Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Confabulation is a memory disturbance that is characterized by verbal statements or actions that inaccurately describe history, background, and present situations. Confabulation is considered “honest lying,” but is distinct from lying because there is typically no intent to deceive and the individuals are unaware that their information is false. Although patients can present blatantly false information (“fantastic confabulation”), confabulatory information can also be coherent, internally consistent, and relatively normal. Individuals who confabulate are generally very confident about their recollections, despite evidence contradicting its truthfulness. The most known causes of confabulation are traumatic and acquired (e.g., aneurysm, edema) brain damage, and psychiatric or psychological disorders (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar, Alzheimer`s).
Two distinct types of confabulation are often distinguished: spontaneous and provoked.
Spontaneous, or primary, confabulations do not occur in response to a cue and seem to be involuntary. Spontaneous confabulation is also relatively rare and may result from the interaction between frontal lobe pathology and organic amnesia, and is more common in cases of dementia.
Provoked, momentary, or secondary, confabulation represents a normal response to a faulty memory and is common in both amnesia and dementia. Provoked confabulations can become apparent during memory tests. Another distinction found in confabulations is that between verbal and behavioral. Verbal confabulations are spoken false memories and are more common, while behavioral confabulations occur when an individual acts on their false memories. Confabulated memories of all types most often occur in autobiographical memory, and are indicative of a complicated and intricate process that can be led astray at any point during encoding, storage, or recall of a memory. This type of confabulation is commonly seen in Korsakoff's syndrome.
Characteristic features Edit
- Typically verbal statements but can also be non-verbal gestures or actions.
- Can include autobiographical and non-personal information, such as historical facts, fairytales, or other aspects of semantic memory.
- The account can be fantastic or coherent.
- Both the premise and the details of the account can be false.
- The account is usually drawn from the patient’s memory of actual experiences, including past and current thoughts.
- The patient is unaware of the accounts’ distortions or inappropriateness, and is not concerned when errors are pointed out.
- There is no hidden motivation behind the account.
- The patient’s personality structure may play a role in their readiness to confabulate. 
Berlyne (1972) defined confabulation as “…a falsification of memory occurring in clear consciousness in association with an organically derived amnesia.” He distinguished between:
- “momentary” (or “provoked”) confabulations - fleeting, and invariably provoked by questions probing the subject’s memory – sometimes consisting of “real” memories displaced in their temporal context.
- “fantastic” (or “spontaneous”) confabulations - characterised by the spontaneous outpouring of irrelevant associations – sometimes bizarre ideas, which may be held with firm conviction.
Patients who have suffered brain damage or lesions, especially to the Prefrontal cortical regions, may have confabulation of memories as a symptom. Patients with Korsakoff's syndrome characteristically confabulate by guessing an answer or imagining an event and then mistaking their guess or imagination for an actual memory. In some cases, confabulation is a function of the brain's chemistry, a mapping of the activation of neurons to brain activity.  Confabulation can also occur as a result of damage to the Anterior communicating artery (ACoA), in the Circle of Willis.
Bartlett’s  studies of remembering are arguably the first concerted attempt to look at memory illusions phenomena. In one experiment, he asked a group of students to read in Indian folktale and then recall that at various time intervals. As well as errors of omission, interestingly he found numerous errors of commission whereby participants had adapted or added to the story to make it more rational or consistent.
In the 1970s a number of researchers and theories started to emphasise what has been called the constructivist view of memory, maintaining that reasoning influences memory, in contrast to the prevailing view at the time which was that memory is essential for proper reasoning . Theorists such as Bransford and Franks  noted the significance of personal beliefs and desires, or more technically scripts and schemas, in memory retrieval.
Constructivism has fallen out of fashion recently due to the contention that it is either false or un-testable . Memory is presumably not always reconstructive as the considerable evidence of its veridical quality is testament. Constructivism cannot simply be rephrased as the thesis that memory is not always reproductive. As Reyna and Lloyd point out, this amounts to the claim that memory is sometimes reproductive and sometimes reconstructive; which is unexplanatory and unfalsefiable as any result can be accommodated post hoc. Because of this a number of theories have now been advanced which instead focus on the mechanism by which an essentially accurate memory system can sometimes produce erroneous results. Notably, both source monitoring framework  and fuzzy-trace theory  purport to both indicate when false memories are likely to occur and give a more detailed explanatory account than either reproductive or constructivist views.
Source monitoring refers to the process by which we discriminate between internally and externally derived memory sources as well as differentiations within the external and external domains: differentiating between two external sources or between internal sources, for instance between what was said and what was thought. The theory postulates that these decisions are made based on the characteristics of memories compared to norms for memories for different sources, such as the proportions of perceptual, contextual, affective and semantic information featured in the encoding of the memory. Under the source monitoring framework false memory is seen as a failure to attribute information to the correct source. This happens when there is insufficient information available to discriminate between different sources (perhaps because of natural deterioration), or when the wrong criterion is used to discriminate. For example a doctor might mistakenly think a patient is on a specific medicine because they were discussing the medicine with a colleague shortly after seeing them.
Fuzzy trace theory is based on the assumption that memory is not stored in unitary form. Instead memories are encoded on a number of levels, from an exact ‘verbatim’ account, to ‘gist’ which represents the overall meaning of the event. False memory effects are usually (but not always) explained as a reliance on gist traces in a situation when verbatim traces are needed. Because of this people may mistakenly recall a memory that only goes along with a vague gist of what happened, rather than the exact course of events. Essentially there are three reasons why people might do this. There is thought to be a general bias towards the use of gist traces in cognition due to their resource efficiency  and people will tend to use gist traces when it is thought that they will be adequate to satisfy the demands of the situation. Second, verbatim traces are said to be inherently less stable than gist and decay quicker . Finally, during the course of forgetting memories fragment and gist and verbatim can become independent.
Theories of confabulation range in emphasis. Some theories propose that confabulations represent a way for memory-disabled individuals to maintain their self-identity. Other theories use neurocognitive links to explain the process of confabulation. Still other theories frame confabulation around the more familiar concept of delusion. Other researchers frame confabulation within the fuzzy-trace theory. Finally, some researchers call for theories that rely less on neurocognitive explanations and more on epistemic accounts.
The most popular theories of confabulation come from the field of neuropsychology or cognitive neuroscience. Research suggests that confabulation is associated with dysfunction of cognitive processes that control the retrieval from long-term memory. Frontal lobe damage often disrupts this process, preventing the retrieval of information and the evaluation of its output. Furthermore, researchers argue that confabulation is a disorder resulting from failed “reality monitoring/source monitoring” (i.e. deciding whether a memory is based on an actual event or whether it is imagined. Some neuropsychologists suggest that errors in retrieval of information from long-term memory that are made by normal subjects involve different components of control processes than errors made by confabulators. Detection of these errors are considered part of the Supervisory System, which is believed to be a function of the frontal cortex.
Some argue confabulations have a self-serving, emotional component in those with memory deficits that aids to maintain a coherent, self-concept. In other words, individuals who confabulate are motivated to do so, because they have gaps in their memory that they want to fill in and cover up.
Support for the temporality account suggests that confabulations occur when an individual is unable to place events properly in time. Thus, an individual might correctly state an action they performed, but say they did it yesterday, when they did it weeks ago. In the Memory, Consciousness, and Temporality Theory, confabulation occurs because of a deficit in temporal consciousness or awareness.
Along a similar notion are the theories of reality and source monitoring theories. In these theories, confabulation occurs when individuals incorrectly attribute memories as reality, or incorrectly attribute memories to a certain source. Thus, an individual might claim an imagined event happened in reality, or that their friend told them about an event, they actually heard about on television.
