactions, and non-cognitive test validity. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Brandon, J. B. (2002). The development of women along the managerial track: The influence of conscientiousness and the work context. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Bratko, D., Chamorro-Premuzic, T., & Saks, Z. (2006). Personality and school performance: Incremental validity of self- and peer-ratings over intelligence: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 41(1) Jul 2006, 131-142.
  • Brice, T. S. (1994). Group members' conscientiousness: An investigation of the effect on individuals' performance in a group setting. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Brickman, A. L., Yount, S. E., Blaney, N. T., Rothberg, S. T., & et al. (1996). Personality traits and long-term health status: The influence of neuroticism and conscientiousness on renal deterioration in Type-1 diabetes: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 37(5) Sep-Oct 1996, 459-468.
  • Burke, L. A., & Witt, L. A. (2004). Personality and high-maintenance employee behavior: Journal of Business and Psychology Vol 18(3) Spr 2004, 349-363.
  • Burton, M., & Kagan, C. (2005). Liberation Social Psychology: Learning from Latin America: Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology Vol 15(1) Jan-Feb 2005, 63-78.
  • Byrne, Z. S., Stoner, J., Thompson, K. R., & Hochwarter, W. (2005). The interactive effects of conscientiousness, work effort, and psychological climate on job performance: Journal of Vocational Behavior Vol 66(2) Apr 2005, 326-338.
  • Caan, W. (2003). Personality and performance during a medical degree: Selecting for extreme personality types is perilous: BMJ: British Medical Journal Vol 326(7396) May 2003, 986.
  • Carless, S. A., & Bernath, L. (2007). Antecedents of Intent to Change Careers Among Psychologists: Journal of Career Development Vol 33(3) Mar 2007, 183-200.
  • Cellar, D. F., Yorke, C. M., Nelson, Z. C., & Carroll, K. A. (2004). Relationships between five factor personality variables, workplace accidents, and self-efficacy: Psychological Reports Vol 94(3,Pt2) Jun 2004, 1437-1441.
  • Chait, H. N., Carraher, S. M., & Buckley, M. R. (2000). Measuring service orientation with biodata: Journal of Managerial Issues Vol 12(1) Spr 2000, 109-120.
  • Chambliss, C. (2004). High School, College, and Professional School Faculty Members' Perceptions of Students Who Are Current Smokers, Former Smokers, and Nonsmokers: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 99(2) Oct 2004, 629-632.
  • Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2006). Creativity Versus Conscientiousness: Which is a Better Predictor of Student Performance? : Applied Cognitive Psychology Vol 20(4) May 2006, 521-531.
  • Chamorro-Premuzic, T., Furnham, A., Christopher, A. N., Garwood, J., & Martin, G. N. (2008). Birds of a feather: Students' preferences for lecturers' personalities as predicted by their own personality and learning approaches: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 44(4) Mar 2008, 965-976.
  • Chang, Y.-P. (2003). The role of personality in the relationship between fat-reducing dietary behavior and psychosocial factors. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Chen, G., Casper, W. J., & Cortina, J. M. (2001). The roles of self-efficacy and task complexity in the relationships among cognitive ability, conscientiousness, and work-related performance: A meta-analytic examination: Human Performance Vol 14(3) Aug 2001, 209-230.
  • Chernyshenko, O. S. (2003). Applications of ideal point approaches to scale construction and scoring in personality measurement: The development of a six-faceted measure of conscientiousness. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Claussen, N. L. (2004). Law enforcement corruption and psychological preemployment screening: A case study on Robert P. Hanssen examining antisocial characteristics and conscientiousness. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Cloninger, C. R. (2005). How does personality influence mortality in the elderly? : Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 67(6) Nov-Dec 2005, 839-840.
  • Colquitt, J. A., & Simmering, M. J. (1998). Conscientiousness, goal orientation, and motivation to learn during the learning process: A longitudinal study: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 83(4) Aug 1998, 654-665.
  • Conard, M. A. (2004). Conscientiousness is Key: Incentives for Attendance Make Little Difference: Teaching of Psychology Vol 31(4) Nov 2004, 269-272.
  • Conard, M. A. (2006). Aptitude is not enough: How personality and behavior predict academic performance: Journal of Research in Personality Vol 40(3) Jun 2006, 339-346.
  • Conner, M., & Abraham, C. (2001). Conscientiousness and the theory of planned behavior: Toward a more complete model of the antecedents of intentious behavior: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Vol 27(11) Nov 2001, 1547-1561.
  • Conner, M., Rodgers, W., & Murray, T. (2007). Conscientiousness and the intention-behavior relationship: Predicting exercise behavior: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology Vol 29(4) Aug 2007, 518-533.
  • Conte, J. M., & Gintoft, J. N. (2005). Polychronicity, Big Five Personality Dimensions, and Sales Performance: Human Performance Vol 18(4) 2005, 427-444.
  • Corn-Becker, F., Welch, L., & Fisichelli, V. (1949). Conditioning factors underlying hypnosis: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol 44(2) Apr 1949, 212-222.
  • Cortina, J. M. (1995). On the meaning and measurement of test appropriateness. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1998). Six approaches to the explication of facet-level traits: Examples from conscientiousness: European Journal of Personality Vol 12(2) Mar-Apr 1998, 117-134.
  • Crawford, T. N., Shaver, P. R., & Goldsmith, H. H. (2007). How affect regulation moderates the association between anxious attachment and neuroticism: Attachment & Human Development Vol 9(2) Jun 2007, 95-109.
  • de Bruin, G. P., & Rudnick, H. (2007). Examining the cheats: The role of conscientiousness and excitement seeking in academic dishonesty: South African Journal of Psychology Vol 37(1) Apr 2007, 153-164.
