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A community college is a type of educational institution. The term has different meanings in different countries.

In Canada and the United States, a community college, sometimes called a county college, junior college, technical college, or a city college, is an educational institution providing higher education and lower-level tertiary education, granting certificates, diplomas, and Associates' degrees. The name derives from the fact that community colleges primarily attract and accept students from the local community, and are often supported by the local community through property taxes.

In the UK, community college is a name given to a secondary school, usually offering extended services of some sort, for example by having achieved a status as a technology college or by providing adult education courses. Community colleges in the UK grant General Certificates of Secondary Education and if the college incorporates a Sixth Form, A-levels or sometimes other vocational qualifications (eg GNVQs).

TerminologyEdit

Community colleges were at one time (before the 1970s and '80s) more commonly referred to as junior colleges, and that term is still used at some institutions. However, the term "junior college" has evolved to describe private two-year institutions, whereas the term "community college" has evolved to describe publicly-funded two-year institutions. Based on this evolution in terminology, the main governance body of community colleges changed its name in 1992 to the "American Association of Community Colleges" from the "American Association of Junior Colleges".

United StatesEdit

In New Jersey, slightly more than half of the state's nineteen community colleges are called county colleges, not merely in name but also in descriptive speech. This is because there is one community college, often with satellite branches, dedicated to each county of the state. The term is also used by some community colleges in Texas (where community colleges are funded by county residents via property taxes assessed by a special "community college district") and Illinois.

In several California cities (including Los Angeles, San Francisco, and San Diego), New York City, and Chicago, community colleges are often called "city colleges," since they were municipally-funded and designed to serve the needs of the residents of the city in which they are situated. The City University of New York is arguably the best known example of a municipally-funded community college system, although the system includes both junior and senior (4-year) colleges, in addition to graduate programs. The Los Angeles Community College District is the largest community college system in the United States. The Maricopa Community College District in the Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area, is the largest community college district in the United States in terms of enrollment.

In California, a large number of community colleges do not have the word "community" in their name, nor did they ever have the word "junior." This is because Calvin Flint, who supervised the founding of three such colleges during his career, famously opposed the term "junior" or any kind of qualifier as unnecessarily pejorative. His colleges "would not be junior to anyone."[1] Flint served as the first Superintendent and President of Monterey Peninsula College as well as both Foothill and De Anza Colleges. Flint Center at De Anza College is named in his honor.

CanadaEdit

In Canada, community colleges are usually simply referred to as "colleges". [How to reference and link to summary or text] In the province of Quebec, they are called Cégeps for Collège d'enseignement général et professionnel, meaning "College of General and Vocational Education".

HistoryEdit

Many events have contributed to the development and continued growth of community colleges. The social and economic climate of the early twentieth century led to vocal activists for a two year educational alternative to four year higher education institutions. Several different groups advocated for community colleges in the early twentieth century, including students and parents, educators, businesses, state universities, and government officials. Events like urbanization, industrialization, and economic development caused changes in society. One of education’s responses to a country in transition was the junior college.

Several different movements supported the creation of community colleges, including local community support of public and private two year institutions, the expansion of the public education system, increased professional standards for teachers, the vocational education movement, and an expanding demand for adult and community education. Numerous colleges and universities advocated for the development of junior colleges. Leadership felt small, private liberal arts colleges and high schools could provide the first two years of college while larger universities could focus resources on research and junior and senior level students.

Many of the early community colleges were an extension of high schools, like the first established in Joliet, Illinois in 1901. This was a two year system compared to one year high school extension. These initial community colleges generally were very small, usually less than 200 students and focused on a liberal arts education with the goal of transferring students to four year institutions. They were more reflective of high school needs and lacked a definite identity. Many of the early community colleges were normal schools and prepared teachers. Primary emphasis was placed on traditional middle class values and developing responsible citizens.

During the 1920s and 1930s there was a shift in the purpose of community colleges to developing a workforce, which was influenced by wide unemployment during the Great Depression. Developing "semiprofessionals" became dominant national language to describe junior college students and was used until after WWII. A two-year, terminal education, was seen as more socially efficient for students who could advance past high school but not attain bachelor's degrees. This national vocational movement was seen to give junior colleges a target population, but numerous students wanted more than a semiprofessional education; many maintained a desire to transfer. Throughout this time period, there was a move for more public two-year institutions along with a trend to separate from high schools and affiliate with higher education. With the change in affiliation came a new status which encouraged junior colleges to develop additional credibility through the creation of professional criteria and use of scientific methods.

After WWII, skilled jobs were needed and the G.I. Bill afforded more educational opportunity to veterans which resulted in increased enrollments. Another factor that led to growth was the rise of adult and community education. After WWII, community colleges were seen as a good place to house continuing education programs. The 1947 Truman Commission was a very important national document for community colleges. It suggested a network of public community colleges that would provide education to a diverse group of students at little or no cost along with serving community needs through a comprehensive mission.

This national network exploded in the 1960s with 457 community colleges and the enrollment of baby boomers. A series of grants through the Kellogg Junior College Leadership Programs helped train many community college leaders during this decade. Growth continued during the 1970s when many enrolled to escape the Vietnam era draft. The 1970s also marked a shift to faculty development, including more instructional training for the unique student body and mission of community colleges. During the 1980s, community colleges began to work more closely with high schools to prepare students for vocational and technical two year programs.

In recent history, a debate between the advocates and critics of community colleges has gained strength. Advocates argue community colleges serve the needs of society through providing college opportunity to students who may not otherwise go to college, training and retraining mid level skilled workers, and preserving the academic excellence of four year universities. Critics argue community colleges continue a culture of privilege through training business workers at public expense, not allowing working class children to advance in social class, protecting selective admissions at four year institutions for the nation's elite, and discouraging transfer through "cooling out."[How to reference and link to summary or text] Whether community colleges give opportunity or protect privilege, their century-long history has developed a distinctive aspect of higher education. Although the growth of community colleges has stabilized in recent history, enrollment continues to outgrow four year institutions. A total of 1,166 loosely linked community colleges face challenges of new technological innovations, distance learning, funding constraints, community pressure, and international influence.[How to reference and link to summary or text]

GovernanceEdit

Most community colleges are operated either by special districts that draw property tax revenue from the local community, as a division of a state university, or as a sister institution within a state-wide higher education system. In all cases, community colleges are governed by a board of trustees, appointed by the state governor or elected from the community. Depending on the operational system, the board of trustees may directly govern the college or may govern the college through a university or system-level office. Depending upon the locus of control, the board may or may not be subject to control by a state agency that supervises all community college districts or all higher education institutions within the state.

The board of trustees selects a president or chancellor of the community college to serve as the chief executive officer and lead the faculty and staff.

