Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Computer literacy is the knowledge and ability to use computers and technology efficiently. Computer literacy can also refer to the comfort level someone has with using computer programs and other applications that are associated with computers. Another valuable component of computer literacy is knowing how computers work and operate. As of 2005, having basic computer skills is a significant asset in the developed countries.
The precise definition of "computer literacy" can vary from group to group. Generally, literate (in the realm of books) connotes one who can read any arbitrary book in their native language[s], looking up new words as they are exposed to them. Likewise, an experienced computer professional may consider the ability to self-teach (i.e. to learn arbitrary new programs or tasks as they are encountered) to be central to computer literacy. In common discourse, however, "computer literate" often connotes little more than the ability to use several very specific applications (usually Microsoft Word, Microsoft Internet Explorer, and Microsoft Outlook) for certain very well-defined simple tasks, largely by rote. (This is analogous to a child claiming that they "can read" because they have rote-memorized several small children's books. Real problems can arise when such a "computer literate" person encounters a new program for the first time, and large degrees of "hand-holding" will likely be required.) Being "literate" and "functional" are generally taken to mean the same thing.
The pervasiveness of computers continues to grow at an outstanding rate. Computers always change; they become smaller, faster and more powerful. These changes have motivated the modern society to become comfortable with basic computer-related skills.
The level of computer literacy one must achieve to gain an advantage over others depends both on the society one is in and one's place in the social hierarchy. Prior to the development of the first computers in the 1950s, the word computer referred to a person who could count, calculate, compute. The fear of some educators today is that computer training in schools will serve only to train data-entry clerks of the next generation, low level workers of the so-called knowledge industries. On the other hand, some hope that enhanced computer literacy will enable a new generation of cultural producers to make meanings and circulate those in the public sphere. The wildfire of cultural production associated with sites such as Youtube seems to support this notion.
Different countries have different needs for computer literate people due to their society standards and level of technology. The world's digital divide is now an uneven one with knowledge nodes such as India disrupting old North/South dichotomies of knowledge and power.
Computer literacy in the first world
Computer literacy is considered to be a very important skill to possess while in the first world. Employers want their workers to have basic computer skills because their company becomes ever more dependent on computers. Many companies try to use computers to help run their company faster and cheaper.
Computers are just as common as pen and paper for writing, especially among youth. For many applications - especially communicating - computers are preferred over pen, paper, and typewriters because of their ability to duplicate and retain information and ease of editing.
As personal computers become common-place and they become more powerful, the concept of computer literacy is moving beyond basic functionality to more powerful applications under the heading of multimedia literacy.
Of course, arguments about computers being common-place in the first world assume that everyone in the first world has equal access to the latest forms of technology. However, there is a pronounced digital divide that separates both physical access to technology and the ability to use that technology effectively.
Where computers are widespread, they are also a part of education. Computers are used in schools for many applications such as writing papers or searching the Internet for information. Computer skills are also a subject being specifically taught in many schools, especially from adolescence onward - when the ability to abstract forms.
One problematic element of many (though not all) "computer literacy" or computer education programs is that they may resort too heavily on rote memorization. Students may be taught, for example, how to perform several common functions (e.g.: Open a file, Save a file, Quit the program) in very specific ways, using one specific version of one specific program. When a graduate of such a program encounters a competing program, or even a different version of the same program, they may be confused or even frightened by the differences from what they learned. This is one reason why major computer and software firms such as Apple Computer and Microsoft consider the educational market important: The often time-limited computer education provided in schools most often lends itself to rote memorization, creating a sort of vendor lock-in effect whereby graduates are afraid to switch to competing computer systems.
Graduates of computer education programs based around rote memorization may be heard asking things such as "just tell me where to click", and may need to rely upon paper notes for some computing tasks. (Example: A note on the monitor reading "Hit 'enter' after power up.") Many such users may need tremendous amounts of "hand-holding" even after years or decades of daily computer use. (This can be especially frustrating for experienced computer users, who are accustomed to figuring out computers largely on their own.) The primary factor preventing such functionally computer illiterate users from self-educating may simply be fear (of losing data through doing the "wrong thing") or lack of motivation; in any case, more technically oriented friends and relatives often find themselves pressed into service as "free tech support" for such users.
In addition to classes, there are many How-to books that cover various aspects of computer training, such as the popular 'For Dummies' series. There are also many websites that devote themselves to this task, such as The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Internet. Such tutorials often aim at gradually boosting readers' confidence, while teaching them how to troubleshoot computers, fix security issues, set up networks, and use software.
Aspects of computer literacy
Aspects of computer literacy include:
- what is a computer
- what are its limitations
- what is a program (not necessarily how to program)
- what is an algorithm
- what is computable
- what a computer cannot do
- why computers cannot produce random numbers
- some seemingly simple problems are not
- concurrency and issues with shared data
- Reduce computer literacy needs with Desktop Search
- all computers have the same computing ability with differences in memory capacity and speed
- performance depends on more than CPU clock speed
- understanding the concept of stored data
- what are the real causes of "computer errors"
- the implications of incorrect (buggy) programs
- the implications of using a program incorrectly (garbage in, garbage out)
- issues rising from distributed computing
- computer security
- trojan horse (computing), computer virus, email spoofing, URL spoofing, phishing, etc ...
- what to do when a security certificate is questioned
- password creation (how to avoid bad ones)
- social implications/aspects of computing
- keyboarding, mousing (using input devices)
- plugging in and turning the computer on
- using/understanding user-interface elements (e.g., windows, menus, icons, buttons, etc.)
- Composing, editing and printing documents
- the ability to communicate with others using computers through electronic mail (email) or instant messaging services
- managing and editing pictures (from cell phones, digital cameras or even scans)
- Opening files and recognizing different file types
- Multimedia literacy, including, but not limited to:
- making movies
- making sound files
- creating web pages
A higher order of computer literacy involves a user being able to adapt and learn new procedures through various means while using a computer.
Copyright and Fair Use Laws
Copyright and fairuse laws constitute a mammoth part of computer literacies.
It might be considered that the understanding of copyright and fair use is part of computer literacy. That is, a web author might be deprived of agency by not having knowledge of basic copyright and basic fair use. In the US, in order for an item to be copyrighted, it has to be original and fixed. If that is true, then copyright protection is automatic. Therefore, much of the content on the web is copyright protected. Yet, we live in a re-mix culture where ripping, mixing, and burning is the norm. And so, this puts us in a position where the average person is cutting and pasting, and potentially copyright infringing on a regular basis.
Knowledge of fair use then becomes a crucial part of computer literacy, as to use under fair use is to use without copyright infringement. Fair use in the US is defined in section 107 of Title 17 of the copyright act. Four factors are relevant: basically, the purpose of the use, the amount used, the nature of the copyrighted work, and the impact of the use on the potential market of the copyright holder.