  • de Jong, R. D., Bouhuys, S. A., & Barnhoorn, J. C. (1999). Personality, self-efficacy and functioning in management teams: A contribution to validation: International Journal of Selection and Assessment Vol 7(1) March 1999, 46-49.
  • Deluga, R. J. (1998). Leader-member exchange quality and effectiveness ratings: The role of subordinate-supervisor conscientiousness similarity: Group & Organization Management Vol 23(2) Jun 1998, 189-216.
  • Deluga, R. J., & Mason, S. (2000). Relationship of resident assistant conscientiousness, extraversion, and positive affect with rated performance: Journal of Research in Personality Vol 34(2) Jun 2000, 225-235.
  • Demerouti, E. (2006). Job Characteristics, Flow, and Performance: The Moderating Role of Conscientiousness: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology Vol 11(3) Jul 2006, 266-280.
  • Denissen, J. J. A., Zarrett, N. R., & Eccles, J. S. (2007). I like to do it, I'm able, and I know I am: Longitudinal couplings between domain-specific achievement, self-concept, and interest: Child Development Vol 78(2) Mar-Apr 2007, 430-447.
  • Dierdorff, E. C. (2004). Dispositional influences and individual differences in work performance: Relationships of goal orientation, growth need strength, and conscientiousness. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Dogana, F., & Tappata, L. (2003). Typology of solitary and sociable relational styles: Rassegna di Psicologia Vol 20(2-3) 2003, 127-143.
  • Draves, P. R. (2004). An examination of potential moderating effects of personality on the relationship between job attitudes and organizational citizenship behaviors. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Dudley, N. M., Orvis, K. A., Lebiecki, J. E., & Cortina, J. M. (2006). A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Conscientiousness in the Prediction of Job Performance: Examining the Intercorrelations and the Incremental Validity of Narrow Traits: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 91(1) Jan 2006, 40-57.
  • Edwards, D. L. (1999). Psychological factors affecting adherence and metabolic control in diabetes mellitus. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Edwards, W. R. (2003). Openness to change: Correlates and organizational consequences. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • English, A., Griffith, R. L., & Steelman, L. A. (2004). Team Performance: The Effect of Team Conscientiousness and Task Type: Small Group Research Vol 35(6) Dec 2004, 643-665.
  • Evans, D. E. (2004). Individual differences in temperament and attention. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Fallon, J. D., Avis, J. M., Kudisch, J. D., Gornet, T. P., & Frost, A. (2000). Conscientiousness as a predictor of productive and counterproductive behaviors: Journal of Business and Psychology Vol 15(2) Win 2000, 339-349.
  • Fausz, A. T. (1995). Factors related to supervisory ratings of employees' customer service orientation. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Fisk, G. D., & Haase, S. J. (2006). Exclusion failure does not demonstrate unconscious perception II: Evidence from a forced-choice exclusion task: Vision Research Vol 46(25) Nov 2006, 4244-4251.
  • Fitch, J. L., & Ravlin, E. C. (2005). Willpower and Perceived Behavioral Control: Influences on the Intention-Behavior Relationship and Postbehavior Attributions: Social Behavior and Personality Vol 33(2) 2005, 105-124.
  • Fong, E. A., & Tosi, H. L., Jr. (2007). Effort, performance, and conscientiousness: An agency theory perspective: Journal of Management Vol 33(2) Apr 2007, 161-179.
  • Foust, M. H. S. (2002). An investigation of the antecedents of lateness behavior: The effects of attitudes, individual differences, and context. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Friedman, H. S., & Martin, L. R. (2007). A Lifespan Approach to Personality and Longevity: The Case of Conscientiousness. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Frink, D. D., & Ferris, G. R. (1999). The moderating effects of accountability on the Conscientiousness-performance relationship: Journal of Business and Psychology Vol 13(4) Sum 1999, 515-524.
  • Garner, B. M. (2003). Preliminary studies of a measure of conscientiousness. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Gaylord, T. W. (2003). Feedback acceptance within leadership development: Effects of self-other rating discrepancies, conscientiousness and neuroticism. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Gellatly, I. R. (1996). Conscientiousness and task performance: Test of cognitive process model: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 81(5) Oct 1996, 474-482.
  • Gellatly, I. R., & Irving, P. G. (2001). Personality, autonomy, and contextual performance of managers: Human Performance Vol 14(3) Aug 2001, 231-245.
  • Genovese, J. (2006). Age, Sex, Conscientiousness, and Thinking Style Predict Academic Avoidance: Individual Differences Research Vol 4(2) Jun 2006, 123-128.
  • George, J. M., & Zhou, J. (2001). When openness to experience and conscientiousness are related to creative behavior: An interactional approach: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 86(3) Jun 2001, 513-524.
  • Gerhardt, M. W., Rode, J. C., & Peterson, S. J. (2007). Exploring mechanisms in the personality-performance relationship: Mediating roles of self-management and situational constraints: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 43(6) Oct 2007, 1344-1355.
  • Goldstein, W. M., Barlas, S., & Beattie, J. (2001). Talk about tradeoffs: Judgements of relative importance and contingent decision behavior. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Gray, E. K., & Watson, D. (2002). General and specific traits of personality and their relation to sleep and academic performance: Journal of Personality Vol 70(2) Apr 2002, 177-206.
  • Green, A. P. (2004). Identifying the dimensions of integrity: A confirmatory and discriminant validity analysis. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Grialou, T. (2007). A task-specific measure of perfectionism: Adaptive and maladaptive components in high-achieving adolescents. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Griffin, B., Hesketh, B., & Grayson, D. (2004). Applicants faking good: evidence of item bias in the NEO PI-R: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 36(7) May 2004, 1545-1558.