Strategic Retrieval Account TheoryEdit
Supporters of the strategic retrieval account suggest that confabulations occur when an individual cannot actively monitor a memory for truthfulness after its retrieval. An individual recalls a memory, but there is some deficit after recall that interferes with the person establishing its falseness.
Executive Control TheoryEdit
Still others propose that all types of false memories, including confabulation, fit into a general memory and executive function model. In 2007, a framework for confabulation was proposed that stated confabulation is the result of two things: problems with executive control and problems with evaluation. In the executive control deficit, the incorrect memory is retrieved from the brain. In the evaluative deficit, the memory will be accepted as a truth due to an inability to distinguish a belief from an actual memory.
Confabulation in the Context of Delusion TheoriesEdit
Recent models of confabulation have attempted to build upon the link between delusion and confabulation. More recently, a monitoring account for delusion, applied to confabulation, proposed both the inclusion of conscious and unconscious processing. The claim was that by encompassing the notion of both processes, spontaneous versus provoked confabulations could be better explained. In other words, there are two ways to confabulate. One is the unconscious, spontaneous way in which a memory goes through no logical, explanatory processing. The other is the conscious, provoked way in which a memory is recalled intentionally by the individual to explain something confusing or unusual.
Fuzzy-trace theory, or FTT, is a concept more commonly applied to the explanation of judgment decisions. According to this theory, memories are encoded generally (gist), as well as specifically (verbatim). Thus, a confabulation could result from recalling the incorrect verbatim memory or from being able to recall the gist portion, but not the verbatim portion, of a memory.
FTT uses a set of five principles to explain false-memory phenomena. Principle 1 suggests that subjects store verbatim information and gist information parallel to one another. Both forms of storage involve the surface content of an experience. Principle 2 shares factors of retrieval of gist and verbatim traces. Principle 3 is based on dual-opponent processes in false memory. Generally, gist retrieval supports false memory, while verbatim retrieval suppresses it. Developmental variability is the topic of Principle 4. As a child develops into an adult, there is obvious improvement in the acquisition, retention, and retrieval of both verbatim and gist memory. However, during late adulthood, there will be a decline in these abilities. Finally, Principle 5 explains that verbatim and gist processing cause vivid remembering. Fuzzy-trace Theory, governed by these 5 principles, has proved useful in explaining false memory and generating new predictions about it.
However, not all accounts are so embedded in the neurocognitive aspects of confabulation. Some attribute confabulation to epistemic accounts. In 2009, theories underlying the causation and mechanisms for confabulation were criticized for their focus on neural processes, which are somewhat unclear, as well as their emphasis on the negativity of false remembering. Researchers proposed that an epistemic account of confabulation would be more encompassing of both the advantages and disadvantages of the process.
Neurological and Psychological Conditions Associated with ConfabulationEdit
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a neurological disorder typically characterized by years of chronic alcohol abuse and a nutritional thiamine deficiency. Confabulation is one salient symptom of this syndrome. A study on confabulation in Korsakoff’s patients found that they are subject to provoked confabulation when prompted with questions pertaining to episodic memory, not semantic memory, and when prompted with questions where the appropriate response would be “I don’t know.” This suggests that confabulation in these patients is “domain-specific.” Korsakoff’s patients who confabulate are more likely than healthy adults to falsely recognize distractor words, suggesting that false recognition is a “confabulatory behavior.”
Alzheimer’s Disease is a condition with both neurological and psychological components. It is a form of dementia associated with severe frontal lobe dysfunction. Confabulation in individuals with Alzheimer’s is often more spontaneous than it is in other conditions, especially in the advanced stages of the disease. Alzheimer’s patients demonstrate comparable abilities to encode information as healthy elderly adults, suggesting that impairments in encoding are not associated with confabulation. However, as seen in Korsakoff's patients, confabulation in Alzheimer’s patients is higher when prompted with questions investigating episodic memory. Researchers suggest this is due to damage in the posterior cortical regions of the brain, which is a symptom characteristic of Alzheimer’s Disease.
Schizophrenia is a psychological disorder in which confabulation is sometimes observed. Although confabulation is usually coherent in its presentation, confabulations of schizophrenic patients are often delusional Researchers have noted that these patients tend to make up delusions on the spot which are often fantastic and become increasingly elaborate with questioning. Unlike patients with Korsakoff's and Alzheimer's, patients with schizophrenia are more likely to confabulate when prompted with questions regarding their semantic memories, as opposed to episodic memory prompting. In addition, confabulation does not appear to be related to any memory deficit in schizophrenic patients. This is contrary to most forms of confabulation. Also, confabulations made by schizophrenic patients often do not involve the creation of new information, but instead involve an attempt by the patient to reconstruct actual details of a past event.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can also result in confabulation. Research has shown that patients with damage to the inferior medial frontal lobe confabulate significantly more than patients with damage to the posterior area and healthy controls. This suggests that this region is key in producing confabulatory responses, and that memory deficit is important but not necessary in confabulation. Additionally, research suggests that confabulation can be seen in patients with frontal lobe syndrome, which involves an insult to the frontal lobe as a result of disease or traumatic brain injury (TBI). Finally, rupture of the anterior or posterior communicating artery, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and encephalitis are also possible causes of confabulation.
Location of Brain Lesions Linked to ConfabulationEdit
Confabulation is believed to be a result of damage to the right frontal lobe of the brain. In particular, damage can be localized to the ventromedial frontal lobes and other structures fed by the anterior communicating artery (ACoA), including the basal forebrain, septum, fornix, cingulate gyrus, cingulum, anterior hypothalamus, and head of the caudate nucleus.
Developmental Differences in ConfabulationEdit
While some recent literature has suggested that older adults may be more susceptible than their younger counterparts to have false memories, the majority of research on forced confabulation centers around children. Children are particularly susceptible to forced confabulations based on their high suggestibility. When forced to recall confabulated events, children are less likely to remember that they had previously confabulated these situations, and they are more likely than their adult counterparts to come to remember these confabulations as real events that transpired. Research suggests that this inability to distinguish between past confabulatory and real events is centered on developmental differences in source monitoring. Due to underdeveloped encoding and critical reasoning skills, children's ability to distinguish real memories from false memories may be impaired. It may also be that younger children lack the meta-memory processes required to remember confabulated versus non-confabulated events. Children's meta-memory processes may also be influenced by expectancies or biases, in that they believe that highly plausible false scenarios are not confabulated. However, when knowingly being tested for accuracy, children are more likely to respond, “I don’t know” at a rate comparable to adults for unanswerable questions than they are to confabulate. Ultimately, misinformation effects can be minimized by tailoring individual interviews to the specific developmental stage, often based on age, of the participant.
Provoked versus Spontaneous ConfabulationsEdit
There is evidence to support different cognitive mechanisms for provoked and spontaneous confabulation. One study suggested that spontaneous confabulation may be a result of an amnesic patient’s inability to distinguish the chronological order of events in his memory. In contrast, provoked confabulation may be a compensatory mechanism, in which the patient tries to make up for his memory deficiency by attempting to demonstrate competency in recollection.
Confidence in False MemoriesEdit
Confabulation of events or situations may lead to an eventual acceptance of the confabulated information as true. For instance, people who knowingly lie about a situation may eventually come to believe that their lies are truthful with time. In an interview setting, people are more likely to confabulate in situations in which they are presented false information by another person, as opposed to when they self-generate these falsehoods. Further, people are more likely to accept false information as true when they are interviewed at a later time (after the event in question) than those who are interviewed immediately or soon after the event. Affirmative feedback for confabulated responses is also shown to increase the confabulator’s confidence in their response. For instance, in culprit identification, if a witness falsely identifies a member of a line-up, he will be more confident in his identification if the interviewer provides affirmative feedback. This effect of confirmatory feedback appears to last over time, as witnesses will even remember the confabulated information months later.
