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As an abstract term, congruence means similarity between objects. Congruence, as opposed to equivalence or approximation, is a relation which implies a kind of equivalence, though not complete equivalence.
- In psychology and NLP, congruence could be defined as rapport within oneself, or internal and external consistency, perceived by others as sincerity or certainty.
- In cladistics, congruence is a test of homology, or shared, derived character states, in which the distributions of supposed homologies among taxa are compared for consistency.