  • Gunnarson, S. K. (1995). The effect of situational constraints on the job satisfaction - job performance relationship and the personality - job performance relationship. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Gute, G. G. (2003). The California adult q-sort as a method for idiographic personality assessment in semi-structured interviews. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Haas, C. D. (2005). Individual differences influencing context effects in responding to items assessing conscientiousness in a personality test. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Hagger-Johnson, G. E., & Whiteman, M. C. (2007). Conscientiousness facets and health behaviors: A latent variable modeling approach: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 43(5) Oct 2007, 1235-1245.
  • Halfhill, T., Nielsen, T. M., Sundstrom, E., & Weilbaechear, A. (2005). Group Personality Composition and Performance in Military Service Teams: Military Psychology Vol 17(1) Jan 2005, 41-54.
  • Halfhill, T. R. (2001). Personality composition, group norms, and group effectiveness in military work teams. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Hampson, S. E., Andrews, J. A., Barckley, M., Lichtenstein, E., & Lee, M. E. (2000). Conscientiousness, perceived risk, and risk-reduction behaviors: A preliminary study: Health Psychology Vol 19(5) Sep 2000, 496-500.
  • Han, K., Weed, N. C., & McNeal, T. P. (1996). Searching for conscientiousness on the MMPI-2: Journal of Personality Assessment Vol 67(2) Oct 1996, 354-363.
  • Hart, J. W., Stasson, M. F., Mahoney, J. M., & Story, P. (2007). The Big Five and achievement motivation: Exploring the relationship between personality and a two-factor model of motivation: Individual Differences Research Vol 5(4) Dec 2007, 267-274.
  • Hattrup, K., O'Connell, M. S., & Labrador, J. R. (2005). Incremental Validity of Locus of Control After Controlling for Cognitive Ability and Conscientiousness: Journal of Business and Psychology Vol 19(4) Jun 2005, 461-481.
  • Healy, M. D., & Ellis, B. J. (2007). Birth order, conscientiousness, and openness to experience Tests of the family-niche model of personality using a within-family methodology: Evolution and Human Behavior Vol 28(1) Jan 2007, 55-59.
  • Heaven, P. C. L., Ciarrochi, J., & Vialle, W. (2007). Conscientiousness and Eysenckian psychoticism as predictors of school grades: A one-year longitudinal study: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 42(3) Feb 2007, 535-546.
  • Heaven, P. C. L., Mulligan, K., Merrilees, R., Woods, T., & Fairooz, Y. (2001). Neuroticism and conscientiousness as predictors of emotional, external, and restrained eating behaviors: International Journal of Eating Disorders Vol 30(2) Sep 2001, 161-166.
  • Heffron, M. C., Ivins, B., & Weston, D. R. (2005). Finding an authentic voice: Use of self: Essential learning processes for relationship-based work: Infants & Young Children Vol 18(4) Oct-Dec 2005, 323-336.
  • Heidal-Schiltz, S. N. (1998). A repertory grid assessment of traitedness and its relation to the validity of the NEO PI-R Conscientiousness scale. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Heim, A. W., Povey, R. M., & Watts, K. P. (1965). An attempt to measure some aspects of temperament by means of the Word-in context and Self-Judging Vocabulary Tests: Journal of General Psychology 72(2) 1965, 285-294.
  • Hendler, S. L. (1999). An examination of the relationship between leader personality and organizational functioning for executive-level and middle-level leaders. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Hernandez, J. M., Sanchez-Balmisa, C., Madrid, B., & Santacreu, J. (2003). Objective test for the assessment of conscientiousness. Design of an objective test: Analisis y Modificacion de Conducta Vol 29(125) 2003, 457-479.
  • Hilliard, P. A. (2001). Comparison of the predictive validity of a written test, an integrity test, a conscientiousness questionnaire, a structured behavioral interview and a personality inventory in the assessment of job applicants' background investigations, and subsequent ta. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Hirschfeld, R. R. (1997). Evidence for the discriminant validity of conscientiousness and work orientation as principal components of global trait work motivation. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Hochwarter, W. A., Witt, L. A., & Kacmar, K. M. (2000). Perceptions of organizational politics as a moderator of the relationship between consciousness and job performance: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 85(3) Jun 2000, 472-478.
  • Hogan, J., & Ones, D. S. (1997). Conscientiousness and integrity at work. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
  • Hohlfeld, L. (2004). An integrated model for developmental change. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Horn, J., Nelson, C. E., & Brannick, M. T. (2004). Integrity, conscientiousness, and honesty: Psychological Reports Vol 95(1) Aug 2004, 27-38.
  • Huffstetler, B. C. (2007). Sense of identity and life satisfaction in college students. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Hyde, R. E., & Weathington, B. L. (2006). The congruence of personal life values and work attitudes: Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs Vol 132(2) May 2006, 151-190.
  • Igier, V., & Mullet, E. (2003). Application of the Five-Factor Model of personality to intergenerational perception: Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences Vol 58B(3) May 2003, P177-P186.
  • Ipp, H. (2006). "Turnings": The transformation of trauma into grief: Contemporary Psychoanalysis Vol 42(2) Apr 2006, 243-248.
  • Jarvis, M. O. (2007). The long-term role of newlywed conscientiousness and religiousness in marriage. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Jawahar, I. M., & Carr, D. (2007). Conscientiousness and contextual performance: The compensatory effects of perceived organizational support and leader-member exchange: Journal of Managerial Psychology Vol 22(4) 2007, 330-349.
  • Jensen-Campbell, L. A., & Malcolm, K. T. (2007). The Importance of Conscientiousness in Adolescent Interpersonal Relationships: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Vol 33(3) Mar 2007, 368-383.