Therefore, in order to compose in digital networks, and in a fashion that is literate, one needs basic understanding of copyright and fair use.
The ever-growing processing power of modern computers is used to present the user with an interface that requires minimal computer skills to operate. Modern software often utilizes buttons, icons and elaborate pictographic interfaces to try to achieve a high level of usability. Most of the time people use computers, they do not realize that they are doing so. (Examples: ATMs, car navigation systems, mobile phones, microwave ovens...)
One of the major goals in computer engineering is the construction of a Natural Language Interface, possibly with speech recognition, body language recognition and automatic visualisation. This would eliminate the need for computer literacy in everyday work and life in areas where such machines are available.
- [[[Computer anxiety]]
- Computer searching
- Computer training
- European Computer Driving Licence
- Abou El Kheir, O. H. (1998). Computer Anxiety Scale: Derasat Nafseyah Vol 8(3-4) Jul-Oct 1998, 453-471.
- Alder, G. S. (2000). Computer performance monitoring and fairness: The role of feedback. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Andrew, J. D., & Robertson, J. L. (2001). Private-Sector Computer Skills Expectations for Rehabilitation Counselor Job Applicants: Rehabilitation Education Vol 15(3) 2001, 295-299.
- Andrew, J. D., & Sabik, S. F. (1999). Computer skills expectations for rehabilitation counselor job applicants: Rehabilitation Education Vol 13(4) 1999, 349-357.
- Antonietti, A., Colombo, B., & Perez-Fabello, M. J. (2002). Lack of association of computer use and ability with spontaneous mental visualization: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 94(1) Feb 2002, 182-184.
- Baber, C., & Baumann, K. (2002). Embedded human computer interaction: Applied Ergonomics Vol 33(3) May 2002, 273-287.
- Balen, R. M., & Jewesson, P. J. (2004). Pharmacist Computer Skills and Needs Assessment Survey: Journal of Medical Internet Research Vol 6(1) Jan-Mar 2004, No Pagination Specified.
- Balter, O. (2002). A longitudinal study of attitude changes in a medical service organisation after an email introduction: Interacting with Computers Vol 14(5) Oct 2002, 503-519.
- Bannert, M., & Arbinger, P. R. (1996). Gender-related differences in exposure to and use of computers: Results of a survey of secondary school students: European Journal of Psychology of Education Vol 11(3) Sep 1996, 269-282.
- Barrett, H. C. (1991). Adult self-directed learning, personal computer competency, and learning style: Models for more effective learning: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Bartelle, F. W. (1990). Computer anxiety and its relationship with utilization of computers by selected secondary school principals: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Berghaus, M. (1999). Students and interactive theoretical reflections and empirical findings about "AlphaBITsing" the university: Zeitschrift fur Medienpsychologie Vol 11(4) Dec 1999, 260-276.
- Bersch, G. T. (1991). Factors relating to the acquisition of competency in the use of personal computers among adults in Alaska: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Boettner, L. M. (1994). Computer anxiety: Its related characteristics and its relationship to achievement in computer literacy of Slippery Rock University students. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Bornet, B. J. (1999). How adults become computer literate: A pluralistic study. What helps? What hurts? (computer literacy, diversity). Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Bradley, G., & Russell, G. (1997). Computer experience, school support and computer anxieties: Educational Psychology Vol 17(3) Sep 1997, 267-284.
- Brady, J., & Knox, S. (2004). Computer access, skills and training among consultants and psychiatric trainees in Northern Ireland: Psychiatric Bulletin Vol 28(11) Nov 2004, 415-417.
- Braga, D. B. (2007). Developing critical social awareness through digital literacy practices within the context of higher education in Brazil: Language and Education Vol 21(3) 2007, 180-196.
- Brickhouse, N. W., & Potter, J. T. (2001). Young women's scientific identity formation in an urban context: Journal of Research in Science Teaching Vol 38(8) Oct 2001, 965-980.
- Brinkerhoff, J., & Koroghlanian, C. M. (2005). Student Computer Skills And Attitudes Toward Internet-Delivered Instruction: An Assessment Of Stability Over Time And Place: Journal of Educational Computing Research Vol 32(1) 2005, 27-56.
- Britt, M. A., & Gabrys, G. L. (2001). Teaching advanced literacy skills for the World Wide Web. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
- Brock, D. B. (1994). Computer training: The role of computer attitudes and behavior modeling in the acquisition of declarative and procedural knowledge. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Brock, D. B., & Sulsky, L. M. (1994). Attitudes toward computers: Construct validations and relations to computer use: Journal of Organizational Behavior Vol 15(1) Jan 1994, 17-35.
- Bulfin, S., & North, S. (2007). Negotiating digital literacy practices across school and home: Case studies of young people in Australia: Language and Education Vol 21(3) 2007, 247-263.
- Bunz, U. (2004). The Computer-Email-Web (CEW) Fluency Scale--Development and Validation: International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction Vol 17(4) 2004, 479-506.
- Burns, B., & Ferguson, E. (1988). A developmental study of children's computer-aptitude and knowledge about computer technology: Early Child Development and Care Vol 32(1-4) 1988, 7-22.
- Canas, J. J., Bajo, M. T., Navarro, R., Padilla, F., & Puerta, M. d. C. (1998). Mental representation and computer programming: Cognitiva Vol 10(1-2) 1998, 239-255.
- Cavanaugh, A. L. (1993). Computers, self-efficacy, and primary children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Chalmers, K. A., Humphreys, M. S., & Dennis, S. (1997). A naturalistic study of the word frequency effect in episodic recognition: Memory & Cognition Vol 25(6) Nov 1997, 780-784.
- Changchit, C., Cutshall, R., & Elwood, S. (2006). Students' perceptions of the Laptop Program: What factors should be considered before implementing the program? : International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Education Vol 2(2) 2006, 53-61.
- Charlton, J. P., & Birkett, P. E. (1999). An integrative model of factors related to computing course performance: Journal of Educational Computing Research Vol 20(3) 1999, 237-257.
- Chi, F.-J. J. (1997). Role of the user's efficacy expectations in predicting the usage of computer-mediated communication technologies: The case of electronic mail by controlling the effect of management support, system quality and individual previous computer experience. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Chi, S. (1994). Computer knowledge, interests, attitudes, and uses among faculty in two teachers' universities in China. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Childress, M. D., & Overbaugh, R. C. (2001). The relationship between learning style and achievement in a one-way video, two-way audio preservice teacher education computer literacy course: International Journal of Educational Telecommunications Vol 7(1) 2001, 57-71.
