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File:Japanese internment camp in British Columbia.jpg

This article is about the usage and history of the terms concentration camps or internment camps

Concentration camps Edit

File:Boercamp1.jpg

The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. defines concentration camp as: a camp where non-combatants of a district are accommodated, such as those instituted by Lord Kitchener during the South African war of 1899-1902; one for the internment of political prisoners, foreign nationals, etc., esp. as organized by the Nazi regime in Germany before and during the war of 1939-45.

File:Buchenwald Slave Laborers Liberation.jpg

Although similar camps may have existed earlier, the English term "concentration camp" was first used to describe camps operated by the British in South Africa during the 1899-1902 Second Boer War[1]. Allegedly conceived as a form of humanitarian aid to the families whose farms had been destroyed in the fighting, the camps were used to confine and control large numbers of civilians as part of a Scorched Earth tactic.

Use of the word concentration comes from the idea of concentrating a group of people who are in some way undesirable in one place, where they can be watched by those who incarcerated them. For example, in a time of insurgency, potential supporters of the insurgents are placed where they cannot provide them with supplies or information.

Nazi and Soviet campsEdit

The term concentration camp lost some of its original meaning after Nazi concentration camps were discovered, and has ever since been understood to refer to a place of mistreatment, starvation, forced labour, and murder. The expression since then has only been used in this extremely pejorative sense; no government or organization has used it to describe its own facilities, using instead terms such as internment camp, resettlement camp, detention facility, etc, regardless of the actual circumstances of the camp, which can vary a great deal.

File:First Group of Five Move Out.jpg

In the 20th century the arbitrary internment of civilians by the state became more common and reached a climax with Nazi concentration camps and the practice of genocide in Nazi extermination camps, and with the Gulag system of forced labor camps of the Soviet Union[2]. As a result of this trend, the term "concentration camp" carries many of the connotations of "extermination camp" and is sometimes used synonymously. A concentration camp, however, is not by definition a death-camp. For example, many of the slave labor camps were used as cheap or free sources of factory labor for the manufacture of war materials and other goods.

Indeed, in terming their camps "concentration camps," the Nazis were using a mundane term to mask something far more horrific than the word had previously meant, similar to their usage of the term 'Ghetto.' Previously, ghettos had been separate, usually walled-in Jewish Quarters designed to segregate Jews from outside society and "protect" them from their neighbors. The Ghettos in occupied Europe were far more brutal, however.

Continued useEdit

Although the term "concentration camp" has become virtually indistinguishable from "death camp" in the popular mind, the two are not identical. The British continued to use the term concentration camp in its original meaning long after the collapse of the Third Reich, with quite possibly the last being the forced but relatively peaceful relocation of hundreds of thousands of ethnic Chinese squatters from the edge of the Malayan Jungle to "New Villages" during the Malayan Emergency to choke supply and support off for the Malayan Communist Party.[How to reference and link to summary or text]


Internment campsEdit

An internment camp is a large detention center created for political opponents, enemy aliens, people with mental illness, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, usually during a war. The term is used for facilities where inmates are selected according to some specific criteria, rather than individuals who are incarcerated after due process of law fairly applied by a judiciary.

As a result of the mistreatment of civilians interned during recent conflicts, the Fourth Geneva Convention was established in 1949 to provide for the protection of civilians during times of war "in the hands" of an enemy and under any occupation by a foreign power[3]. It was ratified by 194 nations. Prisoner-of-war camps are internment camps intended specifically for holding members of an enemy's armed forces as defined in the Third Geneva Convention, and the treatment of whom is specified in that Convention.


See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Further readingEdit

BooksEdit

  • Actis, M., Aldini, C., Gardella, L., Lewin, M., Tokar, E., & Siebentritt, G. (2006). That inferno: Conversations of five women survivors of an Argentine torture camp. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.
  • Agamben, G., & Heller-Roazen, D. (1999). Remnants of Auschwitz: The witness and the archive. New York, NY: Zone Books.
  • Babovic, N. (2000). The structure of displaced families who settled in Zenica. Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina: D O O Otisak.
  • Berger, L. (1988). The long-term psychological consequences of the Holocaust on the survivors and their offspring: Braham, Randolph L (Ed).
  • Boston, P. (2000). Klara Bergman: Burdens from the past. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Braham, R. L. (1988). The psychological perspectives of the Holocaust and of its aftermath:
  • Cohen, E. A., & Braaksma, M. H. (1988). Human behaviour in the concentration camp. Oxford, England: Free Association Books.
  • Davidson, S., & Charny, I. W. (1992). Holding on to humanity--The message of Holocaust survivors: The Shamai Davidson papers. New York, NY: New York University Press.
  • Eitinger, L. (1999). Organic and psychosomatic aftereffects of concentration camp imprisonment. New York, NY: New York University Press.
  • Eitinger, L., & Major, E. F. (1993). Stress of the Holocaust. New York, NY: Free Press.
  • Engdahl, B. E., & Eberly, R. E. (1990). The effects of torture and other maltreatment: Implications for psychology. Washington, DC: Hemisphere Publishing Corp.
  • Frankl, V. E., Fabry, J., & Fabry, J. (1997). Viktor Frankl recollections: An autobiography. New York, NY: Insight Books/Plenum Press.
  • Frankl, V. E., & Lasch, I. (1992). Man's search for meaning: An introduction to logotherapy (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
  • Funkenstein, A. (1993). The incomprehensible catastrophe: Memory and narrative. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Ghadirian, A. l.-M. A., & Lehmann, H. E. (1993). Environment and psychopathology. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
  • Groen-Prakken, H., Ladan, A., & Stufkens, A. (1995). The Dutch annual of psychoanalysis 1995-1996: Traumatisation and war, Vol. 2. Lisse, Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers.
  • Grunberg, K. (2006). Love after Auschwitz: The second generation in Germany. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

PapersEdit

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  • Alfasi, G. (1982). Development and Conflict in Psychoanalysis: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 27 (12), Dec, 1982.
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DissertationsEdit

  • Antman, S. R. (1986). Offspring of Holocaust survivors and the process of self-actualization and related variables: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Berger, E. (2004). Children of holocaust survivors: Relations of perceived parental traumatization to attachment styles. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Blumenthal, N. N. (1981). Factors contributing to varying levels of adjustment among children of Holocaust survivors: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Brody, J. M. (1999). An assessment of Nazi concentration camp survivors for posttraumatic stress disorder and neuropsychological concomitants. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Cordell, M. (1981). Coping behavior of Nazi concentration camp survivors: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Danieli, Y. (1982). Therapists' difficulties in treating survivors of the Nazi Holocaust and their children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Elbaz, T. (2007). The crisis of the modern human subject in the wake of traumatic encounters. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Ferreira, C. L. (2006). Peering into the void: An exploration into the fate of the self under extreme trauma (Primo Levi, Bruno Bettelheim, Elie Wiesel, Italy). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Fishbane, M. D. (1979). Children of survivors of the Nazi Holocaust: A psychological inquiry: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Furshpan, M. (1986). Family dynamics as perceived by the second generation of Holocaust survivors: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Goldburg, J. B. (1983). The transmittal of the trauma of the Holocaust to survivor children and American Jewish children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Goldsmith, M. (1986). Family patterns across three generations of Holocaust survivor families: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Goodman, J. S. (1979). The transmission of parental trauma: Second generation effects of Nazi concentration camp survival: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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