  • Jensen-Campell, L. A., Rosseli, M., Workman, K. A., Santisi, M., Rios, J. D., & Bojan, D. (2002). Agreeableness, conscientousness and effortful control processes: Journal of Research in Personality Vol 36(5) Oct 2002, 476-489.
  • Kaiser, H. A. C. (2007). Religious identity development and personality. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Kaiser, J., Barry, R. J., & Beauvale, A. (2001). Evoked cardiac response correlates of cognitive processing and dimensions of personality: Eysenck's concept of psychoticism revisited: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 30(4) Mar 2001, 657-668.
  • Kashdan, T. B., Vetter, C. J., & Collins, R. L. (2005). Substance use in young adults: Associations with personality and gender: Addictive Behaviors Vol 30(2) Feb 2005, 259-269.
  • Kelly, W. E. (2000). Conscientiousness and the prediction of task duration: Evidence of the role of personality in time prediction. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Kelly, W. E., Johnson, J. L., & Miller, M. L. (2003). Conscientiousness and the Prediction of Task Duration: North American Journal of Psychology Vol 5(3) 2003, 443-450.
  • King, E. B., George, J. M., & Hebl, M. R. (2005). Linking Personality to Helping Behaviors at Work: An Interactional Perspective: Journal of Personality Vol 73(3) Jun 2005, 585-607.
  • Klein, H. J., & Lee, S. (2006). The effects of personality on learning: The mediating role of goal setting: Human Performance Vol 19(1) 2006, 43-66.
  • Kliegel, M., Zimprich, D., & Eschen, A. (2005). What do subjective cognitive complaints in persons with aging-associated cognitive decline reflect? : International Psychogeriatrics Vol 17(3) Sep 2005, 499-512.
  • Knoll, N., Rieckmann, N., Scholz, U., & Schwarzer, R. (2004). Predictors of Subjective Age Before and After Cataract Surgery: Conscientiousness Makes a Difference: Psychology and Aging Vol 19(4) Dec 2004, 676-688.
  • Knotts, L. S. (1998). Item response theory and person-fit analyses of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory conscientiousness domain. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Kohnstamm, G. A., Zhang, Y., Slotboom, A.-M., & Elphick, E. (1998). A developmental integration of conscientiousness from childhood to adulthood. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Kokubin, M. (1999). Are children with Down syndrome less careful in performing a tray-carrying task than children with other types of mental retardation? : Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 88(3, Pt 2) Jun 1999, 1173-1176.
  • Kosek, R. B. (2000). The desire for god: An assessment of seminarians' spirituality through the lens of the "big five": Pastoral Psychology Vol 49(1) Sep 2000, 43-50.
  • Kronmuller, K.-T., Backenstrass, M., Kocherscheidt, K., Hunt, A., Fiedler, P., & Mundt, C. (2005). Dimensions of the typus melancholicus personality type: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience Vol 255(5) Oct 2005, 341-349.
  • Kurtz, J. E., & Tiegreen, S. B. (2005). Matters of conscience and conscientiousness: The place of ego development in the five-factor model: Journal of Personality Assessment Vol 85(3) Dec 2005, 312-317.
  • LaHuis, D. M., Martin, N. R., & Avis, J. M. (2005). Investigating Nonlinear Conscientiousness-Job Performance Relations for Clerical Employees: Human Performance Vol 18(3) 2005, 199-212.
  • Lapierre, L. M., & Hackett, R. D. (2007). Trait conscientiousness, leader-member exchange, job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviour: A test of an integrative model: Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology Vol 80(3) Sep 2007, 539-554.
  • Lasane, T. P., Sweigard, P. N., Czopp, A. M., Howard, W. L., & Burns, M. J. (1999). The effects of student academic presentation on perceptions of gender and sociability: North American Journal of Psychology Vol 1(2) 1999, 173-188.
  • Lay, C., Kovacs, A., & Danto, D. (1998). The relation of trait procrastination to the big-five factor conscientiousness: An assessment with primary-junior school children based on self-report scales: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 25(2) Aug 1998, 187-193.
  • Lay, C. H. (1997). Explaining lower-order traits through higher-order factors: The case of trait procrastination, conscientiousness, and the specificity dilemma: European Journal of Personality Vol 11(4) Nov 1997, 267-278.
  • Lay, C. H., & Brokenshire, R. (1997). Conscientiousness, procrastination, and person-task characteristics in job searching by unemployed adults: Current Psychology: Developmental, Learning, Personality, Social Vol 16(1) Spr 1997, 83-96.
  • Le Pine, J. A., Colquitt, J. A., & Erez, A. (2000). Adaptability to changing task contexts: Effects of general cognitive ability, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience: Personnel Psychology Vol 53(3) Fal 2000, 563-593.
  • Lee, D.-g., Kelly, K. R., & Edwards, J. K. (2006). A closer look at the relationships among trait procrastination, neuroticism, and conscientiousness: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 40(1) Jan 2006, 27-37.
  • Lee, F. K. (2005). Conscientiousness, neuroticism, and self-management strategies: A process model of personality and achievement outcomes. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Lee, S., & Klein, H. J. (2002). Relationships between conscientiousness, self-efficacy, self-deception, and learning over time: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 87(6) Dec 2002, 1175-1182.
  • Lee, S. M., Puig, A., Pasquarella-Daley, L., Denny, G., Rai, A. A., Dallape, A., et al. (2007). Revising the White Racial Consciousness Development Scale: Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development Vol 39(4) Jan 2007, 194-208.
  • Leon, G. R. (2002). Conscientiousness and work performance while suffering from acute mountain sickness: A case report: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 73(4) Apr 2002, 388-391.