EnrollmentEdit

In North America, community colleges operate under a policy of "open admission". That is, anyone with a high school diploma or GED may attend, regardless of prior academic status or college entrance exam scores. Although community colleges have an "open admission" policy, students have to take assessment tests before enrolling at the college, due to not all courses being "open admission." In California, students who have reached the age of 18 are not required to have completed secondary education; instead, they must simply show an "ability to benefit" from a college's educational program. Under certain circumstances, community colleges will also accept high school students or dropouts.

The "open admission" policy results in a wide range of students attending community college classes. Students range in age from teenagers in high school taking classes under a concurrent, or dual, enrollment policy (which allows both high school and college credits to be earned simultaneously) to working adults taking classes at night to complete a degree or gain additional skills in their field to students with graduate degrees who enroll to become more employable or to pursue lifelong interests. "Reverse transfers" (or those transferring from a university) constitute one of the fastest growing new community college cohorts.

One threat to enrollment at community colleges is the rapidly increasing popularity of for-profit e-learning and online universities, such as the University of Phoenix, which is now the 16th-largest university in the world. Market research firm Eduventures estimates that 10% of college students will be enrolled in an online degree program by 2008[2] Many community colleges have supplemented their offerings with online courses to stave off competition from exclusively e-learning schools. For example, Northern Virginia Community College's Extended Learning Institute [1] has been offering distance learning courses for over thirty years. Texas offers the Virtual College of Texas whereby a student at any community college in the state can attend classes from any of the state's 51 community colleges or four Texas State Technical College campuses, paying local tuition plus a VCT fee of around $40.

California has the lowest community college enrollment fees in the nation, currently set at $20 per unit.

Educational offeringsEdit

Community colleges generally offer three types of programs.

The first type of study is toward an associate's degree, in which a student takes necessary courses needed to earn a degree that will allow for entry into jobs requiring some level of college education but not a full four-year degree. The associate's degree program also allows students who wish to eventually obtain a bachelor's degree at a four-year college to complete the necessary "core" requirements to attend the college of their choice. Some states have mandated that the community college's curriculum be structured so as to satisfy "core curriculum" requirements at the state's public universities or private universities.

Many community colleges have arrangements with nearby four-year institutions, where a student obtaining an associate's degree in a field will automatically have his/her classes counted toward the bachelor's degree requirement. For example, a community college associate's degree in hotel and restaurant management, computers or accounting would count toward the four-year school's core requirement for a Business Administration degree. Some have gone one step further by arrangements with a four-year college for the student to obtain the bachelor's degree from the four-year college while taking all the courses via distance learning or other non-traditional modes, thus reducing the number of physical visits to the four-year school.

The second type of study is towards certification in an area of training (such as nursing, computer repair, allied health, law enforcement, firefighting, or welding), which require preparation for a state or national examination, or where certification would allow for hiring preference or a higher salary upon entering the workforce. These courses are often geared toward the needs of the local or area business community.

The third type offers services of local interest to members of the community, such as job placement, adult continuing education classes (either for personal achievement or to maintain certification in specialized fields), and developmental classes for children. Some community colleges offer opportunities for high school dropouts to return to school and earn a high school diploma or obtain a GED.

Community colleges offering bachelor's degreesEdit

A growing trend in the United States is for community colleges to begin offering bachelor's degrees. At least fourteen states have authorized them to do so and others are considering the issue.[3] Many large community colleges, such as Miami-Dade College and St. Petersburg College, in Florida have even completely dropped the words "community" or "junior" from their names as they have added bachelor's degree programs in limited fields and have started their evolution into four-year colleges while retaining their local commitments. Even some smaller community colleges, such as Northern New Mexico College in Española, New Mexico, have dropped community from their names and now offer six or more bachelor's degrees.[4] Others such as Manatee Community College, in Florida, have chosen not to go beyond the associate's degree.[5] In more rural communities, community colleges may host branches of the local state university, and community colleges with specialized programs may offer four year degrees in conjunction with other schools, some miles away. For instance, Southern Illinois University offers aviation management bachelor's degrees at Mt. San Antonio College and Palomar College in Southern California.

Advantages of community collegesEdit

  • Community colleges are geared toward local students and local needs.[6] Students who could not afford campus or off-site housing at a four-year college, or for other reasons cannot relocate, can attend courses while staying in their local community (though some colleges do offer student housing). Also, community colleges can work with local businesses to develop customized training geared toward local needs, whereas a four-year institution generally focuses on state-wide or national needs.[7] Some community colleges have "concurrent enrollment" programs, allowing local high school students to "jump start" their college career by taking classes at the community college that count both toward their high school diploma and as college credit (mainly in core areas such as history and political science). Policies and classes offered vary with different agreements existing between the community college and high schools.
  • The "open enrollment" policy benefits students with mediocre high school academic records, students who dropped out of high school or were expelled and later obtained a GED, students who recognized the benefits of college education relatively late in life, and students whose personal obligations or limited financial resources prevented them from attending college on the traditional schedule.
  • In North America, tuition and fees are substantially lower than those of traditional four-year public or private institutions. Students from low-income families, those having to work to pay for their education, or those simply wishing to reduce the total cost of a planned four year education benefit from the reduced costs.[8] In addition, many colleges offer and accept scholarships or educational grants.
  • Community colleges have little or no time limits on when classes must be taken or a degree must be earned; in contrast, many four-year schools, tired of "professional students" taking up limited space, have imposed limits on when a degree can be earned. Students who cannot take a full-time load for whatever reason (family, job, etc.), are thus not under pressure to complete courses in a limited timeframe.
  • Four-year colleges often give priority to students transferring from community colleges, citing their demonstrated preparedness for junior and senior college-level work. Students who may not have been able to attend a particular college after high school (whether for academic, financial, or personal reasons) may now be able to attend the college of their choice. Several states have regulations requiring the associate's degree in a particular field to be automatically credited towards the core curriculum for a four-year degree at another state university or private university.
  • Community college professors are solely dedicated to teaching, and classes are generally small. In comparison, a four-year college course may be taught to 300 students by a teaching assistant, while the professor is concentrating on research. Outside of those teaching in the technical and vocational fields, most instructors at community colleges have master's degrees and many hold doctoral degrees. In addition, community college professors can help students achieve their goals, work more closely with them, and offer them support, while at a four-year college, a professor's primary mission is to conduct academic research, with most of their remaining attention focused on mentoring graduate students.
  • A number of community colleges have athletic programs; certain colleges also serve as incubators for college athletes, particularly in basketball and football. A talented player who would not meet the academic or athletic standards of a major college program may be able to play for two years in junior college, establishing an academic record in the process, and then transfer to the major college.[9] In addition, many baseball players at community colleges have gone to play for major colleges and/or the major leagues. Others offer no athletic programs.[How to reference and link to summary or text]
  • Research shows that there is no learning or income penalty for individuals who start at a community college and transfer to a four-year institution. Additionally, research indicates that students who begin their higher education career at a community college are more likely to transfer to a higher quality four-year institution than if they had started at a four-year college.[How to reference and link to summary or text]
  • Holders of a two-year associates degree have more immediate earning potential than students with >2 years of higher education but did not earn a degree.[How to reference and link to summary or text]