- Chou, C., Tsai, C.-C., & Chan, P.-S. (2007). Developing a web-based two-tier test for internet literacy: British Journal of Educational Technology Vol 38(2) Mar 2007, 369-372.
- Clark, J. A. (2007). The role of practice in learning computer literacy skills. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Cody, M. J., Dunn, D., Hoppin, S., & Wendt, P. (1999). Silver surfers: Training and evaluating Internet use among older adult learners: Communication Education Vol 48(4) Oct 1999, 269-286.
- Comber, C., Colley, A., Hargreaves, D. J., & Dorn, L. (1997). The effects of age, gender and computer experience upon computer attitudes: Educational Research Vol 39(2) Sum 1997, 123-133.
- Compton, D. M., Burkett, W. H., & Burkett, G. G. (2003). No sex difference in perceived competence of computer use among male and female college students in 2002: Psychological Reports Vol 92(2) Apr 2003, 503-511.
- Cooper, J. (2006). The digital divide: The special case of gender: Journal of Computer Assisted Learning Vol 22(5) Oct 2006, 320-334.
- Coventry, L. M. (1992). Helping UNIX users: An assessment of the effectiveness of various forms of online help: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Cushall, M. B. (1990). A study of the relationships among teacher anxiety, achievement, and sequence of topics in an introductory computer literacy course: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Czaja, S. J., Sharit, J., Ownby, R., Roth, D. L., & Nair, S. (2001). Examining age differences in performance of a complex information search and retrieval task: Psychology and Aging Vol 16(4) Dec 2001, 564-579.
- D'Andrea, M. (1995). Using computer technology to promote multicultural awareness among elementary school-age students: Elementary School Guidance & Counseling Vol 30(1) Oct 1995, 45-54.
- Dangwal, R., Jha, S., & Kapur, P. (2006). Impact of Minimally Invasive Education on children: An Indian perspective: British Journal of Educational Technology Vol 37(2) Mar 2006, 295-298.
- Davis, S. A. (1990). Training novice users of computer systems: The roles of the computer interface, training methods, and learner characteristics: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Deacon, A., Jaftha, J., & Horwitz, D. (2004). Customising Microsoft Office to develop a tutorial learning environment: British Journal of Educational Technology Vol 35(2) Mar 2004, 223-234.
- Decker, C. A. (2001). Computer preparedness: A study of computer use self-efficacy among DECA students in Kentucky. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
- Decker, C. A. (2002). Computer preparedness: A study of computer use self-efficacy among DECA students in Kentucky. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
- Delgado-Gaitan, C. (2005). Family Narratives in Multiple Literacies: Anthropology & Education Quarterly Vol 36(3) Sep 2005, 265-272.
- Dimock, P. H., & Cormier, P. (1991). The effects of format differences and computer experience on performance and anxiety on a computer-administered test: Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development Vol 24(3) Oct 1991, 119-126.
- Durndell, A., Haag, Z., & Laithwaite, H. (2000). Computer self efficacy and gender: A cross cultural study of Scotland and Romania: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 28(6) Jun 2000, 1037-1044.
- Dyck, J. L., & Smither, J. A.-A. (1994). Age differences in computer anxiety: The role of computer experience, gender and education: Journal of Educational Computing Research Vol 10(3) 1994, 239-248.
- Ebo, B. (1998). Cyberghetto or cybertopia?: Race, class, and gender on the Internet. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
- Echt, K. V., Morrell, R. W., & Park, D. C. (1998). Effects of age and training formats on basic computer skill acquisition in older adults: Educational Gerontology Vol 24(1) Jan-Feb 1998, 3-25.
- Elliott, R. H., & Tevavichulada, S. (1999). Computer literacy and human resource management: A public/private sector comparison: Public Personnel Management Vol 28(2) Sum 1999, 259-274.
- Ellis, R. D., & Allaire, J. C. (1999). Modeling computer interest in older adults: The role of age, education, computer knowledge, and computer anxiety: Human Factors Vol 41(3) Sep 1999, 345-355.
- Eriksson, I. V., Finnas, A. E., & Reijonen, P. (1991). Visual simulation as an aid to understanding computer functions: Interacting with Computers Vol 3(2) Aug 1991, 187-203.
- Facer, K., & Furlong, R. (2001). Beyond the myth of the "cyberkid': Young people at the margins of the information revolution: Journal of Youth Studies Vol 4(4) Dec 2001, 451-469.
- Fletcher-Flinn, C. M., & Suddendorf, T. (1996). Do computers affect "The Mind"? : Journal of Educational Computing Research Vol 15(2) 1996, 97-112.
- Flowers, C. P., & Algozzine, R. F. (2000). Development and validation of scores on the Basic Technology Competencies for Educators Inventory: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 60(3) Jun 2000, 411-418.
- Fox, N. J. (1996). IT culture in medical education: Journal of Computer Assisted Learning Vol 12(2) Jun 1996, 78-88.
- Franceschina, E., Dorz, S., & Bari, M. (2001). Computer and traditional administration of the Cognitive Behavioral Assessment 2.0: Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata No 235 Sep-Dec 2001, 57-62.
- Franzke, M. (1995). Exploration and experienced performance with display-based systems. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Fuchs, C. (2006). Exploring German preservice teachers' electronic and professional literacy skills: ReCALL: Journal of Eurocall Vol 18(2) Nov 2006, 174-192.
- Garthwait, A. (2007). Middle school hypermedia composition: A qualitative case study: Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia Vol 16(4) 2007, 357-375.
- Gattiker, U. E. (1992). Computer skills acquisition: A review and future directions for research: Journal of Management Vol 18(3) Sep 1992, 547-574.
- Glenwick, D. S., Mroczak, D. K., & MacDonall, J. S. (2001). Learning research as a lifelong skill. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Godin, S. (2005). Technology Applications in Prevention: An Introduction: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community Vol 29(1-2) 2005, 1-6.
- Goldberg, A. L., & Pedulla, J. J. (2002). Performance differences according to test mode and computer familiarity on a practice Graduate Record Exam: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 62(6) Dec 2002, 1053-1067.
- Goodman, G., Tiene, D., & Luft, P. (2002). Adoption of Assistive Technology for computer access among college students with disabilities: Disability and Rehabilitation: An International, Multidisciplinary Journal Vol 24(1-3) Jan 2002, 80-92.
- Gouveia-Oliveira, A., Rodrigues, T., & Galvao de Melo, F. (1994). Computer education: Attitudes and opinions of first-year medical students: Medical Education Vol 28(6) Nov 1994, 501-507.
- Gouzouasis, P. (1994). Multimedia constructions of children: An exploratory study: Journal of Computing in Childhood Education Vol 5(3-4) 1994, 273-284.
- Green, R. M. (2005). Predictors of digital fluency. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Groen, G. J. (1971). The World of Computers: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 16 (8), Aug, 1971.