  • LePine, J. A., Hollenbeck, J. R., Ilgen, D. R., & Hedlund, J. (1997). Effects of individual differences on the performance of hierarchical decision-making teams: Much more than g: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 82(5) Oct 1997, 803-811.
  • Lester, D. (2001). Conscientiousness in childhood and later suicide: Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention Vol 22(4) 2001, 143.
  • Lima, L. (2004). Personality and motivational characteristics of the successful mentor. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Little, I. S. (2007). Revisiting the relationship between conscientiousness and job performance: Linearity or non-linearity? Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Loeb, T. B. (1996). Female parenting styles: Associations with psychological distress, interpersonal relations, conscientious-assertiveness, and general deviance. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Loevinger, J. (1993). Conformity and conscientiousness: One factor or two stages? Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Logsdon-Conradsen, D. J. (1999). Personality and suicidal behavior: An examination of the contributions of neuroticism, extraversion agreeableness, and conscientiousness to suicidal behavior. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Lounsbury, J. W., Gibson, L. W., Sundstrom, E., Wilburn, D., & Loveland, J. M. (2004). An Empirical Investigation of the Proposition that 'School Is Work': A comparison of personality-performance correlations in school and work settings: Journal of Education and Work Vol 17(1) Mar 2004, 119-131.
  • Luciano, M., Wainwright, M. A., Wright, M. J., & Martin, N. G. (2006). The heritability of conscientiousness facets and their relationship to IQ and academic achievement: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 40(6) Apr 2006, 1189-1199.
  • Madhavan, P. (2004). Assessment of the Psychometric Properties of the Facets of Conscientiousness: North American Journal of Psychology Vol 6(2) 2004, 309-326.
  • Mansfield-Blair, K. M. (2006). Mansfield-Blair Forgivingness Scale: Development and validation. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Markey, P. M., & Markey, C. N. (2006). A Spherical Conceptualization of Personality Traits: European Journal of Personality Vol 20(3) Apr 2006, 169-193.
  • Martin, J. H. (2003). Motivational processes and performance: The role of global and facet personality traits. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Martin, L. R., Friedman, H. S., & Schwartz, J. E. (2007). Personality and mortality risk across the life span: The importance of conscientiousness as a biopsychosocial attribute: Health Psychology Vol 26(4) Jul 2007, 428-436.
  • Martocchio, J. J., & Judge, T. A. (1997). Relationship between conscientiousness and learning in employee training: Mediating influences of self-deception and self-efficacy: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 82(5) Oct 1997, 764-773.
  • Meloun, J. M. (2005). Computer anxiety: A possible threat to the predictive validity of computerized tests. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Meng, H. (2005). Supervisors' Conscientiousness and Followers' Job Satisfaction: Test of the Mediating Effect of Perceived Transformational Leadership: Psychological Science (China) Vol 28(5) Sep 2005, 1237-1239.
  • Miller, J. D., Lynam, D., & Leukefeld, C. (2003). Examining antisocial behavior through the lens of the Five Factor Model of personality: Aggressive Behavior Vol 29(6) 2003, 497-514.
  • Miller, R. L., Griffin, M. A., & Hart, P. M. (1999). Personality and organizational health: The role of conscientiousness: Work & Stress Vol 13(1) Jan-Mar 1999, 7-19.
  • Molnar, C. (2004). A taxometric analysis of the latent structure of the repressor personality construct. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Monaughan, S. E. (2000). Capturing the entrepreneurial spirit: A study to identify the personality characteristics of entrepreneurs. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Moon, H. (2001). The two faces of conscientiousness: Duty and achievement striving in escalation of commitment dilemmas: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 86(3) Jun 2001, 533-540.
  • Moran, P. J., Christensen, A. J., & Lawton, W. J. (1997). Social support and conscientiousness in hemodialysis adherence: Annals of Behavioral Medicine Vol 19(4) Fal 1997, 333-338.
  • Mount, M. K., Barrick, M. R., & Strauss, J. P. (1999). The joint relationship of conscientiousness and ability with performance: Test of the interaction hypothesis: Journal of Management Vol 25(5) 1999, 707-721.
  • Moutafi, J., Furnham, A., & Crump, J. (2006). What facets of openness and conscientiousness predict fluid intelligence score? : Learning and Individual Differences Vol 16(1) 2006, 31-42.
  • Moutafi, J., Furnham, A., & Paltiel, L. (2004). Why is conscientiousness negatively correlated with intelligence? : Personality and Individual Differences Vol 37(5) Oct 2004, 1013-1022.
  • Moy, J. W. (2006). Are employers assessing the right traits in hiring? Evidence from Hong Kong companies: International Journal of Human Resource Management Vol 17(4) Apr 2006, 734-754.
  • Neuman, J. L. A. (2002). Individual, environmental, and cultural predictors of college adjustment for Asian, Latino, and White students. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Niedecken, D. (2002). The self-referentiality of consciousness. How does the subject of a scene constitute itself? : Psyche: Zeitschrift fur Psychoanalyse und ihre Anwendungen Vol 56(9-10) Sep-Oct 2002, 922-945.
  • Noftle, E. E., & Robins, R. W. (2007). Personality predictors of academic outcomes: Big five correlates of GPA and SAT scores: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 93(1) Jul 2007, 116-130.
  • Nowakowski, J. M. (2007). Effect of organizational control systems on organizationally directed deviance. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • O'Cleirigh, C., Ironson, G., Weiss, A., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (2007). Conscientiousness predicts disease progression (CD4 number and viral load) in people living with HIV: Health Psychology Vol 26(4) Jul 2007, 473-480.
  • O'Connor, D. B., & O'Connor, R. C. (2004). Perceived changes in food intake in response to stress: The role of conscientiousness: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress Vol 20(5) Dec 2004, 279-291.