Disadvantages of community collegesEdit

  • Transferring credits can sometimes be a problem, as each four-year college has its own requirements as to what is and isn't required for enrollment. However, many four-year colleges (usually near the community college) have made arrangements, known as articulation agreements, allowing associate degrees to qualify for transfer, and in some cases allowing the student to complete the bachelor's degree via distance learning from the community college campus. Some states have passed rules whereby certain associate's degrees in a field will automatically transfer to state universities as the core curriculum for specified bachelor's degrees. Minnesota has created a statewide "transfer curriculum" allowing credits to be transferred to any other public university and almost all of the private colleges. The North Carolina system has a similar agreement, whereby specific courses are designated for mandatory transfer credit to all statewide public four-year institutions. Illinois' I-transfer program program aids students in transferring credits across the state. California has a system known as Assist[2] which labels course equivalencies between all California Community Colleges and California public four-year colleges. In Arizona, the completion of the Arizona General Education Curriculum, or AGEC, at any Arizona community college guarantees residents of Arizona admission to any public university in the state of Arizona. And in Florida, students earning associate degrees from community colleges actually receive preferential admissions treatment, in comparison to all other students transferring to state universities.
  • It is frequent for many courses to be taught by part-time lecturers holding a master's degree (or bachelor's degree) in the field, although there is little evidence, other than anecdotal, to indicate that taking a class from a full-time college instructor leads to higher order learning outcomes. Research conducted by the University of Washington's Labor Center, however, has suggested that community colleges relying on a higher part-time (adjunct) faculty workforce have lower graduation rates than those with a full-time workforce - see http://insidehighered.com/news/2006/10/16/parttime. According to federal statistics, 42% of public community college freshmen take remedial courses, and further studies show that 79% of remedial courses are taught by part-time faculty.[10]
  • Many community colleges lack on-campus housing (most common in urban area colleges; rural area colleges are more likely to offer such housing due to the overall lack of housing in such areas). This creates so-called 'commuter campuses', in which nearly all students commute to class only, with the campus completely deserted during off-hours. This makes participation in group collaboration exercises and study groups difficult to coordinate, and extracurricular activities suffer as well. In turn, the social benefits of college are essentially lost, which can adversely affect future professional employment opportunities.
  • Research shows individuals with Associate's degrees earn less than those with Bachelor's degrees. However, because a correlation exists between years of education and earnings, this says more about years of schooling than the value of Associate's degrees or certificates.[How to reference and link to summary or text]
  • Community colleges typically have smaller libraries than universities, possibly reducing the research opportunities of their students (though libraries may be part of an interlibrary loan agreement with other libraries at universities). This is also somewhat less of an issue today due to the proliferaton of online academic databases, for which community college students may share equal access with their bigger State University cousins and/or private universities.
  • Community colleges might have fewer sections available for students to enroll. For example, there might be only one section in higher physics while a four-year college might have four or five sections of its equivalent. Some equivalent lower-division classes required for the major may not be offered. However, many community colleges have concurrent enrollment programs with local universities which permits students to complete the required lower division courses prior to transferring.
  • There is a historic connotation that community colleges are often considered the schools of last resort, because of their open-admissions policies, which some feel hurts their reputation.[11] Their open-admissions policies have been the subject of sarcastic humor.[12]

Community college librariesEdit

Community college libraries, sometimes called learning resource centers, have evolved over their existence. These libraries often include traditional library services such as book checkout, online research tools, and research help, but they also have included multimedia technology expertise, video centers, tutor centers and support services. Community college libraries play a significant role in the college curriculum by supporting information literacy across campus. The librarians spend a significant amount of their work week in the classroom teaching students to select research tools, to evaluate search results, and to use their results in papers, speeches, or in other projects. For this reason, community college librarians are considered full faculty members at most institutions.[How to reference and link to summary or text] If sufficient funding is provided, community college libraries may be at the cutting edge of research services and may be able to change faster than their larger cousins at major research institutions.[How to reference and link to summary or text]

Timeline of important eventsEdit

1901 – Joliet, IL added fifth and sixth ayear courses to the high school curriculum leading to the development of the first public junior college.[13]

1920 – American Association of Junior Colleges established.

1930 – First publication of the Community College Journal.

1947 – Publication of Higher Education for American Democracy by the President's Commission on Higher Education (the 1947 Truman Commission).

1965 – Higher Education Act of 1965 established grant programs to make higher education more accessible.

1992 – The American Association of Junior Colleges change their name to the American Association of Community Colleges.

See alsoEdit

In Australia:

In the UK:

NotesEdit

  1. Roberta Couch, Tom Jamison, Doug Stine, Susan Johnston, Rene Lynch, and Judy Sisk, Foothill College: 25 Years (Los Altos Hills: Foothill College, 1981), 10.
  2. Golden, Daniel. "Online University Enrollment Soars" The Wall Street Journal. 15 May, 2006.
  3. http://goforward.harpercollege.edu/uploaded/bachelordegree/harperbachsum.pdf
  4. Baccalaureate Programs
  5. http://www.sun-herald.com/Newsstory.cfm?pubdate=013107&story=tp6np18.htm&folder=NewsArchive2
  6. Irving Pressley McPhail, "Top 10 reasons to attend a community college," Community College Week 17, no. 11 (3 January 2005): 4-5.
  7. M.H. Miller, "Four-year schools should take more cues from community colleges, some educators say," Community College Week 17, no. 9 (6 December 2004): 3-4.
  8. John Merrow, Community Colleges: The Smart Transfer, The New York Times, April 22, 2007.
  9. Robert Andrew Powell, Community College: Tennis in a Parking Lot, The New York Times, April 22, 2007
  10. John Merrow, Community Colleges: A Harsh Reality, The New York Times, April 22, 2007.
  11. Beth Frerking, Community Colleges: For Achievers, a New Destination, The New York Times, April 22, 2007.
  12. Phil McGraw, Love Smart: Find the One You Want, Fix the One You Got (New York: Free Press, 2005), 41. Dr. Phil remarks, "You need to put up some fences around yourself, lady. You may be easier to get into than a community college. Have some boundaries."
  13. John Merrow, Community Colleges: Dream Catchers, The New York Times, April 22, 2007.

ReferencesEdit

  • Baker, G. A. III (1994). A handbook on the community college in America: Its history, mission, and management. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
  • Cohen, A.M., Brawer, F.B. (2003) The American Community College, 4th edition. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
  • Dougherty, K. J. (1994). The contradictory college: The conflicting origins, impacts, and futures of the community college. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
  • Floyd, D.L., Skolnik, M.L., & Walker, K.P. , eds. (2005). The Community College Baccalaureate: Emerging Trends and Policy Issues. Sterling VA: Stylus Publishing.
  • Frye, J. H. (1992). The vision of the public junior college, 1900-1940. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
  • Kasper, H.T. (2002). The changing role of community college. Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 46(4), 14-21.
  • Murray, J.P. (2002). The current state of faculty development in two-year colleges. New Directions for Community Colleges, 118, 89-97.

Further readingEdit

  • Abernathy, C. F. (1980). The effect of a short-term training program on community college counselors' attitudes toward aging and older adults: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Acree, E. A. (1999). The community college counselor: Multiple meanings, multiple realities. (job satisfaction, career counseling, academic counseling, professionalization). Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Adam, M. (1986). The effects of mentoring of the career paths of administrators in community colleges in the state of Michigan: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Adams, C. E. (1993). Leadership characteristics of four community college women presidents: A case study: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Aguire Batty, M. (2005). Learning styles and teaching perspectives in first-year language classes at community colleges. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Alden, S. E. (1982). The relationship among job satisfaction, attitudes toward collective bargaining and employment at two- and four-year institutions at the City University of New York and the State University of New York: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Alexander, B. C., Garcia, V., Gonzalez, L., Grimes, G., & O'Brien, D. (2007). Barriers in the transfer process for Hispanic and Hispanic immigrant students: Journal of Hispanic Higher Education Vol 6(2) Apr 2007, 174-184.
  • Alexander, J. (1981). Community college adaptation to serve the needs of mildly handicapped teenagers and young adults: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Alkeaid, A. (2007). ISO 9000 and creativity: Potential advantages of implementing ISO in community colleges: College Student Journal Vol 41(3) Sep 2007, 657-667.
  • Alleyne, V. K. (2007). Organizational culture and the leadership of college principals at community colleges in former British colonies in the Eastern Caribbean. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Allison, G. J. (2005). Perceived and reported occupational stressors and coping strategies of selected community college business faculty members in Texas. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Al-Moqaiseeb, A. A. (1984). The relationship between leadership behavior of academic deans and instructional climate as perceived by instructors of selected community colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Alsop, W. E. (1985). The relationships between leadership style, climate, and morale as perceived by the faculty of Wyoming community colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Amada, G. (1975). The paucity of mental health services and programs in community colleges: Implications of a survey: Journal of the American College Health Association Vol 23(5) Jun 1975, 345-349.
  • Amada, G. (1977). Crisis-oriented psychotherapy: Some theoretical and practical considerations. Lanham, MD, England: University Press of America.
  • Amada, G. (1977). Mental health on the community college campus. Lanham, MD, England: University Press of America.
  • Amada, G. (1977). Organizing a community college mental health program. Lanham, MD, England: University Press of America.
  • Amada, G. (1977). The paucity of mental health services and programs in community colleges: Implications of a survey. Lanham, MD, England: University Press of America.
  • Amada, G. (1985). Mental health on the community college campus (2nd ed.). Lanham, MD, England: University Press of America.
  • Amada, G. (1985). Organizing a community college mental health program. Lanham, MD, England: University Press of America.
  • Amada, G. (1985). The paucity of mental health services and programs in community colleges: Implications of a survey. Lanham, MD, England: University Press of America.
  • Amada, G., & Swartz, J. (1977). Social work in a college mental health program. Lanham, MD, England: University Press of America.
  • Amburgey, L. W. (1978). An investigation of educational services perceived as needed by older persons which may be provided by the community college: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Anderson, J. A. (2001). Explanatory roles of mission and culture: Organizational effectiveness in Tennessee's community colleges. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Anderson, W. T. (1982). Functions for psychologists in community colleges: Psychology in the Schools Vol 19(2) Apr 1982, 221-225.
  • Angel, D., Reyes, R., & Florio, C. B. (1991). Implementation in community colleges. New York, NY, England: Praeger Publishers.
  • Appleby, S. A. (1980). Motive strength and leadership style as predictors of managerial effectiveness in selected community colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Arboleda, A., Wang, Y., Shelley, M. C., II, & Whalen, D. F. (2003). Predictors of Residence Hall Involvement: Journal of College Student Development Vol 44(4) Jul-Aug 2003, 517-531.
  • Arbona, C., & Nora, A. (2007). The influence of academic and environmental factors on Hispanic college degree attainment: Review of Higher Education: Journal of the Association for the Study of Higher Education Vol 30(3) Spr 2007, 247-269.
  • Ayala-Austin, E. (2007). Validating the experiences of male Mexican American community college transfer students studying at Catholic universities. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Ayers, D. F. (2005). Neoliberal Ideology in Community College Mission Statements: A Critical Discourse Analysis: Review of Higher Education: Journal of the Association for the Study of Higher Education Vol 28(4) Sum 2005, 527-549.
  • Babbitt, B. A. (1982). Instructional model for developmentally disabled students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Back, D. P. (2007). Perceptions and reactions to career barriers among women in executive leadership roles at community colleges. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Bailey, T., & Weininger, E. B. (2002). Performance, graduation, and transfer of immigrants and natives in City University of New York community colleges: Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis Vol 24(4) Win 2002, 359-377.
  • Baker, R. (1982). A profile of community college dropouts using the Rokeach Value Survey and background variables: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Barbarin, O. A. (1981). Review of The New Professional: An Introduction for the Human Services Worker. 2nd ed: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 26 (2), Feb, 1981.
  • Barber, P. A. (1990). Relationship of founding and succeeding presidential leadership behaviors to organizational change: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Barnes, E. L. (1976). Effects of personality and person-environment congruence on job satisfaction of community college faculty and professional staff: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Barnett, D. E. (1990). Images of leadership: Critical incident analysis of effective and ineffective behaviors among community college presidents: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Barrett, P. C. (2007). The emergence of learning contexts in higher education: Community, meaning and program formation. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Barrio-Sotillo, R. (2007). Increasing minority enrollment at the University of California post proposition 209: UCLA's center for community college partnerships. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Becker, F. D., Gield, B., Gaylin, K., & Sayer, S. (1983). Office design in a community college: Effect on work and communication patterns: Environment and Behavior Vol 15(6) Nov 1983, 699-726.
  • Becker, H. J. (1978). Curricula of associate degree mental health/human-services training programs: Community Mental Health Journal Vol 14(2) Sum 1978, 133-146.
  • Behm, R. J. (1976). An examination of the relationship between the effectiveness of selected community college occupational programs and effective communication: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bell, P. J. (1986). Facilitating change: Competencies and behaviors of leaders who successfully manage the innovation process in community college settings: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Benjamin, B. P. (1981). Perceptions of decision-makers: A Q-study of organizational choice using four models of decision: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Benjamin, T. J. (2006). An assessment of mental health counseling services provided by Florida public community colleges and universities. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Benson, L. G. (1997). A comparison of academic stress experienced by students at an urban community college and an urban university. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Benson, P. W. (1981). Comparison of affective work competencies and selected background experiences of students, graduates, and supervisors in agricultural mechanization: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bergland, Y. P. (1986). Information seeking behaviors of deans of occupational education in California two-year postsecondary institutions: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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  • Bettinson, C. H. (1977). An analysis of prior learning assessment systems in Michigan's public community and junior colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Biddar, P. S. (1995). Retention to graduation of community college students: A logistic regression model. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Billimek, T. E. (2005). A comparative study of faculty performance in public Texas community colleges granting tenure versus public Texas community colleges not granting tenure. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Birmingham, J. C. (1979). The attitudes of presidents and chief academic officers toward faculty collective bargaining in Texas' community and junior colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bischoff, G. W. (2007). Evaluation of instructional technology in community college business classrooms. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Black, B. M. (1993). The professional development needs of community college counselors in Virginia: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Blackburn, R. L. (1985). Leadership styles in community education: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Blai, B. (1984). Institutional research and management planning in two-year colleges: Scientia Paedagogica Experimentalis Vol 21(2) 1984, 165-171.
  • Bland, W. D. (1982). An empirical study of Becker's side-bet hypothesis as applied to organizational and professional commitment among community college instructors: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Blimline, C., & Klimek, R. (1977). Developmental education: The recognition of individual differences: Journal of College Student Personnel Vol 18(5) Sep 1977, 403-405.
  • Blizzard, L. H. (1986). The importance of Lenoir Community College goals as perceived and preferred by selected educational leader groups: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Boapimp, S. (1984). Perceptions and expectations of the leadership behaviors of presidents in selected rural two-year colleges as seen by faculty and governing board members: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bober, R. P. (1981). The attitudes and behaviors of community college faculty toward an instructional subsystem: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bodle, Y. G. (1986). Descriptive study of the level of participatory and contingency management styles of California Community College presidents: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Borger, R. H. (2007). Spiritual leadership among community college leaders: The next evolution of transformational leadership. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
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  • Boyer, T. R. (2006). Using a constructive developmental approach to assess variations within a community college population. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Boyer-Stephens, A. P. (1990). Relationships between the perceptions of special needs learners and current use of specialized teaching techniques for Missouri community college faculty: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bradford, S. Y. (1987). Career development and occupational burnout: A study of selected community college educators: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Brawley, E. A., Gerstein, H., & Watkins, K. M. (1981). A competency-based training program for day care personnel: Child Care Quarterly Vol 10(2) Sum 1981, 125-136.
  • Brindley, J. D. (1977). A conceptual model for a community services division in a community junior college in Alabama: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Brower, A. M., & Carroll, L. (2007). Spatial and temporal aspects of alcohol-related crime in a college town: Journal of American College Health Vol 55(5) Mar-Apr 2007, 267-275.
  • Brown, D. E. (1987). Development and validation of a self-appraisal instrument for assessing the performance of community college academic administrators: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bryant, K. (2007). Why involvement matters for transfer-intending community college students. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Buckingham, M. R. (1993). Transformational behavior and motivation of executive team members at selected community colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Buckner, C. S. (1997). Institutional climate and institutional effectiveness at three community colleges. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Bulls, B. S. (1981). Values as a predictor of job satisfaction of business technology faculty among selected community colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Burks, A. T. (1983). Leader behaviors of academic deans in Maryland, North Carolina, and Virginia community colleges as perceived by department and division heads: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Burton, C. (2007). An ethnography of faculty in a community college and a public, regional, comprehensive university. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Bush, A. M. (2007). What comes between classroom community and academic emotions: Testing a self-determination model of motivation in the college classroom. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Byrd, L. A. (2007). North Carolina community college presidents' and board of trustee chairs' perceptions of intercollegiate athletics. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Cahill, S. E. (1999). The boundaries of professionalization: The case of North American funeral direction: Symbolic Interaction Vol 22(2) 1999, 105-119.
  • Cain, C. (2007). A comparison of North Carolina's state, private, and community colleges and universities regarding assistive technology and services for students with disabilities. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Calkins, M. V. (2005). First-generation college students: Family influence and the road to college. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
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  • Campano, I. S. (1985). The management styles of community college academic deans: Implications for professional development: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Capraro, V. J. (1980). A comparison of community college distributive education programs based on the graduates' perceptions of their performance and occupational success on the job: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Carosella, S. L. (1984). Role perceptions of female vocational administrators in community colleges and area vocational schools in the state of Colorado: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Carrington, H. A. (1983). A college multiservice center: Use of community agencies in the counseling process: Journal of College Student Personnel Vol 24(5) Sep 1983, 466-467.
  • Casey, D. A. (2006). Indicators linked to the success of students with psychological disabilities in urban community college allied health sciences programs. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
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  • Chuchola, R. T. (1977). An occupational needs forecasting paradigm for community college programs in Salem County New Jersey: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Clark, C. H., Jr. (2005). The relationship of student-reported teacher effectiveness and end-of-course outcomes in developmental reading at the community college level. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Clements, E. (1983). A study of the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic variables and job satisfaction among student personnel workers in community colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Clissold, R. D. (1981). A description and evaluation of selected learning disability programs at the community college level: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Coder, A. (1984). Faculty attitudes toward using computers in a community college: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Cole, D. E. (2007). Self-regulation and learning strategies in at-risk community college students. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Coll, K. M. (1990). A study of factors that contribute to job satisfaction and role congruence for community college counselors: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Coll, K. M. (1993). Role conflict differences between community college counselors from accredited centers and nonaccredited centers: Journal of College Student Development Vol 34(5) Sep 1993, 341-345.
  • Collins, A. M. (2006). Effects of two stress management interventions on student nurses' perceived stress and general self-efficacy. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Cook, J. J. (1978). The perceived effectiveness of community services programming at Texas public community colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Cooley, C. J. (2007). Governance at North Carolina community colleges: The perceptions of faculty and presidents. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
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  • Crosby, J. A. (1976). A study of chief student personnel administrator and counselor perceptions of counselor role in the community college system of North Carolina: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Crowe, W. R. (1990). Motivation factors influencing community college leaders: A study of selected chief executive officers: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Cutright, M. (2005). A consortium project to improve retention and the first year of college: Results and recommendations: Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice Vol 7(3-4) 2005, 189-199.
  • Dale, G. L. (2007). Student construction of small molecule models using spartan model to explore polarity. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Davidson, P. G. (1983). The application of social judgment theory to a description of faculty evaluation in terms of role behavior: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Davies, T. G., & Casey, K. (1999). Transfer student experiences: Comparing their academic and social lives at the community college and university: College Student Journal Vol 33(1) Mar 1999, 60-71.
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  • De Leon, A. (2007). Internationalizing courses: A case study of community college faculty. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Deichert, K. A., & Austin, M. J. (2004). Collaborative Partnerships Between a Human Services Agency and Local Community Colleges. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Social Work Practice Press.
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  • Deil-Amen, R., & Rosenbaum, J. E. (2004). Charter Building and Labor Market Contacts in Two-Year Colleges: Sociology of Education Vol 77(3) Jul 2004, 245-265.
  • Della Mattia, G. (1985). British Columbia Community College goals and indicators of goal achievement: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Derby, D. C., & Watson, L. W. (2006). African-American retention within a community college: Differences in orientation course enrollment: Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice Vol 8(3) 2006, 377-390.
  • Dhanesar, S. (2007). The impact of collaboration between faculty and librarians to improve student information literacy skills at an urban community college. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Di Falco Vander Ven, M. (1983). An exploratory study of the presence, degree and nature of burnout in community college faculty: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Diamond, M. D., & Bieganowski, A. C. (1976). A mental health interaction program in a community college: Community Mental Health Journal Vol 12(2) Sum 1976, 145-150.
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  • Dowd, A. C. (2007). Community colleges as gateways and gatekeepers: Moving beyond the access "saga" toward outcome equity: Harvard Educational Review Vol 77(4) Win 2007, 407-419.
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  • Duke, S. A. (2007). Academic advising, engagment with faculty, course load, course type, and course completion rates for urban community college students with learning disabilities. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Eason, F. R. (1980). Role preparedness and actual role performance as perceived by associate degree nurse graduates of six North Carolina Community College/Technical Institutes: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Eaton, D. G. (1998). Effects of organizational climate on faculty job satisfaction and job stress in a texas community college district. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Eaton, J. (1985). The challenge for change at the community college: Educational Record Vol 66(4) Fal 1985, 4-11.
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  • Edwards, K. B. (1985). A study of perceived stress among Arizona's community college presidents: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Edwards, S. (1977). The Black psychotherapist as ethnic specialist: Myth or reality? Lanham, MD, England: University Press of America.
  • Eill, B. (1977). Exploration in architectural perception: A study-guide for high schools and community colleges in architectural appreciation: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ellett, C. M. (2006). Merit pay as perceived by faculty at Mississippi community colleges. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Elmont, M. (1987). Characteristics and perceived training needs of developmental educators in the Massachusetts Community College System: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Engbretson, C. J. (1987). An analysis of leadership behavior of division chairpersons in Wyoming community colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Epstein, C. (1978). The in-service training needs of part-time faculty in the public community colleges of New Jersey, as perceived by part-time faculty, department chairpersons and administrators of part-time faculty: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Esterbrook, R. L. (2006). Introducing Russian neuro-linguistic programming behavior modification techniques to enhance learning and coping skills for high-risk students in community colleges: An initial investigation. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Evans, G. L., Jr. (1998). The relationship between organizational climate and job satisfaction as reported by community college presidents. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
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  • Ferrell, D. M. (2003). The relationship between training in learning style adaptation and successful completion of entry-level community college classes. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Fitzer, J. K. (2007). Foreign students at California community colleges: Benefits, costs, and institutional responsibility. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Flores, R. (2005). The relationship between core job characteristics of public educators and job satisfaction. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Flowers, S. H. (1989). A study of the relationships between counselor characteristics, precollege advisement practices, and attitudes toward community and junior colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Floyd, D. L. (1986). A community college reaction: Journal of College Student Personnel Vol 27(1) Jan 1986, 10-12.
  • Floyd, D. L. (1992). Career services in community and junior colleges. Springfield, IL, England: Charles C Thomas, Publisher.
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  • Foster, D. J. G. (2007). Differences in perceptions of organizational culture: Executives, administrators, and faculty at north Texas Community Colleges. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Fowler, V. M. (1993). Leadership of American Indian presidents of accredited tribally chartered community colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Freeman, H. S. (2006). Impact of selected professional services on job satisfaction of New Kentucky Community and Technical College faculty. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • French Graybeal, S. E. (2007). A study of first-time freshmen's attributes and their associations with fall-to-fall retention rates at a two-year public community college. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Friedman, A. H. (1979). Community college faculty members' attitudes toward correctional inmates: An attempt to increase faculty participation in off-campus instruction at correctional institutions: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Fuerst, A. D. (2007). Community college presidents' perceptions of stress. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Fuhr, G. A. (1990). The significance of factors in judgments by Washington state community college faculty regarding levels of sanctions appropriate as responses to the sexual harassment of students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Fuqua, L. W. (1976). A comparison of perceptions held by North Carolina community college and technical institute presidents, counselors and apprentices in selected psychological, educational and socio-economic areas: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Galant, R. L. (1977). A study to determine priority for future role activities of counselors in Michigan community colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Gallagher, P. A. (2004). Using a study-reading intervention to improve success in a community-college nursing program. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Gambon, J. P. (2003). The effects of job characteristics and values on satisfaction in community college employees. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Gardea, C. (1985). A comparison of behavioral characteristics of Hispanic and Anglo female administrators in the resolution of critical incident situations: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Garnett, G. F. (1985). A survey of the needs, attitudes, and interests in the arts of a community in central Alabama: The basis for junior college program planning and development: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Garza, C., & Landeck, M. (2004). College Freshmen at Risk-Social Problems at Issue: An Exploratory Study of a Texas/Mexico Border Community College: Social Science Quarterly Vol 85(5) Dec 2004, 1390-1400.
  • Geiger, T. A. (2003). An investigation of job satisfaction among Florida full-time faculty at small, medium and large community colleges using Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory (frederick herzberg). Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Geismer, L. A., Gelormino, J. E., & Sheehan, L. M. (1984). Adult participation in campus-based Early Childhood Research Centers: Staff, students, parents and researchers: Focus on Learning Vol 10(1) Spr 1984, 49-54.
  • Giacobbe, J. H. (1978). An analysis of the academic training of psychology instructors employed in the community colleges of the State University of New York: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Gibson, D. R. (1977). The effects of the Human Potential Seminar upon school administrators: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Giese, R. J. (1997). Assessing the organizational cultures of the California community colleges that have and have not implemented shared governance. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Gilbert, G. D. (1985). Community education as a factor affecting attitudes of selected opinion leaders toward public schools in Arkansas: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Gillett-Karam, R. (1989). Transformational leadership and the community college president: Are there gender differences? : Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ginsburg, M. B., & Giles, J. R. (1984). Sponsored and contest modes of social reproduction in selective community college programs: Research in Higher Education Vol 21(3) 1984, 281-299.
  • Goad, K. D. (2007). Introductory laboratory science courses at a community college: Identifying early strategies to predict students' academic success. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Goldman, J. A., & Edelson, P. (1977). Community college aims to expand occupational opportunities for the deaf: Hearing Rehabilitation Quarterly Vol 2(2) Win 1977, 9, 12-22.
  • Gonnet, K. M. (1984). An investigation of eleven job satisfaction variables as they pertain to full-time community college faculty: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Goodnow, W. E. (1980). Benefit segmentation: A technique for developing program and promotional strategies for adults in a community college: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Gover, P. E. (1983). Burnout and demographic variables among full-time faculty in selected Illinois public community colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Green, C. C. (1992). The development and maintenance of collegial faculty relationships: A case study: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Griffin, K. (2007). Transfer track versus workforce development: Implications for policy change in Florida community colleges. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Griffin, L. W. (1985). A study of older adult students in a community college setting: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Groner, N. E. (1978). Leadership situations in academic departments: Relations among measures of situational favorableness and control: Research in Higher Education Vol 8(2) 1978, 125-143.
  • Grymes, R. J. (1979). The relationship of pedagogical training and related work experience on student ratings of part-time and full-time community college instructors: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Guill, J. A. (1992). Conflict management style preferences of community college presidents: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Gunther, M. L. (1985). The administrative implications for program prioritizing as perceived by registered voters: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hadrick, M. E. (1985). The actual and ideal leadership role of the campus minister in selected public community colleges as perceived by the ministers, the administrators, the faculty, and the students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Haehl, M. L. (2007). Placement test scores and demographics predicting grades in basic math and introductory algebra at an urban/suburban community college. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Hagedorn, L. S., Maxwell, W., & Hampton, P. (2007). Correlates of retention for African-American males in community colleges. Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing Co.
  • Hall, J. D. (1978). Perceptions and expectations of continuing education needs for selected Arizona community colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hall, S. C. (2001). An assessment of burnout among academic senate presidents at California Community Colleges. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Hamza, M. K. (1997). Exploration in teaching strategies that foster creative thinking and problem solving in a community college. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Han, B. M. (1995). The influence of two-year college on students' self-concept in south korea. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Hansen, J. M. L. (1998). Community college general education impact on student critical thinking ability. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Harlow, K. C., & Zettel, C. (1992). Texas community colleges' responses to the drug abuse prevention requirements of the Higher Education Act: Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education Vol 37(3) Spr 1992, 97-106.
  • Harris, A. A. (2002). The role exit process of community college faculty: A study of faculty retirements. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Harris, W. M. (1978). The relationship between instructor morale and administrative climate in selected community colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Harris, W. M. (1980). The community college academic dean's leadership behavior as perceived by superordinates and faculty in selected colleges in Florida: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Harrison, W. G. (1977). A survey of Indian education in five selected Alberta community colleges: Some models and recommendations: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hart, D., Mele-McCarthy, J., Pasternack, R. H., Zimbrich, K., & Parker, D. R. (2004). Community College: A Pathway to Success for Youth with Learning, Cognitive, and Intellectual Disabilities in Secondary Settings: Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities Vol 39(1) Mar 2004, 54-66.
  • Hasle, F. G. (1978). An assessment of differences in morale between and among selected union and non-union community college faculty: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hastings, M. B. (1986). Aging as a factor among community college faculty: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Haugh, L. S. (1982). An analysis of burn-out among faculty and administrators at Pima Community College: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hawley, T. H., & Harris, T. A. (2005). Student characteristics related to persistence for first-year community college students: Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice Vol 7(1-2) 2005, 117-142.
  • Heffner, M. L. (1992). The management skills of three successful community college presidents and three successful small business owners in Mississippi: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Heilman, C. R. (1993). Selected perceptions of aspects of sex equity and affirmative action within Iowa community colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hence, A. T. (1987). The role perceptions of African-American and White professionals in four community colleges: A comparative analysis: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Henderson, A. J. (1987). The historical perspective and review of morale in an educational setting: The development of a Teacher Morale Inventory for community colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Henrickson, K. L. (2007). Concerns of non- and low users of technology in the classroom among part- and full-time community college faculty. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Herndon, S., & Leon, D. (1986). Strategies to improve the transfer rate of minority students: Journal of College Student Personnel Vol 27(4) Jul 1986, 366-367.
  • Hill, B. H. (1987). A profile of job satisfaction among faculty members of selected Oklahoma public junior/community colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hill, D. W. (2007). High school guidance counselors' perceptions of community colleges in a mid-Atlantic state. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Hill, K. B. (1993). Collaborative efforts between community colleges and public school systems to reduce the dropout rate: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hills, M. D., Johnson, P., Michalenko, C., Docherty, O., & et al. (1989). The power of peers in employee assistance: A unique program for a community college: Canadian Journal of Counselling Vol 23(1) Jan 1989, 67-74.
  • Hinton, J. O. (1990). Factors affecting graduation rates of community college graduates who transfer to public universities in the state of Kentucky: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hirsch, M. E. (1984). A study of the relationship between parental identification and managerial roles as perceived by community college administrators: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hodgin, H. H. (1980). The influence of selected individual and group variables upon social interaction and group outcomes within administrative groups: A case study: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hokom, R. E. (1980). Faculty and administration perceptions of faculty roles and their relationship to job satisfaction in public community colleges in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Holm, M. L. (1997). The integration of quality methods into instruction: A qualitative analysis of a continuous quality improvement instructional pilot in an urban community college. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Holt, D. J. (2003). Administrator behavioral leadership practices: A comparative assessment of administrators and observers at selected community colleges in Texas. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Hopkins, R. A. (2003). A comparison of matching methods, choice and assignment, in formal adult mentoring relationships in the community college context. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Hoth, E. K. (1980). Factors of faculty job satisfaction as related to communication satisfaction: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Houghtaling, D. A. (1992). Influential factors affecting the academic calendar at Delaware Technical & Community College: A study of attitudes and perceptions of selected groups: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • House Gandy, K. M. (2007). The role of transfer rates for multi-mission community colleges in Maryland. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Howard-York, L. K. (2007). Nursing students: What factors influence help seeking? Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Hoyes, J. M. (1991). Enrollment, programs, and services for students with disabilities at two-year postsecondary institutions in Region V, OCR: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Huddleston, R., Kowalski, C., & Cangemi, J. P. (1984). Life is not so easy at the top: The college president: Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior Vol 21(3-4) 1984, 31-34.
  • Hull, M. B. (1980). Conselors' perceptions of sex role stereotypes: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hunt, S. M. (1977). Teaching psychology in an American community college: Bulletin of the British Psychological Society Vol 30 Jul 1977, 251-252.
  • Jackson, C. E. (1981). A study to compare the attitudinal differences between Mount San Antonio and El Camino Community College Districts certificated employees toward the Rodda Act: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Johnson, R. L., & Rudmann, J. L. (2004). Psychology at community colleges: A survey: Teaching of Psychology Vol 31(3) Sum 2004, 183-185.
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  • McCartan, A.-M. (1986). Student career decision making: Influential variables in community colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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  • Megowan, M. C. (2007). Framing discourse for optimal learning in science and mathematics. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
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  • Mitchell, K. D. (2007). Cultural capital facilitators and first-generation community college students. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
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  • Murrell, T. A. (2006). Academic advisor job satisfaction: Implications for student satisfaction. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
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  • Nelson, K. L. K. (1993). Power, communication, and collegiality: Minnesota Community College System chief academic officers' experiences with conflict: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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  • Ollee, M. W. (1989). The status of assessment and course placement of policies and practices at community colleges in the State of Washington, 1987-1988: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Olson, A. M. (1996). The influence of job satisfaction on part-time faculty's commitment to the collegiate function of community colleges. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Olson, T. F., & Matkin, R. E. (1992). Student and counselor perceptions of career counselor work activities in a community college: The Career Development Quarterly Vol 40(4) Jun 1992, 324-333.
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  • Oromaner, M. (1984). Insiders, outsiders, and the community college: A sociology of knowledge perspective: Research in Higher Education Vol 21(2) 1984, 226-235.
  • Osterhouse, R. A. (1982). Dos and Don'ts for the Community College Counselor: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 27 (12), Dec, 1982.
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  • Pappas, R. J. (1984). Access to learning at Jackson Community College (1928-1978): Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Parker, M. B. (1977). Black studies in the community colleges of New Jersey: A topographical study: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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  • Pelamati, J. R. (1983). Changes in business offices of California community colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Perez-Greene, M. (2005). Assessment Is on the Line in Community Colleges. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing Company.
  • Perry, D. G. (1987). Structured mentoring: Socialization of women community college administrators: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Peterson, L. G. (1985). An assessment of perceived instructional needs and inservice training preferences of full-time accounting, data-processing, and economics faculty in Michigan public community colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Pinto Zavala, R. D. (1993). Participation of Hispanic students in bilingual vocational education in selected Illinois community colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Polk, A., & Pont-Gwire, A. R. (1985). Group psychotherapy on the community college campus. Lanham, MD, England: University Press of America.
  • Prempeh, J. V. (1982). Human relations training for in-service teachers at the community college level: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Price, A. R. (1977). An instructional improvement program for part-time, community college faculty: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Pritchard, B. J. (1986). The relationship between managerial experience and conflict management styles of men and of women in community college administration: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Pritchett, S. (1986). Relationship between the degree of altruism and the degree of burnout in a selected group of community college psychology teachers: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Prugh, S. E. (1988). Reward structures in community colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Quinn, P. S. (2007). Searching, hiring, and searching again: Stakeholder perceptions in higher education presidential transition. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Ramsden, P. A. (1984). The relationship between part-time faculty job satisfaction and perceptions of division chairpersons' leadership behavior in community colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ramsey, J. K. (1981). A survey of attitudes, perspectives, and job satisfaction among selected community college academic faculty: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Randolph, L. M. (2006). A social constructionist approach to the facilitation of professional development among community college faculty. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Rapp, R. H. (1997). Community college programs: Their role in preparing students with learning disabilities for employment. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
  • Razavi, R. A. (1989). A study of the adjustment problems of international students in Northern Virginia Community College, Prince George's Community College and Montgomery College: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Recinos, J. (1994). The academic performance of community college transfer students at selected independent institutions of higher education. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Reed-Stewart, C. D. (1990). Analysis of the multicultural perceptions of vocational education administrators in Iowa: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Reese, M. S. (2007). What's so hard about algebra? a grounded theory study of adult algebra learners. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Rendon, L. I. (1983). Chicano students in South Texas community colleges: A study of student and institution-related determinants of educational outcomes: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Retterer, M. E. (1994). Relationship of role conflict to leadership style of community college division chairs. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Rich, J. A. (1984). An examination of the relationships between morale and teaching faculty participation in institutional governance on collective bargaining and non-collective bargaining California public community college campuses: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Riday, G. E. (1982). Job satisfaction: A comparative study of community college faculty to secondary school and four-year college faculty: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Risser, B. G. (2007). Faculty governance at the entrepreneurial community college. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Roberts, M. L., Jr. (2007). Student persistence and attrition from engineering technology programs at a mid-Atlantic community college. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Rocha, P. (1982). An investigation of performance behaviors of Mexican and Anglo American deans and chairpersons as they managed critical incident situations in selected Texas community junior colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Rodriguez, E. (1982). Administrators and non-administrators: A comparison of need/satisfaction profiles: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Roessel, C. M. (2007). Navajo education in and out of the classroom: A photographic case study of Rough Rock community school (Arizona). Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Rogers, M. S. (2004). An exploration of psychosocial development in community college students (Arthur Chickering). Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Roksa, J. (2006). Does the Vocational Focus of Community Colleges Hinder Students' Educational Attainment? : Review of Higher Education: Journal of the Association for the Study of Higher Education Vol 29(4) Sum 2006, 499-526.
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  • Rowell, J. R. (1977). A community-based occupational needs assessment model for community college planning: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Rubinton, N. (1983). High school students in college: How does it help? : Journal of College Student Personnel Vol 24(4) Jul 1983, 371-372.
  • Ruddell, L. S. (1993). Values of key leaders: How they relate to organizational culture in a South Texas junior college: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Russett, C. J. (1992). Factors that facilitate or impede informal workplace learning among faculty in a large suburban New York State community college: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Rymes, B. (1998). From whence curriculum? When well-meaning and well-educated isn't enough: Linguistics and Education Vol 10(2) 1998, 233-235.
  • Salguero, M. M. (1985). Training needs of part-time, noncredit-course faculty at Prince George's Community College in Maryland: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Samano, M. L. (2007). Respecting one's abilities, or (post)colonial tokenism? Narrative testimonios of faculty of color working in predominantly white community colleges. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Samuel, K. B. (2005). Attachment representation and self-concept of students with learning disabilities at the community college level. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Samuelson, J. L. (1984). The relationship between gender and the interpersonal communication skill of midlevel managers in California Community Colleges: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Sarkisian, E. (1982). Motivation and personal meaning of learning: A phenomenological study of the relationship of life events and life stage issues to the participation of older adults in community college courses: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Sarvas, A. F. (1976). An analysis of the relationship between perceptions of vocational female faculty and administrators toward female faculty in four institutional types: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Savage, J. S. (2005). The role of hope in Community College of the Air Force degree completion (Alabama). Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Schieffer, J. L., Boughner, S. R., Coll, K. M., & Christensen, O. J. (2001). Guided imagery combined with music: Encouraging self-actualizing attitudes and behaviors in at-risk community college students: Journal of College Student Psychotherapy Vol 15(3) 2001, 51-69.
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  • Schmidt, M. F. (1990). Gender balance and leadership: A study of community college presidents' leadership described in gender-related terms: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Schmit, S. E. (2001). Locus of control orientation of international students within the Arizona community college system. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Schneider, G. B. (1977). The characteristics of community college career planning classes in Washington and the career planning concepts of high importance to instructors of these classes: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Schulz, K. L. (2007). The impact of academic and athletic motivation on the academic achievement of community college student-athletes. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
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