Confabulation Among Normal SubjectsEdit
On rare occasions, confabulation can also be seen in normal subjects. It is currently unclear how completely healthy individuals produce confabulations. It is possible that these individuals are in the process of developing some type of organic condition that is causing their confabulation symptoms. It is not uncommon, however, for the general population to display some very mild symptoms of provoked confabulations. Subtle distortions and intrusions in memory are commonly produced by normal subjects when they remember something poorly.
Diagnosis and treatmentEdit
Spontaneous confabulations, due to their involuntary nature, cannot be manipulated in a laboratory setting. However, provoked confabulations can be researched in various theoretical contexts. The mechanisms found to underlie provoked confabulations can be applied to spontaneous confabulation mechanisms. The basic premise of researching confabulation comprises finding errors and distortions in memory tests of an individual.
Confabulations can be detected in the context of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm by using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists. Participants listen to audio recordings of several lists of words centered around a theme, known as the critical word. The participants are later asked to recall the words on their list. If the participant recalls the critical word, which was never explicitly stated in the list, it is considered a confabulation. Participants often have a false memory for the critical word.
Confabulations can also be researched by using continuous recognition tasks. These tasks are often used in conjunction with confidence ratings. Generally, in a recognition task, participants are rapidly presented with pictures. Some of these pictures are shown once; others are shown multiple times. Participants press a key if they have seen the picture previously. Following a period of time, participants repeat the task. More errors on the second task, versus the first, are indicative of confusion, representing false memories.
Free Recall TasksEdit
Confabulations can also be detected using a free recall task, such as a self-narrative task. Participants are asked to recall stories (semantic or autobiographical) that are highly familiar to them. The stories recalled are encoded for errors that could be classified as distortions in memory. Distortions could include falsifying true story elements or including details from a completely different story. Errors such as these would be indicative of confabulations.
Treatment for confabulation is somewhat dependent on the cause or source, if identifiable. For example, treatment of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome involves large doses of vitamin B in order to reverse the thiamine deficiency. If there is no known physiological cause, more general cognitive techniques may be used to treat confabulation. In a recent case study, Self-Monitoring Training (SMT) was shown to reduce delusional confabulations. Furthermore, improvements were maintained at a three-month follow-up and were found to generalize to everyday settings. Although this treatment seems promising, more rigorous research is necessary to determine its efficacy in the general confabulation population.
Although significant gains have been made in the understanding of confabulation within recent years, there is still much to be learned. One group of researchers in particular has laid out several important questions for future study. They suggest that more information is necessary regarding the neural systems that support the different cognitive processes needed for normal source monitoring. They also proposed the idea of developing a standard neuropsychological test battery that is able to discriminate between the different types of confabulations. Furthermore, there is a considerable amount of debate regarding the best way to organize and combine neuroimaging, pharmacological, and cognitive/behavioral approaches to understand confabulation.
In a recent review article, another group of researchers contemplate issues concerning the distinctions between delusions and confabulation. They question whether delusions and confabulation should be considered distinct or overlapping disorders and, if overlapping, to what degree? They also discuss the role of unconscious processes in confabulation. Some researchers suggest that unconscious emotional and motivational processes are potentially just as important as cognitive and memory problems. Finally, they raise the question of where to draw the line between the pathological and the nonpathological. Delusion-like beliefs and confabulation-like fabrications are commonly seen in healthy individuals. What are the important differences between patients with similar etiology who do and do not confabulate? Since the line between pathological and nonpathological is likely blurry, should we take a more dimensional approach to confabulation? Research suggests that confabulation occurs along a continuum of implausibility, bizarreness, content, conviction, preoccupation, and distress, and impact on daily life.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Dalla Barba, G. (1993). Confabulation: knowledge and recollective experience. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 10(1), 1-20.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Moscovitch M. 1995. Confabulation. In (Eds. Schacter D.L., Coyle J.T., Fischbach G.D., Mesulum M.M. & Sullivan L.G.), Memory Distortion (pp. 226-251). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Nalbantian, edited by Suzanne; Matthews,, Paul M., McClelland, James L. (2010). The memory process : neuroscientific and humanistic perspectives, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Metcalf, Kasey, Langdon, Robyn, Coltheart, Max (1 February 2007). Models of confabulation: A critical review and a new framework. Cognitive Neuropsychology 24 (1): 23–47.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 Gilboa, A. (13 April 2006). Mechanisms of spontaneous confabulations: a strategic retrieval account. Brain 129 (6): 1399–1414.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Kopelman, M.D. Two types of confabulation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1987a; 50: 1482–7.
- ↑ D. Kopelman, Michael, Allan D. Thomson,, Irene Guerrini, E. Jane Marshall. The Korsakoff Syndrome: Clinical Aspects, Psychology and Treatment. oxford journals 44 (2): 148–154.
- ↑ Confabulation theory - Scholarpedia
- ↑ Bartlett, F., Remembering: a study in experimental and social psychology, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University, 1932
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Reyna, V. F. & Brainerd, C. J., Fuzzy trace theory: an interim synthesis. Learning and individual differences, 7, 1-75, 1995
- ↑ Bransford, J. D. & Franks, J., The abstraction of linguistic ideas. Cognitive Psychology, 2, 331-350., 1971
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Reyna, V. F. & Lloyd, F., Theories of false memory in children and adults. Learning individual differences, 9 (2), 95-123, 1997
- ↑ Johnson, Hashtroudi & Lindsay, Source monitoring. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 3-28, 1993
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 Glowinski, Remy, Payman, Vahid, Frencham, Kate (1 January 2008). Confabulation: a spontaneous and fantastic review. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 42 (11): 932–940.
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 Kopelman, Michael D. (1 January 2010). Varieties of confabulation and delusion. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 15 (1-3): 14–37.
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 Brainerd, C.J., Reyna, V.F. (1 November 1998). Fuzzy-Trace Theory and Children's False Memories. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 71 (2): 81–129.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 Bortolotti, Lisa, Cox, Rochelle E. (1 December 2009). ‘Faultless’ ignorance: Strengths and limitations of epistemic definitions of confabulation. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (4): 952–965.
- ↑ Baddeley, A.D & Wilson, B. (1986) Amnesia, autobiographical memory and confabulation., (Editor): Rubin, D.C In: Autobiographical Memory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 225 - 252.
- ↑ Moscovitch M., Melo B. (1997). Strategic retrieval and the frontal lobes: evidence from confabulation and amnesia. Neuropsychologia 35: 1017–1034.
- ↑ Johnson, M.K. (1991). Reality monitoring: Evidence from confabulation in organic brain disease patients. In G.P. Prigatano & D.L. Schacter (Eds.), Awareness of deficit after brain injury (pp. 176-197). New York: Oxford.
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 Burgess, P. W. and Shallice, T. (1996) Confabulation and the control of recollection. Memory 4, 359-411.
- ↑ Norman, D.A., & Shallice, T. (1980). Attention to action. Willed and automatic control of behavior. University of California San Diego CHIP Report 99.
- ↑ Dalla Barba, Gianfranco, Boissé, Marie-Françoise (1 January 2010). Temporal consciousness and confabulation: Is the medial temporal lobe "temporal"?. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 15 (1-3): 95–117.
- ↑ Kopelman, Michael D. (1 May 1999). VARIETIES OF FALSE MEMORY. Cognitive Neuropsychology 16 (3-5): 197–214.
- ↑ Turner, Martha, Coltheart, Max (1 January 2010). Confabulation and delusion: A common monitoring framework. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 15 (1-3): 346–376.
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; no text was provided for refs named
- ↑ Homewood, J., & Bond, N. W. (1999). Thiamin deficiency and Korsakoff’s syndrome: Failure to find memory impairments following nonalcoholic Wernicke’s encephalopathy. Alcohol, 19, 75–84.