  • O'Gorman, J. G., & Baxter, E. (2002). Self-control as a personality measure: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 32(3) Feb 2002, 533-539.
  • Ones, D. S., & Viswesvaran, C. (1999). Relative importance of personality dimensions for expatriate selection: A policy capturing study: Human Performance Vol 12(3-4) 1999, 275-294.
  • Ortiz, M. A. C., Tello, F. P. H., & del Barrio Gandara, M. V. (2005). Big five questionnaire dimensions in Spanish children (BFQ-C): Psicothema Vol 17(2) May 2005, 286-291.
  • Parish, C. M. (2003). Mapping the lexical conscientiousness factor domain: Validation of a comprehensive hierarchical model. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Parkinson, J., & Taggar, S. (2006). Intelligence, Personality and Performance on Case Studies: Journal of Business and Psychology Vol 20(3) Spr 2006, 395-408.
  • Pearman, A. M. (2004). Predictors of memory complaints in young and older adults. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Perlow, R., & Kopp, L. S. (2004). Conscientiousness and Ability as Predictors of Accounting Learning: Human Performance Vol 17(4) 2004, 359-373.
  • Potosky, D., Bobko, P., & Roth, P. L. (2005). Forming Composites of Cognitive Ability and Alternative Measures to Predict Job Performance and Reduce Adverse Impact: Corrected Estimates and Realistic Expectations: International Journal of Selection and Assessment Vol 13(4) Dec 2005, 304-315.
  • Powers, D. E., & Kaufman, J. C. (2004). Do standardized tests penalize deep-thinking, creative, or conscientious students? Some personality correlates of Graduate Record Examinations test scores: Intelligence Vol 32(2) 2004, 145-153.
  • Quick, B. G. (2003). The demand-control/support model of job strain, neuroticism, and conscientiousness as predictors of job outcomes in juvenile correctional officers. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Reed, M. B., Bruch, M. A., & Haase, R. F. (2004). Five-factor model of personality and career exploration: Journal of Career Assessment Vol 12(3) Aug 2004, 223-238.
  • Rego, A. (2001). Communication effectiveness of university teachers: Confirmatory evidence of the construct: Psicologia: Reflexao e Critica Vol 14(3) 2001, 563-569.
  • Reisert, E., & Conte, J. M. (2004). Relationships between conscientiousness sub-factors and constructive and destructive behavioral intentions: Journal of Business and Psychology Vol 19(1) Fal 2004, 69-84.
  • Resick, C. J., Baltes, B. B., & Shantz, C. W. (2007). Person-organization fit and work-related attitudes and decisions: Examining interactive effects with job fit and conscientiousness: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 92(5) Sep 2007, 1446-1455.
  • Rhodes, R. E., Courneya, K. S., & Bobick, T. M. (2001). Personality and exercise participation across the breast cancer experience: Psycho-Oncology Vol 10(5) Sep-Oct 2001, 380-388.
  • Roberts, B. W., & Bogg, T. (2004). A Longitudinal Study of the Relationships Between Conscientiousness and the Social- Environmental Factors and Substance-Use Behaviors That Influence Health: Journal of Personality Vol 72(2) Apr 2004, 325-353.
  • Roberts, B. W., Bogg, T., Walton, K. E., Chernyshenko, O. S., & Stark, S. E. (2004). A lexical investigation of the lower-order structure of conscientiousness: Journal of Research in Personality Vol 38(2) Apr 2004, 164-178.
  • Roberts, B. W., Chernyshenko, O. S., Stark, S., & Goldberg, L. R. (2005). The Structure of Conscientiousness: An Empirical Investigation Based on Seven Major Personality Questionnaires: Personnel Psychology Vol 58(1) Spr 2005, 103-139.
  • Roberts, B. W., Walton, K. E., & Bogg, T. (2005). Conscientiousness and Health Across the Life Course: Review of General Psychology Vol 9(2) Jun 2005, 156-168.
  • Roberts, C. K. (1996). The role of personality in perceived free-riding. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Robertson, I. T., Baron, H., Gibbons, P., MacIver, R., & Nyfield, G. (2000). Conscientiousness and managerial performance: Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology Vol 73(2) Jun 2000, 171-180.
  • Robie, C. (1998). The relation between conscientiousness and job performance: Further research into generalizability. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Robie, C., & Ryan, A. M. (1999). Effects of nonlinearity and heteroscedasticity on the validity of conscientiousness in predicting overall job performance: International Journal of Selection and Assessment Vol 7(3) Sep 1999, 157-169.
  • Robie, C., & Ryan, A. M. (1999). Performance monitoring as a moderator of the relations between two conscientiousness measures and task performance: Journal of Business and Psychology Vol 13(3) Spr 1999, 391-406.
  • Robie, C., Schmit, M. J., Ryan, A. M., & Zickar, M. J. (2000). Effects of item context specificity on the measurement equivalence of a personality inventory: Organizational Research Methods Vol 3(4) Oct 2000, 348-365.
  • Robie, C., Schmit, M. J., Ryan, A. M., & Zickar, M. J. (2001). "Effects of item context specificity on the measurement equivalence of a personality inventory.": Errata: Organizational Research Methods Vol 4(1) Jan 2001, 84.
  • Roch, S. G., Ayman, R., Newhouse, N., & Harris, M. (2005). Effect of Identifiability, Rating Audience, and Conscientiousness on Rating Level: International Journal of Selection and Assessment Vol 13(1) Mar 2005, 53-62.
  • Rogosch, F. A., & Cicchetti, D. (2004). Child Maltreatment and Emergent Personality Organization: Perspectives From the Five-Factor Model: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Vol 32(2) Apr 2004, 123-145.