- Groves, D. L., & Slack, T. (1994). Computers and their application to senior citizen therapy within a nursing home: Journal of Instructional Psychology Vol 21(3) Sep 1994, 221-226.
- Gunn, T. C. (1991). Mental models of adult Logo learners: The concept of variable: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Gurganus, S., Boudah, D. J., & Fred, R. (2003). Promoting computer literacy by teaching low-performing readers how to learn: Reading & Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties Vol 19(4) Oct-Dec 2003, 399-402.
- Hackbarth, S. (2004). Changes in 4th-Graders' Computer Literacy as a Function of Access, Gender, and Race: Information Technology in Childhood Education Annual Vol 16 2004, 187-212.
- Hamlin, M. D. (1991). Knowledge and skill components of expert and novice software users: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Hargittai, E. (2005). Survey Measures of Web-Oriented Digital Literacy: Social Science Computer Review Vol 23(3) Aug 2005, 371-379.
- Harmier, F. R. (1992). Selected elementary teachers' knowledge and perceptions of computer technology: Implications for inservice training: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Harris, K. N. (1996). A study of control theory effect on attitudes, anxiety, computer knowledge, and locus of control of adult vocational learners in Kansas. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Harrison, C., Hay, D., Pierson, A., & Burton, J. K. (1992). Computer literacy skills among school students and employees in industry: Journal of Computer Assisted Learning Vol 8(4) Dec 1992, 194-205.
- Havard, B. C. (2000). Factors influencing computer self-efficacy in an introductory level computer course. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Hawkins, R., & Paris, A. E. (1997). Computer literacy and computer use among college students: Differences in Black and White: Journal of Negro Education Vol 66(2) Spr 1997, 147-158.
- Hazzan, O. (2003). Reducing abstraction when learning computability theory: Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching Vol 22(2) 2003, 95-117.
- Heil, M. C., & Agnew, B. O. (2000). The effects of previous computer experience on Air Traffic-Selection and Training (AT-SAT) test performance: FAA Office of Aviation Medicine Reports DOT-FAA-AM-00-12 Apr 2000, 1-11.
- Henderson, J. L. (1992). The effects of cooperative learning teams on teaching business computer applications and operations at the college level: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Hignite, M. A., & Echternacht, L. J. (1996). Assessment of the computer literacy levels of a select group of college students: Prospective business educators: College Student Journal Vol 30(1) Mar 1996, 119-123.
- Hollis-Sawyer, L. A., & Sterns, H. L. (1999). A novel goal-oriented approach for training older adult computer novices: Beyond the effects of individual-difference factors: Educational Gerontology Vol 25(7) Oct-Nov 1999, 661-684.
- Hope, T. C. (1996). Effects of user-friendly content and in-class tutorials on computer anxiety of novice users. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Hudiburg, R. A., & Necessary, J. R. (1996). Coping with computer-stress: Journal of Educational Computing Research Vol 15(2) 1996, 113-124.
- Huerta, E., & Sandoval-Almazan, R. (2007). Digital literacy: Problems faced by telecenter users in Mexico: Information Technology for Development Vol 13(3) Sum 2007, 217-232.
- Huff, M. M., & Rogers, W. A. (2001). An age-related view of computer literacy for adult African Americans. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Hwang, S. C. (1991). A comparison of the effects on students' attitudes toward computers of a computer programming course versus a computer programming and awareness course: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Ibrahim, M. B. (1995). Attitudes toward computers among teachers: Relationship with field dependence/field independence and computer experience. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Ike, C. A. (1997). Development through educational technology: Implications for teacher personality and peer collaboration: Journal of Instructional Psychology Vol 24(1) Mar 1997, 42-49.
- Ilomaki, L., & Rantanen, P. (2007). Intensive use of ICT in school: Developing differences in students' ICT expertise: Computers & Education Vol 48(1) Jan 2007, 119-136.
- Imhof, M., Vollmeyer, R., & Beierlein, C. (2007). Computer use and the gender gap: The issue of access, use, motivation, and performance: Computers in Human Behavior Vol 23(6) Nov 2007, 2823-2837.
- Isenberg, S. K. (2005). The experience of applying andragogical principles to Internet learning. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Isiksal, M., & Askar, P. (2005). The effect of spreadsheet and dynamic geometry software on the achievement and self-efficacy of 7th-grade students: Educational Research Vol 47(3) Nov 2005, 333-350.
- Jacko, J., Emery, V. K., Edwards, P. J., Ashok, M., Barnard, L., Kongnakorn, T., et al. (2004). The effects of multimodal feedback on older adults' task performance given varying levels of computer experience: Behaviour & Information Technology Vol 23(4) Jul-Aug 2004, 247-264.
- Jacobson, D. (2001). Presence revisited: Imagination, competence, and activity in text-based virtual worlds: CyberPsychology & Behavior Vol 4(6) Dec 2001, 653-673.
- Johnson, D., & Gardner, J. (2007). The media equation and team formation: Further evidence for experience as a moderator: International Journal of Human-Computer Studies Vol 65(2) Feb 2007, 111-124.
- Karavidas, M. K. (2004). The effects ofcomputer usage on the retired older adult population. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Kay, D. S. (1991). Computer interaction: Debugging the problems. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Kay, R. (1992). An analysis of methods used to examine gender differences in computer-related behavior: Journal of Educational Computing Research Vol 8(3) 1992, 277-290.
- Kay, R. H. (1990). Predicting student teacher commitment to the use of computers: Journal of Educational Computing Research Vol 6(3) 1990, 299-309.
- Kay, R. H. (1997). The acquisition of computer knowledge: A formative analysis. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Kessler, R. (1995). Cognitive styles and concept mapping dimensions of hypermedia computer users. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Kiesler, S., Zdaniuk, B., Lundmark, V., & Kraut, R. (2000). Troubles with the Internet: The dynamics of help at home: Human-Computer Interaction Vol 15(4) 2000, 323-351.
- Kim, Y., Baylor, A. L., & Shen, E. (2007). Pedagogical agents as learning companions: The impact of agent emotion and gender: Journal of Computer Assisted Learning Vol 23(3) Jun 2007, 220-234.
- Kimber, K., Pillay, H., & Richards, C. (2007). Technoliteracy and learning: An analysis of the quality of knowledge in electronic representations of understanding: Computers & Education Vol 48(1) Jan 2007, 59-79.
- Kimber, K., & Wyatt-Smith, C. (2006). Using and creating knowledge with new technologies: A case for students-as-designers: Learning, Media & Technology Vol 31(1) Mar 2006, 19-34.