- ↑ Dalla Barba, G., Cipolotti, L., & Denes, G. (1990). Autobiographical memory loss and confabulation in Korsakoff’s syndrome: A case report. Cortex, 26, 525–534.
- ↑ Kessels RP, Kortrijk HE, Wester AJ, Nys GM. Confabulation behavior and false memories in Korsakoff's syndrome: role of source memory and executive functioning. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2008 Apr;62(2):220-5.
- ↑ Damme, Ilse, d'Ydewalle, Géry (2010). Confabulation versus experimentally induced false memories in Korsakoff patients. Journal of Neuropsychology 4 (2): 211–230.
- ↑ Cooper, Janine M., Shanks, Michael F., Venneri, Annalena (11 May 2006). Provoked confabulations in Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychologia 44 (10): 1697–1707.
- ↑ Wing, J. K., Cooper, J. E., Sartorius, N. 1974. The description and classification of psychiatric symptoms: An instruction manual for the PSE and catego system. London: Cambridge University Press.
- ↑ Lorente-Rovira , E. , Pomarol-Clotet , E. , McCarthy , R.A. , Berrios, G.E. , & McKenna , P.J. ( 2007 ). Confabulation in schizophrenia and its relationship to clinical and neuropsychological features of the disorder . Psychological Medicine , 1 – 10.
- ↑ LORENTE-ROVIRA, E., SANTOS-GÓMEZ, J.L., MORO, M., VILLAGRÁN, J.M., MCKENNA, P.J. (1 November 2010). Confabulation in schizophrenia: A neuropsychological study. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 16 (06): 1018–1026.
- ↑ Turner, Martha S., Cipolotti, Lisa, Yousry, Tarek A., Shallice, Tim (1 June 2008). Confabulation: Damage to a specific inferior medial prefrontal system. Cortex 44 (6): 637–648.
- ↑ Baddeley, A.D. &Wilson, B. (1988). Frontal amnesia and the dysexecutive syndrome. Brain and Cognition, 7, 212–230.
- ↑ Papagno, C. & Baddeley, A.D. (1997) Confabulation in a dysexecutive patient: Implications for models of retrieval. Cortex, 33, 743-752. Baddeley, A.D. (1996). Exploring the Central Executive. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A (1): 5-28.
- ↑ Baddeley, A.D & Wilson, B. (1986) Amnesia, autobiographical memory and confabulation., (Editor): Rubin, D.C In: Autobiographical Memory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 225 - 252.
- ↑ Alexander MP, Freedman M. Amnesia after anterior communicating artery aneurysm rupture. Neurology 1984; 34: 752–7.
- ↑ Irle E, Wowra B, Kunert HJ, Hampl J, Kunze S. Memory disturbances following anterior communicating artery rupture. Ann Neurol 1992; 31: 473–80.
- ↑ Brainerd, C. J., Reyna, V. F., Ceci, S. J. (2008). Developmental reversals in false memory: A review of data and theory.. Psychological Bulletin 134 (3): 343–382.
- ↑ Shapiro, Lauren R., Purdy, Telisa L. (2005). Suggestibility and source monitoring errors: blame the interview style, interviewer consistency, and the child's personality. Applied Cognitive Psychology 19 (4): 489–506.
- ↑ Shapiro, Lauren R., Blackford, Cheryl, Chen, Chiung-Fen (2005). Eyewitness memory for a simulated misdemeanor crime: the role of age and temperament in suggestibility. Applied Cognitive Psychology 19 (3): 267–289.
- ↑ Ackil, Jennifer K., Zaragoza, Maria S. (1 November 1998). Memorial consequences of forced confabulation: Age differences in susceptibility to false memories.. Developmental Psychology 34 (6): 1358–1372.
- ↑ Ghetti, Simona, Castelli, Paola, Lyons, Kristen E. (2010). Knowing about not remembering: developmental dissociations in lack-of-memory monitoring. Developmental Science 13 (4): 611–621.
- ↑ Ghetti, Simona, Alexander, Kristen Weede (2004). "If It Happened, I Would Remember It": Strategic Use of Event Memorability in the Rejection of False Autobiographical Events. Child Development 75 (2): 542–561.
- ↑ Roebers, Claudia, Fernandez, Olivia (2002). The Effects of Accuracy Motivation on Children's and Adults' Event Recall, Suggestibility, and Their Answers to Unanswerable Questions. Journal of Cognition and Development 3 (4): 415–443.
- ↑ Scoboria, Alan, Mazzoni, Giuliana, Kirsch, Irving (2008). "Don't know" responding to answerable and unanswerable questions during misleading and hypnotic interviews.. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 14 (3): 255–265.
- ↑ Holliday, Robyn E., Albon, Amanda J. (2004). Minimising misinformation effects in young children with cognitive interview mnemonics. Applied Cognitive Psychology 18 (3): 263–281.
- ↑ Schnider, Armin, von Däniken, Christine, Gutbrod, Klemens (19 February 1996). The mechanisms of spontaneous and provoked confabulations. Brain 119 (4): 1365–1375.
- ↑ Pickel, Kerri (2004). When a lie becomes the truth: The effects of self‐generated misinformation on eyewitness memory. Memory 12 (1): 14–26.
- ↑ Polage, Danielle C. (2004). Fabrication deflation? The mixed effects of lying on memory. Applied Cognitive Psychology 18 (4): 455–465.
- ↑ Pezdek, Kathy, Lam, Shirley T., Sperry, Kathryn (2009). Forced confabulation more strongly influences event memory if suggestions are other-generated than self-generated. Legal and Criminological Psychology 14 (2): 241–252.
- ↑ Melnyk, Laura, Bruck, Maggie (2004). Timing moderates the effects of repeated suggestive interviewing on children's eyewitness memory. Applied Cognitive Psychology 18 (5): 613–631.
- ↑ Hafstad, Gertrud Sofie, Memon, Amina, Logie, Robert (2004). Post-identification feedback, confidence and recollections of witnessing conditions in child witnesses. Applied Cognitive Psychology 18 (7): 901–912.
- ↑ Zaragoza, M. S., Payment, K. E., Ackil, J. K., Drivdahl, S. B., Beck, M. (2001). Interviewing Witnesses: Forced Confabulation and Confirmatory Feedback Increase False Memories. Psychological Science 12 (6): 473–477.
- ↑ Howe, Mark L., Cicchetti, Dante, Toth, Sheree L., Cerrito, Beth M. (1 September 2004). True and False Memories in Maltreated Children. Child Development 75 (5): 1402–1417.
- ↑ Spiegel, D., & Lim, K.J. 2011. A Case of Probable Korsakoff's Syndrome: A Syndrome of Frontal Lobe and Diencephalic Structural Pathogenesis and a Comparison with Medial Temporal Lobe Dementias. Innov Clin Neurosci. 2011 June; 8(6): 15–19.
- ↑ B. Dayus and M.D. van den Broek. 2000. Treatment of stable delusional confabulations using self-monitoring training. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION, 10 (4), 415–427.
- ↑ Johnson, M. K., & Raye, C. L. (1998). False memories and confabulation: Trends in Cognitive Sciences Vol 2(4) Apr 1998, 137-145.
- ↑ Langdon, R. & Turner, M (January 2010), "Delusion and confabulation: Overlapping or distinct distortions in reality?", Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 15 (1): 1–13, PMID 20043251
- Hirstein, William (2004). Brain Fiction: Self-Deception and the Riddle of Confabulation, The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-58271-1.
- Kalat, J. W., (2002). Biological Psychology (8th ed). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Thomson Wadsworth.
- Stedman, T. L. (2000, January 15). Stedman's Medical Dictionary (27th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
- Amnestic-confabulatory syndrome in hydrocephalic dementia and Korsakoff's psychosis in alcoholism. (1979). Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 60(4) Oct 1979, 323-333.
- Ackil, J. K., & Zaragoza, M. S. (1998). Memorial consequences of forced confabulation: Age differences in susceptibility to false memories: Developmental Psychology Vol 34(6) Nov 1998, 1358-1372.
- Anastasi, J. S. (2006). Understanding confabulation: A multidisciplinary approach: Applied Cognitive Psychology Vol 20(2) Mar 2006, 277-278.
- Baddeley, A., & Wilson, B. (1986). Amnesia, autobiographical memory, and confabulation. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
- Barba, G. D. (1993). Different patterns of confabulation: Cortex Vol 29(4) Dec 1993, 567-581.
- Baxter, J. S. (1990). Children as eyewitnesses: A developmental study: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Benson, D. F., Djenderedjian, A., Miller, B. L., Pachana, N. A., & et al. (1996). Neural basis of confabulation: Neurology Vol 46(5) May 1996, 1239-1243.
- Bergman, E. T., & Roediger, H. L., III. (1999). Can Bartlett's repeated reproduction experiments be replicated? : Memory & Cognition Vol 27(6) Nov 1999, 937-947.
- Berrios, G. E. (1998). Confabulations: A conceptual history: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences Vol 7(3) Dec 1998, 225-241.
- Berrios, G. E. (2000). Confabulations. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
- Bickle, J. (2005). Review of Brain Fiction: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 12(7) Jul 2005, 87-88.
- Birnberg, J. D. (2000). The ecology of confabulation: Deviant responses in the Rorschach sequence. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Blechner, M. J. (2000). Confabulation in dreaming, psychosis, and brain injury: Comment: Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 2(2) 2000, 139-144.
- Blechner, M. J. (2004). Commentary on "The Pleasantness of False Beliefs": Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 6(1) 2004, 16-20.
- Blechner, M. J. (2007). "Confabulation in dementia: Constantly compensating memory systems": Commentary: Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 9(1) 2007, 17-22.
- Box, O., Laing, H., & Kopelman, M. (1999). The evolution of spontaneous confabulation, delusional misidentification and a related delusion in a case of severe head injury: Neurocase Vol 5(3) 1999, 251-262.
- Brodsky, S. L. (1999). Confabulations. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Brugger, P., & Funk, M. (2007). Out on a limb: Neglect and confabulation in the study of aplasic phantoms. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Buck, J. A., Warren, A. R., Betman, S. I., & Brigham, J. C. (2002). Age differences in Criteria-Based Content Analysis scores in typical child sexual abuse interviews: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology Vol 23(3) May-Jun 2002, 267-283.
- Burgess, P. W., & Shallice, T. (1996). Confabulation and the Control of Recollection: Memory Vol 4(4) Jul 1996, 359-411.
- Canestri, J. (2000). "A cognitive neuroscience perspective on confabulation": Comment: Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 2(2) 2000, 144-148.
- Ciaramelli, E., & Ghetti, S. (2007). What are confabulators' memories made of? A study of subjective and objective measures of recollection in confabulation: Neuropsychologia Vol 45(7) 2007, 1489-1500.
- Ciaramelli, E., Ghetti, S., Frattarelli, M., & Ladavas, E. (2006). When true memory availability promotes false memory: Evidence from confabulating patients: Neuropsychologia Vol 44(10) 2006, 1866-1877.
- Clare, I. C., & Gudjonsson, G. H. (1993). Interrogative suggestibility, confabulation, and acquiescence in people with mild learning disabilities (mental handicap): Implications for reliability during police interrogations: British Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 32(3) Sep 1993, 295-301.
- Cooper, J. M., Shanks, M. F., & Venneri, A. (2006). Provoked confabulations in Alzheimer's disease: Neuropsychologia Vol 44(10) 2006, 1697-1707.
- Cunningham, J. M. (1996). The contribution of memory deficits and executive dysfunction to the production of confabulation. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Cunningham, J. M., Pliskin, N. H., Cassisi, J. E., Tsang, B., & Rao, S. M. (1997). Relationship between confabulation and measures of memory and executive function: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology Vol 19(6) Dec 1997, 867-877.
- Dab, S., Claes, T., Morais, J., & Shallice, T. (1999). Confabulation with a selective descriptor process impairment: Cognitive Neuropsychology Vol 16(3-5) May-Jul 1999, 215-242.
- Dab, S., Morais, J., & Frith, C. (2004). Comprehension, encoding, and monitoring in the production of confabulation in memory: A study with schizophrenic patients: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry Vol 9(3) Aug 2004, 153-182.
- Dalla Barba, G. (1993). Confabulation: Knowledge and recollective experience: Cognitive Neuropsychology Vol 10(1) Feb 1993, 1-20.
- Dalla Barba, G. (1995). Consciousness and confabulation: Remembering 'another' past. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Dalla Barba, G. (1999). Confabulation and temporality. Ashland, OH: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.
- Dalla Barba, G., Boisse, M.-F., Bartolomeo, P., & Bachoud-Levi, A.-C. (1997). Confabulation following rupture of posterior communicating artery: Cortex Vol 33(3) Sep 1997, 563-570.
- dalla Barba, G., Cipolotti, L., & Denes, G. (1990). Autobiographical memory loss and confabulation in Korsakoff's syndrome: A case report: Cortex Vol 26(4) Dec 1990, 525-534.
- Dalla Barba, G., Mantovan, M. C., Cappelletti, J. Y., & Denes, G. (1998). Temporal gradient in confabulation: Cortex Vol 34(3) Jun 1998, 417-426.
- Dalla Barba, G., Nedjam, Z., & Dubois, B. (1999). Confabulation, executive functions, and source memory in Alzheimer's disease: Cognitive Neuropsychology Vol 16(3-5) May-Jul 1999, 385-398.
- Dalla Barba, G., & Seassau, M. (2007). "Confabulation in dementia: Constantly compensating memory systems": Commentary: Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 9(1) 2007, 22-25.
- Dayus, B., & van den Broek, M. D. (2000). Treatment of stable delusional confabulations using self-monitoring training: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation Vol 10(4) Aug 2000, 415-427.
- DeLuca, J. (1993). Predicting neurobehavioral patterns following anterior communicating artery aneurysm: Cortex Vol 29(4) Dec 1993, 639-647.
- DeLuca, J. (2000). A cognitive neuroscience perspective on confabulation: Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 2(2) 2000, 119- 132.
- DeLuca, J. (2000). "A cognitive neuroscience perspective on confabulation": Response to commentaries: Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 2(2) 2000, 167-170.
- DeLuca, J. (2004). Commentary on "The Pleasantness of False Beliefs": Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 6(1) 2004, 20-22.
- Deluca, J. (2005). Confabulation: A matter of philosophy of the mind? : Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society Vol 11(7) Nov 2005, 931.
- DeLuca, J. (2007). "Confabulation in dementia: Constantly compensating memory systems": Commentary: Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 9(1) 2007, 25-27.
- DeLuca, J., & Cicerone, K. D. (1991). Confabulation following aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery: Cortex Vol 27(3) Sep 1991, 417-423.
- DeLuca, J., & Diamond, B. J. (1995). Aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery: A review of neuroanatomical and neuropsychological sequelae: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology Vol 17(1) Feb 1995, 100-121.
- Demery, J. A., Hanlon, R. E., & Bauer, R. M. (2001). Profound amnesia and confabulation following traumatic brain injury: Neurocase Vol 7(4) 2001, 295-301.
- Downes, J. J., & Mayes, A. R. (1995). How bad memories can sometimes lead to fantastic beliefs and strange visions. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Dunning, D., & Stern, L. B. (1992). Examining the generality of eyewitness hypermnesia: A close look at time delay and question type: Applied Cognitive Psychology Vol 6(7) Dec 1992, 643-657.
- Feinberg, T. E. (2004). Commentary on "The Pleasantness of False Beliefs": Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 6(1) 2004, 22-26.
- Feinberg, T. E., & Giacino, J. T. (2006). Confabulation. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
- Feinberg, T. E., Roane, D. M., Kwan, P. C., Schindler, R. J., & et al. (1994). Anosognosia and visuoverbal confabulation: Archives of Neurology Vol 51(5) May 1994, 468-473.
- Fischer, R. S., Alexander, M. P., D'Esposito, M., & Otto, R. (1995). Neuropsychological and neuroanatomical correlates of confabulation: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology Vol 17(1) Feb 1995, 20-28.
- Fotopoulou, A., Conway, M., Griffiths, P., Birchall, D., & Tyrer, S. (2007). Self-enhancing confabulation: Revisiting the motivational hypothesis: Neurocase Vol 13(1) Feb 2007, 6-15.
- Fotopoulou, A., & Conway, M. A. (2004). Commentary on "The Pleasantness of False Beliefs": Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 6(1) 2004, 26-33.
- Fotopoulou, A., Conway, M. A., & Solms, M. (2007). Confabulation: Motivated reality monitoring: Neuropsychologia Vol 45(10) 2007, 2180-2190.
- Fotopoulou, A., Solms, M., & Turnbull, O. (2004). Wishful reality distortions in confabulation: A case report: Neuropsychologia Vol 42(6) 2004, 727-744.
- Frost, P., Lacroix, D., & Sanborn, N. (2003). Increasing false recognition rates with confirmatory feedback: A phenomenological analysis: American Journal of Psychology Vol 116(4) Win 2003, 515-525.
- Fujii, T., Suzuki, M., Suzuki, K., Ohtake, H., Tsukiura, T., & Miura, R. (2005). Normal memory and no confabulation after extensive damage to the orbitofrontal cortex: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Vol 76(9) Sep 2005, 1309-1310.
- Gainotti, G. (1975). Confabulation of denial in senile dementia: An experimental design: Psychiatria Clinica Vol 8(3) 1975, 99-108.
- Garven, S., Wood, J. M., Malpass, R. S., & Shaw, J. S., III. (1998). More than suggestion: The effect of interviewing techniques from the McMartin Preschool case: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 83(3) Jun 1998, 347-359.
- Gilboa, A., Alain, C., Stuss, D. T., Melo, B., Miller, S., & Moscovitch, M. (2006). Mechanisms of spontaneous confabulations: A strategic retrieval account: Brain: A Journal of Neurology Vol 129(6) Jun 2006, 1399-1414.
- Graff-Radford, N. (2000). "A cognitive neuroscience perspective on confabulation": Comment: Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 2(2) 2000, 148-150.
- Gudjonsson, G. H., & Clare, I. C. H. (1995). The relationship between confabulation and intellectual ability, memory, interrogative suggestibility and acquiescence: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 19(3) Sep 1995, 333-338.
- Gudjonsson, G. H., & Sigurdsson, J. F. (1995). The relationship of confabulation to the memory, intelligence, suggestibility, and personality of juvenile offenders: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry Vol 49(5) 1995, 373-378.
- Gudjonsson, G. H., & Sigurdsson, J. F. (1996). The relationship of confabulation to the memory, intelligence, suggestibility and personality of prison inmates: Applied Cognitive Psychology Vol 10(1) Feb 1996, 85-92.
- Gundogar, D., & Demirci, S. (2006). Multiple sclerosis presenting with fantastic confabulation: General Hospital Psychiatry Vol 28(5) Sep-Oct 2006, 448-451.
- Hanba, J. M., & Zaragoza, M. S. (2007). Interviewer feedback in repeated interviews involving forced confabulation: Applied Cognitive Psychology Vol 21(4) May 2007, 433-455.
- Hays, J. R., Emmons, J., & Stallings, G. (2000). Dementia and mental retardation markers on the Rey 15-item Visual Memory Test: Psychological Reports Vol 86(1) Feb 2000, 179-182.
- Hicks, L., & Myslobodsky, M. (1997). Mnemopoesis: Memories that wish themselves to be recalled? Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Hirstein, William (2005), Brain Fiction: Self-deception and the riddle of confabulation, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-08338-8, http://books.google.com/books?id=_rkKxbevFZEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=brain+fiction+self-deception+and+the+riddle+of+confabulation&hl=en&sa=X&ei=hjZqT_24L-GdmQWB_8z_CA&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA, retrieved on 21 March 2012
- Hirstein, W. (2005). Brain fiction: Self-deception and the riddle of confabulation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- Hoermann, S. (2007). "Confabulation in dementia: Constantly compensating memory systems": Commentary: Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 9(1) 2007, 28-31.
- Holliday, R. E., & Albon, A. J. (2004). Minimising Misinformation Effects in Young Children with Cognitive Interview Mnemonics: Applied Cognitive Psychology Vol 18(3) Apr 2004, 263-281.
- Jacob, C., & Pfuhlmann, B. (2003). Confabulatory Paraphrenia: Krankenhauspsychiatrie Vol 14(2) Jun 2003, 76-78.
- Johnson, M. K. (1991). Reality monitoring: Evidence from confabulation in organic brain disease patients. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Johnson, M. K. (2000). "A cognitive neuroscience perspective on confabulation": Comment: Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 2(2) 2000, 150-158.
- Johnson, M. K., Hayes, S. M., D'Esposito, M., & Raye, C. L. (2000). Confabulation. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers B V.
- Johnson, M. K., O'Connor, M., & Cantor, J. (1997). Confabulation, memory deficits, and frontal dysfunction: Brain and Cognition Vol 34(2) Jul 1997, 189-206.
- Johnson, M. K., & Raye, C. L. (1998). False memories and confabulation: Trends in Cognitive Sciences Vol 2(4) Apr 1998, 137-145.
- Jorn, M. L., & Rybarczyk, B. (1995). Interpreting the confabulations of geriatric medical inpatients: Two case studies: Clinical Gerontologist Vol 16(1) 1995, 59-62.
- Joseph, R. (1984). Two brains, one child: Interhemispheric information transfer deficits and confabulatory responding in children aged 3-10: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Joseph, R. (1986). Confabulation and delusional denial: Frontal lobe and lateralized influences: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 42(3) May 1986, 507-520.
- Joseph, R., Gallagher, R. E., Holloway, W., & Kahn, J. (1984). Two brains, one child: Interhemispheric information transfer deficits and confabulatory responding in children aged 4, 7, 10: Cortex Vol 20(3) Sep 1984, 317-331.
- Joslyn, D., Grundvig, J. L., & Chamberlain, C. J. (1978). Predicting confabulation from the Graham-Kendall Memory-For-Designs Test: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 46(1) Feb 1978, 181-182.
- Karlin, R. A. (1983). Forensic hypnosis--two case reports: A brief communication: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis Vol 31(4) Oct 1983, 227-234.
- Kassin, S. M., & Kiechel, K. L. (1996). The social psychology of false confessions: Compliance, internalization, and confabulation: Psychological Science Vol 7(3) May 1996, 125-128.
- Kern, R. S. (1990). Neuropsychological assessment of confabulation in Alzheimer's disease: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Kern, R. S., Van Gorp, W. G., Cummings, J. L., Brown, W. S., & et al. (1992). Confabulation in Alzheimer's disease: Brain and Cognition Vol 19(2) Jul 1992, 172-182.
- Kerns, L. L. (1986). Falsifications in the psychiatric history: A differential diagnosis: Psychiatry: Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes Vol 49(1) Feb 1986, 13-17.
- Kinsbourne, M. (2000). The mechanism of confabulation: Comment on "A cognitive neuroscience perspective on confabulation." Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 2(2) 2000, 158-162.
- Kinsbourne, M. (2004). Commentary on "The Pleasantness of False Beliefs": Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 6(1) 2004, 33-37.
- Kleiger, J. H., & Peebles-Kleiger, M. J. (1993). Toward a conceptual understanding of the deviant response in the Comprehensive Rorschach System: Journal of Personality Assessment Vol 60(1) Feb 1993, 74-90.
- Koehler, K., & Jacoby, C. (1978). Acute confabulatory psychosis: A rare form of unipolar mania? : Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 57(5) May 1978, 415-425.
- Kopelman, M. D. (1987). Two types of confabulation: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Vol 50(11) Nov 1987, 1482-1487.
- Kopelman, M. D. (1997). Anomalies of autobiographical memory: Retrograde amnesia, confabulation, delusional memory, psychogenic amnesia, and false memories. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
- Kopelman, M. D., Guinan, E. M., & Lewis, P. D. R. (1995). Delusional memory, confabulation and frontal lobe dysfunction: A case study in De Clerambault's syndrome: Neurocase Vol 1(1) 1995, 71-77.
- Kopelman, M. D., Ng, N., & Van Den Brouke, O. (1997). Confabulation extending across episodic, personal, and general semantic memory: Cognitive Neuropsychology Vol 14(5) 1997, 683-712.
- Kramer, S., Bryan, K. L., & Frith, C. D. (1998). 'Confabulation' in narrative discourse by schizophrenic patients: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders Vol 33(Suppl) 1998, 202-207.
- Laurence, J.-R., & Perry, C. (1983). Forensic hypnosis in the late nineteenth century: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis Vol 31(4) Oct 1983, 266-283.
- Lee, E., Akanuma, K., Meguro, M., Ishii, H., Yamaguchi, S., & Meguro, K. (2007). Confabulations in remembering past and planning future are associated with psychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology Vol 22(8) Nov 2007, 949-956.
- Lee, E., Meguro, K., Hashimoto, R., Meguro, M., Ishii, H., Yamaguchi, S., et al. (2007). Confabulations in Episodic Memory Are Associated With Delusions in Alzheimer's Disease: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology Vol 20(1) Mar 2007, 34-40.
- Lorente-Rovira, E., Pomarol-Clotet, E., McCarthy, R. A., Berrios, G. E., & McKenna, P. J. (2007). Confabulation in schizophrenia and its relationship to clinical and neuropsychological features of the disorder: Psychological Medicine Vol 37(10) Oct 2007, 1403-1412.
- Lu, L. H., Barrett, A. M., Schwartz, R. L., Cibula, J. E., Gilmore, R. L., Uthman, B. M., et al. (1997). Anosognosia and confabulation during the Wada test: Neurology Vol 49(5) Nov 1997, 1316-1322.
- Manning, L., & Kartsounis, L. D. (1993). Confabulations related to tacit awareness in visual neglect: Behavioural Neurology Vol 6(4) Win 1993, 211-213.
- Mattioli, F., Miozzo, A., & Vignolo, L. A. (1999). Confabulation and delusional misidentification: A four year follow-up study: Cortex Vol 35(3) Jun 1999, 413-422.
- Merckelbach, H., Muris, P., Horselenberg, R., & Stougie, S. (2000). Dissociative experiences, response bias, and fantasy proneness in college students: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 28(1) Jan 2000, 49-58.
- Metcalf, K., Langdon, R., & Coltheart, M. (2007). Models of confabulation: A critical review and a new framework: Cognitive Neuropsychology Vol 24(1) Feb 2007, 23-47.
- Moscovitch, M. (1989). Confabulation and the frontal systems: Strategic versus associative retrieval in neuropsychological theories of memory. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Moscovitch, M. (1995). Confabulation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Moscovitch, M., & Melo, B. (1997). Strategic retrieval and the frontal lobes: Evidence from confabulation and amnesia: Neuropsychologia Vol 35(7) Jul 1997, 1017-1034.
- Mott, T. A. (2000). Confabulation and self-monitoring in memory. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Moulin, C. J. A., Conway, M. A., Thompson, R. G., James, N., & Jones, R. W. (2005). Disordered memory awareness: Recollective confabulation in two cases of persistent deja vecu: Neuropsychologia Vol 43(9) 2005, 1362-1378.
- Nathaniel-James, D. A., & Frith, C. D. (1996). Confabulation in schizophrenia: Evidence of a new form? : Psychological Medicine Vol 26(2) Mar 1996, 391-399.
- Nedjam, Z., Barba, G. D., & Pillon, B. (2000). Confabulation in a patient with fronto-temporal dementia and a patient with Alzheimer's disease: Cortex Vol 36(4) Sep 2000, 561-577.
- Neressian, E. (2000). "A cognitive neuroscience perspective on confabulation": Comment: Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 2(2) 2000, 163-166.
- Nys, G. M. S., van Zandvoort, M. J. E., Roks, G., Kappelle, L. J., de Kort, P. L. M., & de Haan, E. H. F. (2004). The Role of Executive Functioning in Spontaneous Confabulation: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology Vol 17(4) Dec 2004, 213-218.
- Pantel, J. (2006). Review of Brain Fiction: Self-Deception and the Riddle of Confabulation: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 163(3) Mar 2006, 559.
- Papagno, C., & Baddeley, A. (1997). Confabulation in a dysexecutive patient: Implication for models of retrieval: Cortex Vol 33(4) Dec 1997, 743-752.
- Pezdek, K., Sperry, K., & Owens, S. M. (2007). Interviewing witnesses: The effect of forced confabulation on event memory: Law and Human Behavior Vol 31(5) Oct 2007, 463-478.
- Pfefferbaum, B., Allen, J. R., Lindsey, E. D., & Whittlesey, S. W. (1999). Fabricated trauma exposure: An analysis of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional factors: Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes Vol 62(4) Win 1999, 293-302.
- Pihan, H., Gutbrod, K., Baas, U., & Schnider, A. (2004). Dopamine inhibition and the adaptation of behavior to ongoing reality: Neuroreport: For Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research Vol 15(4) Mar 2004, 709-712.
- Pisani, A., Marra, C., & Silveri, M. C. (2000). Anatomical and psychological mechanism of reduplicative misidentification syndromes: Neurological Sciences Vol 21(5) 2000, 324-328.
- Ptak, R., Birtoli, B., Imboden, H., Hauser, C., Weis, J., & Schnider, A. (2001). Hypothalamic amnesia with spontaneous confabulations: A clinicopathologic study: Neurology Vol 56(11) Jun 2001, 1597-1600.
- Ptak, R., & Schnider, A. (1999). Spontaneous confabulations after orbitofrontal damage: The role of temporal context confusion and self-monitoring: Neurocase Vol 5(3) 1999, 243-250.
- Redlich, A. D. (2000). False confessions: The influence of age, suggestibility, and maturity. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Roediger, H. L., & McDermott, K. B. (2000). Distortions of memory. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Roos, C., & Gow, K. (2007). The effect of emotional arousal on recall and interrogative suggestibility: Australian Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis Vol 35(2) Nov 2007, 150-168.
- Sacks, Oliver (1985), The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat, New York: Perennial Library, ISBN 0-06-097079-0, http://www.arvindguptatoys.com/arvindgupta/wife-hat.pdf, retrieved on 21 March 2012
- Salazar-Fraile, J., Tabares-Seisdedos, R., Selva-Vera, G., Balanza-Martinez, V., Martinez-Aran, A., Catalan, J., et al. (2006). "Recall and Recognition Confabulation in Psychotic and Bipolar Disorders: Evidence for Two Different types Without Unitary Mechanisms": Erratum: Comprehensive Psychiatry Vol 47(2) Mar-Apr 2006, 159.
- Salazar-Fraile, J., Tabares-Seisdedos, R., Selva-Vera, G., Balanza-Martinez, V., Martinez-Arn, A., Catalan, J., et al. (2004). Recall and Recognition Confabulation in Psychotic and Bipolar Disorders: Evidence for Two Different Types Without Unitary Mechanisms: Comprehensive Psychiatry Vol 45(4) Jul-Aug 2004, 281-288.
- Sandson, J., Albert, M. L., & Alexander, M. P. (1986). Confabulation in aphasia: Cortex Vol 22(4) Dec 1986, 621-626.
- Schacter, D. L., & Curran, T. (1995). The cognitive neuroscience of false memories: Psychiatric Annals Vol 25(12) Dec 1995, 726-730.
- Schnider, A. (2000). Spontaneous confabulations, disorientation, and the processing of 'now': Neuropsychologia Vol 38(2) 2000, 175-185.
- Schnider, A. (2001). Spontaneous confabulation, reality monitoring, and the limbic system--a review: Brain Research Reviews Vol 36(2-3) Oct 2001, 150-160.
- Schnider, A. (2003). Spontaneous Confabulation and the Adaptation of Thought to Ongoing Reality: Nature Reviews Neuroscience Vol 4(8) Aug 2003, 662-671.
- Schnider, A. (2004). Commentary on "The Pleasantness of False Beliefs" Armin Schnider: Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 6(1) 2004, 37-39.
- Schnider, A., Bonvallat, J., Emond, H., & Leemann, B. (2005). Reality confusion in spontaneous confabulation: Neurology Vol 65(7) Oct 2005, 1117-1119.
- Schnider, A., Gutbrod, K., Hess, C. W., & Schroth, G. (1996). Memory without context: Amnesia with confabulations after infarction of the right capsular genu: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Vol 61(2) Aug 1996, 186-193.
- Schnider, A., & Ptak, R. (1999). Spontaneous confabulators fail to suppress currently irrelevant memory traces: Nature Neuroscience Vol 2(7) Jul 1999, 677-681.
- Schnider, A., Ptak, R., von Daniken, C., & Remonda, L. (2000). Recovery from spontaneous confabulations parallels recovery of temporal confusion in memory: Neurology Vol 55(1) Jul 2000, 74-83.
- Schnider, A., Treyer, V., & Buck, A. (2000). Selection of currently relevant memories by the human posterior medial orbitofrontal cortex: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 20(15) Aug 2000, 5880-5884.
- Schnider, A., von Daniken, C., & Gutbrod, K. (1996). The mechanisms of spontaneous and provoked confabulations: Brain: A Journal of Neurology Vol 119(4) Aug 1996, 1365-1375.
- Servan, J., Verstichel, P., Catala, M., & Rancurel, G. (1994). Confabulation and amnesia in posterior cerebral infarcts: Revue Neurologique Vol 150(3) 1994, 201-208.
- Shallice, T. (1999). The origin of confabulations: Nature Neuroscience Vol 2(7) Jul 1999, 588-590.
- Shapiro, B. E. (1983). Hemispheric specialization of higher cortical functions in the human brain: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Shapiro, L. R., & Purdy, T. L. (2005). Suggestibility and Source Monitoring Errors: Blame the Interview Style, Interviewer Consistency, and the Child's Personality: Applied Cognitive Psychology Vol 19(4) May 2005, 489-506.
- Shelton, C. (2004). Progression of Memory/Attention Abilities Post-Traumatic Brain Injury: Journal of Cognitive Rehabilitation Vol 22(1) Spr 2004, 5-9.
- Sheng-chun, J., Kai, W., & Xiao-si, L. (2005). Development of Researches on Confabulation: Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 13(4) Nov 2005, 492-494.
- Sigurdsson, E., Gudjonsson, G. H., Kolbeinsson, H., & Petursson, H. (1994). The effects of electroconvulsive therapy and depression on confabulation, memory processing, and suggestibility: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry Vol 48(6) 1994, 443-451.
- Simpson, J., & Done, D. J. (2002). Elasticity and confabulation in schizophrenic delusions: Psychological Medicine Vol 32(3) Apr 2002, 451-458.
- Sjoberg, R. L. (2000). The catechism effect: Child testimonies during a 17th-century witch panic as related to educational achievement: Memory Vol 8(2) Mar 2000, 65-69.
- Smith, P., & Gudjonsson, G. H. (1995). Confabulation among forensic inpatients and its relationship with memory, suggestibility, compliance, anxiety, and self-esteem: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 19(4) Oct 1995, 517-523.
- Solms, M. (2000). A psychoanalytic perspective on confabulation: Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 2(2) 2000, 133-138.
- Sporer, S. L. (2004). Reality monitoring and detection of deception. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
- Stuss, D. T., Alexander, M. P., Lieberman, A., & Levine, H. (1978). An extraordinary form of confabulation: Neurology Vol 28(1) Nov 1978, 1166-1172.
- Suelves, J. M. (2005). Confabulation: Gaining Understanding of Human Nature From Neurological Disorders: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 50 (39), 2005.
- Tallberg, I.-M. (2001). Deictic disturbances after right hemisphere stroke: Journal of Pragmatics Vol 33(8) Aug 2001, 1309-1327.
- Tallberg, I.-M. (2007). Confabulation in dementia: Constantly compensating memory systems: Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 9(1) 2007, 5-17.
- Tallberg, I.-M. (2007). "Confabulation in dementia: Constantly compensating memory systems": Response: Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 9(1) 2007, 32-40.
- Tallberg, I.-M., & Almkvist, O. (2001). Confabulation and memory in patients with Alzheimer's disease: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology Vol 23(2) Apr 2001, 172-184.
- Turnbull, O. (2004). "The Pleasantness of False Beliefs: An Emotion-based Account of Confabulation": Comment reply: Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 6(1) 2004, 39-45.
- Turnbull, O. H., Berry, H., & Evans, C. E. Y. (2004). A positive emotional bias in confabulatory false beliefs about place: Brain and Cognition Vol 55(3) Aug 2004, 490-494.
- Turnbull, O. H., Jenkins, S., & Rowley, M. L. (2004). The Pleasantness of False Beliefs: An Emotion-based Account of Confabulation: Neuro-Psychoanalysis Vol 6(1) 2004, 5-16.
- Weinstein, E. A. (1971). Linguistic aspects of amnesia and confabulation: Journal of Psychiatric Research Vol 8(3-4) Aug 1971, 439-444.
- Weinstein, E. A. (1996). Symbolic aspects of confabulation following brain injury: Influence of premorbid personality: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic Vol 60(3) Sum 1996, 331-350.
- Weinstein, E. A., & Kahn, R. L. (1955). Reduplication. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas Publisher.
- Welch, L. W., Nimmerrichter, A., Gilliland, R., King, D. E., & Martin, P. R. (1997). "Wineglass" confabulations among brain-damaged alcoholics on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Visual Reproduction Subtest: Cortex Vol 33(3) Sep 1997, 543-551.
- Wells, G. L., & Bradfield, A. L. (1998). "Good, you identified the suspect": Feedback to eyewitnesses distorts their reports of the witnessing experience: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 83(3) Jun 1998, 360-376.
- Whitlock, F. A. (1981). Some observations on the meaning of confabulation: British Journal of Medical Psychology Vol 54(3) Sep 1981, 213-218.
- Zaragoza, M. S., Payment, K. E., Ackil, J. K., Drivdahl, S. B., & Beck, M. (2001). Interviewing witnesses: Forced confabulation and confirmatory feedback increase false memories: Psychological Science Vol 12(6) Nov 2001, 473-477.
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|