  • Ross, S. R. (1999). Clarifying the construct of schizotypy: Variability as a marker of subtype. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Ross, S. R., Lutz, C. J., & Bailley, S. E. (2004). Psychopathy and the Five Factor Model in a Noninstitutionalized Sample: A Domain and Facet Level Analysis: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment Vol 26(4) Dec 2004, 213-223.
  • Rowatt, W. C., Powers, C., Targhetta, V., Comer, J., Kennedy, S., & Labouff, J. (2006). Development and initial validation of an implicit measure of humility relative to arrogance: The Journal of Positive Psychology Vol 1(4) Oct 2006, 198-211.
  • Sansone, C., Wiebe, D. J., & Morgan, C. (1999). Self-regulating interest: The moderating role of hardiness and conscientiousness: Journal of Personality Vol 67(4) Aug 1999, 701-733.
  • Schell, K. L., & Reilley, S. P. (2004). Quality control pharmacy tasks: Big five personality model and accuracy of error detection: Psychological Reports Vol 94(3,Pt2) Jun 2004, 1301-1311.
  • Scher, S. J., & Osterman, N. M. (2002). Procrastination, conscientiousness, anxiety and goals: Exploring the measurement and correlates of procrastination among school-aged children: Psychology in the Schools Vol 39(4) Jul 2002, 385-398.
  • Schoneberger, T. (2005). E. L. Moerk: Remembrances: Analysis of Verbal Behavior Vol 21 2005, 5.
  • Schultz, J. F. (2003). The relationship between conscientiousness, self-awareness, the consideration of future consequences and the self-regulation of behavior. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Schwanz, J. A. (1996). A model of role conflict, role ambiguity, and personality factors in relation to burnout in the Christian ministry. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Schwartz, M. D., Taylor, K. L., Willard, K. S., Siegel, J. E., Lamdan, R. M., & Moran, K. (1999). Distress, personality, and mammography utilization among women with a family history of breast cancer: Health Psychology Vol 18(4) Jul 1999, 327-332.
  • Seidman, G. (2007). How does idealizing one's intimate partner affect relationship satisfaction and emotional responses to conflict? the role of domain-specificity and non-linear effects. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Shewchuk, R. M., Elliott, T. R., MacNair-Semands, R. R., & Harkins, S. (1999). Trait influences on stress appraisal and coping: An evaluation of alternative frameworks: Journal of Applied Social Psychology Vol 29(4) Apr 1999, 685-704.
  • Shiner, R. L., Masten, A. S., & Roberts, J. M. (2003). Childhood personality foreshadows adult personality and life outcomes two decades later: Journal of Personality Vol 71(6) Dec 2003, 1145-1170.
  • Shiner, R. L., Masten, A. S., & Roberts, J. M. (2004). Childhood Personality Foreshadows Adult Personality and Life Outcomes Two Decades Later: Erratum: Journal of Personality Vol 72(1) Feb 2004, No Pagination Specified.
  • Shull, C. K. (1995). The effects of leader-member exchange relations on organizational citizenship behaviors. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Simmering, M. J., Colquitt, J. A., Noe, R. A., & Porter, C. O. L. H. (2003). Conscientiousness, autonomy fit, and development: A longitudinal study: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 88(5) Oct 2003, 954-963.
  • Sinha, S. P., & Gupta, S. (2006). Academic Conscientiousness and Text-Anxiety as Predictors of Self-Worth Protection: Psychological Studies Vol 51(1) Jan 2006, 83-87.
  • Slimak, M. (1997). Job autonomy as a moderator of conscientiousness and extraversion as related to performance: Exploring individual- and job-level effects. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Smith, M. A. (2004). Effects of subordinate-supervisor personality "fit" on subordinate attitudes and turnover. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Smithikrai, C. (2007). Personality Traits and Job Success: An investigation in a Thai sample: International Journal of Selection and Assessment Vol 15(1) Mar 2007, 134-138.
  • Spence-Jones, G. S. (1999). Predictors of treatment adherence outcome for hemodialysis patients. (coping style, personality variable). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Stevens, C. D., & Ash, R. A. (2001). The conscientiousness of students in subject pools: Implications for "laboratory" research: Journal of Research in Personality Vol 35(1) Mar 2001, 91-97.
  • Stewart, G. L. (1999). Trait bandwidth and stages of job performance: Assessing differential effects for conscientiousness and its subtraits: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 84(6) Dec 1999, 959-968.
  • Stober, J. (2001). The Social Desirability Scale-17 (SDS-17): Convergent validity, discriminant validity, and relationship with age: European Journal of Psychological Assessment Vol 17(3) 2001, 222-232.
  • Stolorow, R. D. (2006). Autobiographical and theoretical reflections on the "ontological unconscious": Contemporary Psychoanalysis Vol 42(2) Apr 2006, 233-241.
  • Stolorow, R. D. (2006). Response to Hazel Ipp: Contemporary Psychoanalysis Vol 42(2) Apr 2006, 249.
  • Stough, C., Donaldson, C., Scarlata, B., & Ciorciari, J. (2001). Psychophysiological correlates of the NEO PI-R openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness: Preliminary results: International Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 41(1) May 2001, 87-91.
  • Strumpfer, D. J. W., & Mlonzi, E. N. (2001). Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale and job attitudes: Three studies: South African Journal of Psychology Vol 31(2) Jun 2001, 30-37.
  • Sullivan, M. P., & Chapdelaine, A. (2001). Agreement in personality trait ratings: At first and over time: Social Behavior and Personality Vol 29(7) 2001, 635-647.