- Kirkman, C. (1993). Computer experience and attitudes of 12-year-old students: Implications for the UK National Curriculum: Journal of Computer Assisted Learning Vol 9(1) Mar 1993, 51-62.
- Kissel, G. V. (1997). The influence of computer experience on the agreement between user preference and performance rankings in usability testing. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Koenemann, J. (1996). Relevance feedback: Usage, usability, utility. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Kong, S. C. (2007). The development and validation of an information literacy model for Hong Kong students: Key issues in the professional development of teachers for capacity building: Technology, Pedagogy and Education Vol 16(1) Mar 2007, 57-75.
- Koutsogiannis, D. (2007). A political multi-layered approach to researching children's digital literacy practices: Language and Education Vol 21(3) 2007, 216-231.
- Kramer, T. A. M. (2003). Review of Concise Guide to Computers in Clinical Psychiatry: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 64(4) Apr 2003, 487-488.
- Kraus, L. A. (1996). The effects of a case-based hypermedia environment: A research study examining behavior disorder knowledge acquisition, user learning styles, student-generated reports, prior computer experience, user time, and navigational patterns. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Krotz, F., & Hasebrink, U. (2001). Who are the new media users? Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Kuan, T. H. (1991). A comparison of paper-and-pencil, computer-administered, computerized feedback, and computerized adaptive testing methods for classroom achievement testing: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Kuhlemeier, H., & Hemker, B. (2005). The impact of the Internet and computer use at home on Internet and computer skills in the first stage of Dutch secondary education: Pedagogische Studien Vol 82(2) 2005, 115-136.
- Laguna, K. D. (1998). Computer testing of memory across the adult life span. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- LaLomia, M. J., & Sidowski, J. B. (1990). Measurements of computer satisfaction, literacy, and aptitudes: A review: International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction Vol 2(3) 1990, 231-253.
- Landerholm, E. (1995). Early childhood teachers' computer attitudes, knowledge, and practices: Early Child Development and Care Vol 109 May 1995, 43-60.
- Lazonder, A. W., & van der Meij, H. (1993). The minimal manual: Is less really more? : International Journal of Man-Machine Studies Vol 39(5) Nov 1993, 729-752.
- Lee, D. M. S., Pliskin, N., & Kahn, B. (1994). The relationship between performance in a computer literacy course and students' prior achievement and knowledge: Journal of Educational Computing Research Vol 10(1) 1994, 63-77.
- Leu, D. J., Jr., & Kinzer, C. K. (2003). Toward a theoretical framework of new literacies on the Internet: Central principles. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Levine, T., & Donitsa-Schmidt, S. (1998). Computer use, confidence, attitudes, and knowledge: A causal analysis: Computers in Human Behavior Vol 14(1) Jan 1998, 125-146.
- Liao, Y.-k. C., & Bright, G. W. (1991). Effects of computer programming on cognitive outcomes: A meta-analysis: Journal of Educational Computing Research Vol 7(3) 1991, 251-268.
- Li-Tsang, C. W. P., Lee, M. Y. F., Yeung, S. S. S., Siu, A. M. H., & Lam, C. S. (2007). A 6-month follow-up of the effects of an information and communication technology (ICT) training programme on people with intellectual disabilities: Research in Developmental Disabilities Vol 28(6) Nov 2007, 559-566.
- Liu, Y., & Zhang, K. (1997). A study on measuring S-R compatibility and using S-R compatibility to evaluate learning easiness of typing Chinese characters into computers: Acta Psychologica Sinica Vol 29(1) 1997, 91-97.
- Love, G. D. (1994). Computer aversion in preservice teachers: Its relationship to critical thinking skills and other individual and demographic variables. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Loveless, A. M. (1997). Visual literacy and new technology in primary schools: The Glebe School Project: Journal of Computing in Childhood Education Vol 8(2-3) 1997, 97-110.
- Lowther, D. L., Bassoppo-Moyo, T., & Morrison, G. R. (1998). Moving from computer literate to technologically competent: The next educational reform: Computers in Human Behavior Vol 14(1) Jan 1998, 93-109.
- Luo, J. S. (2006). An Informatics Primer: Primary Psychiatry Vol 13(1) Jan 2006, 20-21.
- Mahach, K. R., Boehm-Davis, D., & Holt, R. (1995). The effects of mice and pull-down menus versus command-driven interfaces on writing: International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction Vol 7(3) Jul-Sep 1995, 213-234.
- Margolis, J., & Fisher, A. (2002). Unlocking the clubhouse: Women in computing: Psychology of Women Quarterly Vol 26(4) Dec 2002, 381-382.
- Marold, K. A., & Larsen, G. (1999). Is the range war over? An investigation into preferences for e-mail and v-mail: Social Science Computer Review Vol 17(4) Win 1999, 466-471.
- Marquie, J. C., Jourdan-Boddaert, L., & Huet, N. (2002). Do older adults underestimate their actual computer knowledge? : Behaviour & Information Technology Vol 21(4) Jul-Aug 2002, 273-280.
- Marsh, J. (2006). Emergent media literacy: Digital animation in early childhood: Language and Education Vol 20(6) 2006, 493-506.
- Maurer, M. M. (1992). The reduction of computer anxiety: Its relation to relaxation training, previous computer training, achievement and need for cognition: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Mayer, R. E. (1997). Out-of-school learning: The case of an after-school computer club: Journal of Educational Computing Research Vol 16(4) 1997, 333-336.
- Mayhorn, C. B., Stronge, A. J., McLaughlin, A. C., & Rogers, W. A. (2004). Older Adults, Computer Training, and the Systems Approach: A Formula for Success: Educational Gerontology Vol 30(3) Mar 2004, 185-203.
- McCarthy, M., & Pusateri, T. P. (2006). Teaching Students to Use Electronic Databases. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- McGlade, K. J., McKeveney, C. J., Crawford, V. L. S., & Brannigan, P. (2001). Preparing tomorrow's doctors: The impact of a special study module in medical informatics: Medical Education Vol 35(1) Jan 2001, 62-67.
- McKay, M. A. (1999). A comparison of the effects of procedural and metacognition instruction on the transfer of computer software skills. (procedural instruction, Macintosh, Clarisworks, Microsoft Office). Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- McKenna, M. C. (2003). Integrating the literacies of reading and writing with computer technology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Mead, S. E., Batsakes, P., Fisk, A. D., & Mykityshyn, A. (1999). Application of cognitive theory to training and design solutions for age-related computer use: International Journal of Behavioral Development Vol 23(3) Sep 1999, 553-573.
- Mead, S. E., Sit, R. A., Rogers, W. A., Jamieson, B. A., & Rousseau, G. K. (2000). Influences of general computer experience and age on library database search performance: Behaviour & Information Technology Vol 19(2) Mar-Apr 2000, 107-123.
- Merchant, G. (2007). Writing the future in the digital age: Literacy Vol 41(3) Nov 2007, 118-128.
- Miller, F., & Varma, N. (1994). The effects of psychosocial factors on Indian children's attitudes toward computers: Journal of Educational Computing Research Vol 10(3) 1994, 223-238.
- Miller, L. A., & Stanney, K. M. (1997). The effect of pictogram-based interface design on human-computer performance: International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction Vol 9(2) 1997, 119-131.
- Miller, L. A., Stanney, K. M., & Wooten, W. (1997). Development and evaluation of the Windows Computer Experience Questionnaire (WCEQ): International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction Vol 9(3) 1997, 201-212.
- Miller, L. M., Schweingruber, H., & Brandenburg, C. L. (2001). Middle school students' technology practices and preferences: Re-examining gender differences: Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia Vol 10(2) 2001, 125-140.
- Mills, R. E. (2005). The experience of learning computer skills for low-income African American and Hispanic seniors. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Mitra, S., & Rana, V. (2001). Children and the Internet: Experiments with minimally invasive education in India: British Journal of Educational Technology Vol 32(2) Mar 2001, 221-232.
- Mitsikopoulou, B. (2007). The interplay of the global and the local in English language learning and electronic communication discourses and practices in Greece: Language and Education Vol 21(3) 2007, 232-246.
- Monnickendam, M., & Markus, E. J. (1997). Effects of a practice-centred, cognitive-oriented computer course on computer attitudes: Implications for course content: Social Work and Social Sciences Review Vol 6(3) 1997, 175-185.
- Mouzes, M. (1996). How women learn to use computers: Overcoming negative attitudes toward computers during the learning process. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Nahl-Jakobovits, D. (1994). CD-ROM point-of-use instructions for novice searchers: A comparison of user-centered affectively elaborated and system-centered unelaborated text. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Natvig, D. (2007). Meeting intergenerational needs through service learning: Educational Gerontology Vol 33(7) Jul 2007, 573-586.
- Nichols, L. (2004). Learning to Keyboard: Does the Use of Keyboard Covers Make a Difference? : Information Technology in Childhood Education Annual Vol 16 2004, 175-185.
- No authorship, i. (2005). Review of Digital inclusion, Teens, and your Library: Exploring the Issues and Acting on them: Adolescence Vol 40(159) Fal 2005, 680.
- No authorship, i. (2005). Review of Integrating Information Literacy into the Higher Education Curriculum: Practical Models for Transformation: Adolescence Vol 40(159) Fal 2005, 689.
- Norman, C. D., & Skinner, H. A. (2006). e-Health literacy: Essential skills for consumer health in a networked world: Journal of Medical Internet Research Vol 8(2) 2006, No Pagination Specified.
- Northrop, A., Kraemer, K. L., Dunkle, D. E., & King, J. L. (1994). Management policy for greater computer benefits: Friendly software, computer literacy, or formal training: Social Science Computer Review Vol 12(3) Fal 1994, 383-404.
- Novick, L. R. (2004). Diagram literacy in preservice math teachers, computer science majors, and typical undergraduates: The case of matrices, networks, and hierarchies: Mathematical Thinking and Learning Vol 6(3) 2004, 307-342.
- O'Hanlon, N. (1999). Web-based tutorials: Does course use differ from general use? : Journal of Interactive Learning Research Vol 10(2) 1999, 217-228.
- Osman, L. M., & Muir, A. L. (1994). Computer skills and attitudes to computer-aided learning among medical students: Medical Education Vol 28(5) Sep 1994, 381-385.
- Palaigeorgiou, G. E., Siozos, P. D., Konstantakis, N. I., & Tsoukalas, I. A. (2005). A computer attitude scale for computer science freshmen and its educational implications: Journal of Computer Assisted Learning Vol 21(5) Oct 2005, 330-342.
- Perry, E. L., Simpson, P. A., NicDomhnaill, O. M., & Siegel, D. M. (2003). Is there a technology age gap? Associations among age, skills, and employment outcomes: International Journal of Selection and Assessment Vol 11(2-3) Jun-Sep 2003, 141-149.
- Persichitte, K. A. (1993). An analysis of factors contributing to gender bias in computer use and attitude among high school students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Pianfetti, B. M., Jr. (2000). "Learning how to know how to do": Enabling newcomers to succeed in complex micro-cultures. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Piemonte, C. (1991). The interaction of gender and software treatment on third-grader's interest and achievement in keyboarding: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Plude, D. J., Benaderet, T., & Herrmann, D. J. (2001). Aging, memory assessment and self-reported function: International Journal of Cognitive Technology Vol 6(1) Spr 2001, 38-40.
- Polyakov, A., Palmer, E., Devitt, P. G., & Coventry, B. J. (2000). Clinicians and computers: Friends or foes? : Teaching and Learning in Medicine Vol 12(2) Spr 2000, 91-95.
- Polyakov, A. A., & Korobeinikov, G. K. (1996). Age-related features of learning and relearning in computer operation: Human Physiology Vol 22(6) Nov-Dec 1996, 694-698.
- Potosky, D. (2002). A field study of computer efficacy beliefs as an outcome of training: The role of computer playfulness, computer knowledge, and performance during training: Computers in Human Behavior Vol 18(3) May 2002, 241-256.
- Potosky, D., & Bobko, P. (1998). The Computer Understanding and Experience Scale: A self-report measure of computer experience: Computers in Human Behavior Vol 14(2) May 1998, 337-348.
- Powers, D. E., & O'Neill, K. (1993). Inexperienced and anxious computer users: Coping with a computer-administered test of academic skills: Educational Assessment Vol 1(2) Spr 1993, 153-173.
- Poynton, T. A. (2005). Computer literacy across the lifespan: A review with implications for educators: Computers in Human Behavior Vol 21(6) Nov 2005, 861-872.
- Preston, B. E. (1995). The relationship of individual and organizational characteristics to computer use among public school administrators. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Price, L. (2006). Gender differences and similarities in online courses: Challenging stereotypical views of women: Journal of Computer Assisted Learning Vol 22(5) Oct 2006, 349-359.
- Reed, K., Doty, D. H., & May, D. R. (2005). The Impact of Aging on Self-efficacy and Computer Skill Acquisition: Journal of Managerial Issues Vol 17(2) Sum 2005, 212-228.
- Reed, K. L. (1999). New age technology and new "aged" workers: The impact of age on computer technology skill acquisition and the influence of computer self-efficacy, age-related beliefs, and change attitudes. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Reed, W. M., & Giessler, S. F. (1995). Prior computer-related experiences and hypermedia metacognition: Computers in Human Behavior Vol 11(3-4) Fal-Win 1995, 581-600.
- Repique, R. J. R. (2004). Informatics Competencies: Essential for Psychiatric Nursing Practice: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association Vol 10(2) Apr 2004, 61-66.
- Richter, T., Naumann, J., & Groeben, N. (2000). The Computer Literacy Inventory (INCOBI): An instrument for the assessment of computer literacy and attitudes toward the computer in university students of the humanities and the social sciences: Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht Vol 48(1) 2000, 1-13.
- Robertson, S. I., Calder, J., Fung, P., Jones, A., & et al. (1996). Pupils, teachers & Palmtop computers: Journal of Computer Assisted Learning Vol 12(4) Dec 1996, 194-204.
- Rosen, L. D., & Weil, M. M. (1995). Computer availability, computer experience and technophobia among public school teachers: Computers in Human Behavior Vol 11(1) Spr 1995, 9-31.
- Ross, J. A. (1996). The influence of computer communication skills on participation in a computer conferencing course: Journal of Educational Computing Research Vol 15(1) 1996, 37-52.
- Ross, J. A., Hogaboam-Gray, A., & Hannay, L. (2001). Effects of teacher efficacy on computer skills and computer cognitions of Canadian students in Grades K-3: The Elementary School Journal Vol 102(2) Nov 2001, 141-156.
- Rozell, E. J., & Gardner, W. L., III. (1999). Computer-related success and failure: A longitudinal field study of the factors influencing computer-related performance: Computers in Human Behavior Vol 15(1) Jan 1999, 1-10.
- Russon, A. E., Josefowitz, N., & Edmonds, C. V. (1994). Making computer instruction accessible: Familiar analogies for female novices: Computers in Human Behavior Vol 10(2) Sum 1994, 175-187.
- Saczynski, J. S., Rebok, G. W., Whitfield, K. E., & Plude, D. J. (2004). Effectiveness of CD-ROM Memory Training as a Function of Within-Session Autonomy: International Journal of Cognitive Technology Vol 9(1) Spr 2004, 25-33.
- Sariya, Y. (1992). A study of college students' attitudes toward computers: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Saude, S., Carioca, V., Siraj-Blatchford, J., Sheridan, S., Genov, K., & Nuez, R. (2005). KINDERET: Developing training for early childhood educators in information and communications technology (ICT) in Bulgaria, England, Portugal, Spain and Sweden: International Journal of Early Years Education Vol 13(3) Oct 2005, 265-287.
- Savenye, W. C., Davidson, G. V., & Smith, P. L. (1991). Teaching instructional design in a computer literacy course: Educational Technology Research and Development Vol 39(3) 1991, 49-58.
- Schulenberg, S. E., & Melton, A. M. A. (2007). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Computer Understanding and Experience Scale: Psychological Reports Vol 100(3,Pt2) Jun 2007, 1263-1269.
- Schumacher, P., & Morahan-Martin, J. (2001). Gender, Internet and computer attitudes and experiences: Computers in Human Behavior Vol 17(1) Jan 2001, 95-110.
- Schustack, M. W., Strauss, R., & Worden, P. E. (1997). Learning about technology in a non-instructional environment: Journal of Educational Computing Research Vol 16(4) 1997, 337-351.
- Scott, C. S., Shaad, D. C., Mandel, L. S., Brock, D. M., & Kim, S. (2000). Information and informatics literacy: Skill, timing, and estimates of competence: Teaching and Learning in Medicine Vol 12(2) Spr 2000, 85-90.
- Segrist, K. A. (2004). A Computer Training Program for Older Adults: Identifying and Overcoming Barriers to Continued Computer Usage: Activities, Adaptation & Aging Vol 28(4) 2004, 13-26.
- Selwyn, N. (2005). The Social Processes of Learning to Use Computers: Social Science Computer Review Vol 23(1) Spr 2005, 122-135.
- Selwyn, N., Gorard, S., Furlong, J., & Madden, L. (2003). Older adults' use of information and communications technology in everyday life: Ageing & Society Vol 23(5) Sep 2003, 561-582.
- Seyal, A. H., & Pijpers, G. G. M. (2004). Senior government executives' use of the Internet: A Bruneian scenario: Behaviour & Information Technology Vol 23(3) May-Jun 2004, 197-210.
- Shoffner, L. B. (1990). The effects of home environment on achievement and attitudes toward computer literacy: Educational Research Quarterly Vol 14(1) 1990, 6-14.
- Shoffner, M. B. W. (1998). Effects of instructional strategies on emerging technology-based visual literacy instruction: Problem-based learning, networked hypermedia-based instruction, and cooperative learning strategies. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Shotick, J., & Stephens, P. R. (2006). Gender Inequities of Self-Efficacy on Task-Specific Computer Applications in Business: Journal of Education for Business Vol 81(5) May-Jun 2006, 269-273.
- Simon, S. J., & Werner, J. M. (1996). Computer training through behavior modeling, self-paced, and instructional approaches: A field experiment: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 81(6) Dec 1996, 648-659.
- Smith, E. S. (1993). Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and computer literacy: A study of adult learners in a technological business environment: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Snyder, I., & Prinsloo, M. (2007). Young people's engagement with digital literacies in marginal contexts in a globalised world: Language and Education Vol 21(3) 2007, 171-179.
- Sommaruga, L., & Catenazzi, N. (1998). The Hyper Apuntes interactive learning environment for computer programming teaching: Journal of Interactive Learning Research Vol 9(1) 1998, 37-53.
- Stephen, C., & Plowman, L. (2003). Information and Communication Technologies in Pre-school Settings: A review of the literature: International Journal of Early Years Education Vol 11(3) Oct 2003, 223-234.
- Stephens, P. (2006). Validation of the business computer self-efficacy scale: Assessment of the computer literacy of incoming business students: Journal of Educational Computing Research Vol 34(1) 2006, 29-46.
- Stohl, L., Dangerfield, D., Christensen, J., Justice, D., & Mottonen, D. (2007). Applying emotional intelligence in treating individuals with severe psychiatric disorder: A psychotherapeutic model for educating people to be emotionally intelligent. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
- Sugasawara, H., Yoshimitsu, K., & Yamamoto, J.-I. (2003). Acquisition of Computer Skills by Persons with Developmental Disabilities: Japanese Journal of Special Education Vol 41(4) Dec 2003, 367-375.
- Swider, C. B., & Ye, N. (1996). Effect of information at different stages of users' training: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 83(3, Pt 1) Dec 1996, 747-754.
- Szajna, B. (1994). An investigation of the predictive validity of computer anxiety and computer aptitude: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 54(4) Win 1994, 926-934.
- Szajna, B., & Mackay, J. M. (1995). Predictors of learning performance in a computer-user training environment: A path-analytic study: International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction Vol 7(2) Apr-Jun 1995, 167-185.
- Taghavi, S. E. (2001). Evaluation of college students' attitudes toward computers before and after taking a computer literacy course. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Taylor, C., Kirsch, I., Eignor, D., & Jamieson, J. (1999). Examining the relationship between computer familiarity and performance on computer-based language tasks: Language Learning Vol 49(2) Jun 1999, 219-274.
- Tijdens, K. G. (1999). Behind the screens: The foreseen and unforeseen impact of computerization on female office worker's jobs: Gender, Work & Organization Vol 6(1) Jan 1999, 47-57.
- Torkzadeh, G., & Van Dyke, T. P. (2002). Effects of training on Internet self-efficacy and computer user attitudes: Computers in Human Behavior Vol 18(5) Sep 2002, 479-494.
- Touchton, D. A. F. (1993). Climate in Georgia middle schools and computer use by principals: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Trimmel, M., Meixner-Pendleton, M., & Haring, S. (2003). Stress Response Caused by System Response Time when Searching for Information on the Internet: Human Factors Vol 45(4) Win 2003, 615-621.
- Trumbly, J. E., Arnett, K. P., & Johnson, P. C. (1994). Productivity gains via an adaptive user interface: An empirical analysis: International Journal of Human-Computer Studies Vol 40(1) Jan 1994, 63-81.
- Trumbly, J. E., Arnett, K. P., & Martin, M. P. (1993). Performance effect of matching computer interface characteristics and user skill level: International Journal of Man-Machine Studies Vol 38(4) Apr 1993, 713-724.
- Tsai, M.-J. (2002). Do male students often perform better than female students when learning on computers? A study of Taiwanese eighth graders' computer education through strategic and cooperative learning: Journal of Educational Computing Research Vol 26(1) 2002, 67-85.
- Tseng, J.-d. (1991). The effects of two instructional methods on problem-solving ability and LOGO programming achievement: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Turner, G. M., Sweany, N. W., & Husman, J. (2000). Development of the Computer Interface Literacy Measure: Journal of Educational Computing Research Vol 22(1) 2000, 37-54.
- Vail, P. L. (2004). E-mail coaching of Instructional Consultation skills: Through the eyes of coaches and consultant-trainees. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Van Loon, W. O. (2001). Correlates of computer literacy among adult learners. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Van Moorsel, G. (2005). Library-Sponsored Instruction Improves Core Informatics Competencies among Allied Health Students: A Research-Based Case Study: Journal of Allied Health Vol 34(3) Fal 2005, 145-152.
- Varank, I. (2006). A comparison of a computer-based and a lecture-based computer literacy course: A Turkish case: Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education Vol 2(3) Dec 2006, 112-123.
- Wagener, D. (2003). The Computer Knowledge Test CWIS-4: Reliability and validity findings: Zeitschrift fur Personalpsychologie Vol 2(4) 2003, 169-181.
- Walker, P. J. (1993). Desktop publishing competencies needed in the business world: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Walton, M. (2007). Cheating literacy: The limitations of simulated classroom discourse in educational software for children: Language and Education Vol 21(3) 2007, 197-215.
- Walton, M., & Archer, A. (2004). The Web and information literacy: Scaffolding the use of web sources in a project-based curriculum: British Journal of Educational Technology Vol 35(2) Mar 2004, 173-186.
- Wandke, H., & Hurtienne, J. (1999). Navigational behavior of beginners in the World Wide Web: Zeitschrift fur Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie Vol 43(1) 1999, 46-53.
- Washburn, A. M. (1992). An investigation of novices' computer knowledge using a mental models approach: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Watson, G. L. (1991). Self-directed learning readiness and activities of three types of corporate computer end-users: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Weber, J. E., Ash, S. R., & Weber, P. S. (1998). Side effects of incidental computer use: Increased confidence: Psychological Reports Vol 83(1) Aug 1998, 211-214.
- Wecker, C., Kohnle, C., & Fischer, F. (2007). Computer literacy and inquiry learning: When geeks learn less: Journal of Computer Assisted Learning Vol 23(2) Apr 2007, 133-144.
- Weil, M. M., & Rosen, L. D. (1995). The psychological impact of technology from a global perspective: A study of technological sophistication and technophobia in university students from twenty-three countries: Computers in Human Behavior Vol 11(1) Spr 1995, 95-133.
- Weinert, C., & Hill, W. G. (2005). Rural women with chronic illness: Computer use and skill acquisition: Women's Health Issues Vol 15(5) Sep-Oct 2005, 230-236.
- Werner, L. L., Denner, J., & Massaro, D. W. (2005). Gender and the Digital Divide: American Journal of Psychology Vol 118(4) Win 2005, 639-645.
- Wey, P.-S. (1993). The effects of different interface presentation modes and users' individual differences on users' hypertext information access performance: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- White, L. M. (1998). Field-dependent and field-independent cognitive learning styles and internal and external locus of control: Relationships to understanding and performance on a computer project management program. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Willett, R. (2005). Book Review: ScreenPlay: Children and Computing in the Home and Cyberkids: Children in the Information Age: Journal of Early Childhood Literacy Vol 5(1) Apr 2005, 87-90.
- Williamson, T. L. (1993). Impact of a computer-integrated learning environment on students' attitudes, knowledge, and use of computers: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Wood, E., Willoughby, T., Specht, J., Stern-Cavalcante, W., & Child, C. (2002). Developing a computer workshop to facilitate computer skills and minimize anxiety for early childhood educators: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 94(1) Mar 2002, 164-170.
- Xiao, L., & Carroll, J. M. (2007). Fostering an informal learning community of computer technologies at school: Behaviour & Information Technology Vol 26(1) Jan-Feb 2007, 23-36.
- Yang, B., & Lester, D. (2002). Buying textbooks online: Psychological Reports Vol 91(3,Pt2) Dec 2002, 1222-1224.
- Yang, B., & Lester, D. (2004). Correlation of National Internet Use With Extraversion and Neuroticism: Psychological Reports Vol 95(3,Part1) Dec 2004, 1014.
- Yelland, N. (1998). Making sense of gender issues in mathematics and technology. Florence, KY: Taylor & Frances/Routledge.
- Zhang, Y., & Espinoza, S. (1997). Affiliations of computer self-efficacy and attitudes with need for learning computer skills: Journal of Educational Computing Research Vol 17(4) 1997, 371-383.
- Zhao, Y., & Frank, K. A. (2003). Factors Affecting Technology Uses in Schools: An Ecological Perspective: American Educational Research Journal Vol 40(4) Win 2003, 807-840.
- TFI Specializes in Training and Certification for Basic Computer Literacy
- Free Computer Learning Course via The ALISON Learning Project
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|