  • Todd, A. C. (2004). Good worry and bad worry: In pursuit of an empirical distinction. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Trautwein, U. (2007). The homework-achievement relation reconsidered: Differentiating homework time, homework frequency, and homework effort: Learning and Instruction Vol 17(3) Jun 2007, 372-388.
  • Trautwein, U., & Ludtke, O. (2007). Students' self-reported effort and time on homework in six school subjects: Between-students differences and within-student variation: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 99(2) May 2007, 432-444.
  • Trautwein, U., Ludtke, O., Kastens, C., & Koller, O. (2006). Effort on Homework in Grades 5-9: Development, Motivational Antecedents, and the Association With Effort on Classwork: Child Development Vol 77(4) Jul-Aug 2006, 1094-1111.
  • Tross, S. A., Harper, J. P., Osher, L. W., & Kneidinger, L. M. (2000). Not just the usual cast of characteristics: Using personality to predict college performance and retention: Journal of College Student Development Vol 41(3) May-Jun 2000, 323-334.
  • Tsai, W.-C. (1997). Free-riding behavior: A dispositional approach. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Tucker, J. S., Elliott, M. N., & Klein, D. J. (2006). Social Control of Health Behavior: Associations With Conscientiousness and Neuroticism: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Vol 32(9) Sep 2006, 1143-1152.
  • Van Eijck, K., & De Graaf, P. M. (2004). The Big Five at school: The impact of personality on educational attainment: Netherlands' Journal of Social Sciences Vol 40(1) 2004, 24-40.
  • Vollrath, M., & Torgersen, S. (2000). Personality types and coping: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 29(2) Aug 2000, 367-378.
  • Wagerman, S. A., & Funder, D. C. (2007). Acquaintance reports of personality and academic achievement: A case for conscientiousness: Journal of Research in Personality Vol 41(1) Feb 2007, 221-229.
  • Wallace, C., & Chen, G. (2006). A multilevel integration of personality, climate, self-regulation, and performance: Personnel Psychology Vol 59(3) Fal 2006, 529-557.
  • Wallace, J. C. (2005). A multilevel examination of occupational safety: Regulatory focus as an explanatory link between climate, conscientiousness, and performance. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Wallace, J. C., & Vodanovich, S. J. (2003). Workplace safety performance: Conscientiousness, cognitive failure, and their interaction: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology Vol 8(4) Oct 2003, 316-327.
  • Walsh, J. J., da Fonseca, R. S., & Banta, A. (2005). Watching and participating in exercise videos: A test of the theory of planned behaviour, conscientiousness, and the role of implementation intentions: Psychology & Health Vol 20(6) Dec 2005, 729-741.
  • Ward, B. (2003). The relationship between troubled worker gender, conscientiousness and emotional stability, and supervisor intervention behavior. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Waung, M., & Brice, T. S. (1998). The effects of conscientiousness and opportunity to caucus on group performance: Small Group Research Vol 29(5) Oct 1998, 624-634.
  • Webley, P., & Nyhus, E. K. (2006). Parents' influence on children's future orientation and saving: Journal of Economic Psychology Vol 27(1) Feb 2006, 140-164.
  • Weiss, A., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (2005). Domain and Facet Personality Predictors of All-Cause Mortality Among Medicare Patients Aged 65 to 100: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 67(5) Sep-Oct 2005, 715-723.
  • West, N. M. (2007). The relationship among personality traits, character strengths, and life satisfaction in college students. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Wiebe, R. P. (2004). Delinquent Behavior and the Five-Factor Model: Hiding in the Adaptive Landscape? : Individual Differences Research Vol 2(1) Apr 2004, 38-62.
  • Wilson, R. S., Schneider, J. A., Arnold, S. E., Bienias, J. L., & Bennett, D. A. (2007). Conscientiousness and the incidence of Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 64(10) Oct 2007, 1204-1212.
  • Witt, L. A., Andrews, M. C., & Carlson, D. S. (2004). When Conscientiousness Isn't Enough: Emotional Exhaustion and Performance Among Call Center Customer Service Representatives: Journal of Management Vol 30(1) 2004, 149-160.
  • Witt, L. A., Burke, L. A., Barrick, M. A., & Mount, M. K. (2002). The interactive effects of conscientiousness and agreeableness on job performance: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 87(1) Feb 2002, 164-169.
  • Witt, L. A., & Carlson, D. S. (2006). The Work-Family Interface and Job Performance: Moderating Effects of Conscientiousness and Perceived Organizational Support: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology Vol 11(4) Oct 2006, 343-357.
  • Witt, L. A., & Ferris, G. R. (2003). Social skill as moderator of the conscientiousness-performance relationship: Convergent results across four studies: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 88(5) Oct 2003, 809-821.
  • Xu, S., Wu, Z., Wu, Z., & Sun, C. (1996). A study of age differences of some personality characteristics in adults: Psychological Science (China) Vol 19(1) Jan 1996, 1-5.
  • Yang, Y., Li, L., & Mingxin, L. (2006). The Relationship between Adolescents' Conscientiousness, Internet Service Preference and Internet Addiction: Psychological Science (China) Vol 29(4) Jul 2006, 947-950.
  • Zavakos, A. L. (2007). Selecting leadership: An analysis of predictors in assessing leadership potential. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Zellars, K. L., Perrewe, P. L., Hochwarter, W. A., & Anderson, K. S. (2006). The Interactive Effects of Positive Affect and Conscientiousness on Strain: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology Vol 11(3) Jul 2006, 281-289.
  • Zyphur, M. J., Bradley, J. C., Landis, R. S., & Thoresen, C. J. (2008). The effects of cognitive ability and conscientiousness on performance over time: A censored latent growth model: Human Performance Vol 21(1) 2008, 1-27.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki