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[[Image:Nemoparadox 003.jpg|thumb|300px|A stuffed puppy]]A '''comfort object''' is an item used to provide [[psychology|psychological]] comfort, especially in unusual or unique situations or at bedtime for small [[children]]. Though many [[toddlers]] prefer a teddy bear or doll, a stuffed animal, a favorite blanket, or even a toy such as a dump truck could be a comfort object at some stages, as the notion is that the familiarity of said object will help the child feel better, go to sleep faster, or feel less stress in a new situation.
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{{expert}}
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A '''comfort object''', or '''security blanket''' is an item used to provide psychological [[comfort]] and [[emotional security]], especially in unusual or unique situations, or at bedtime for small [[children]]. Among toddlers, comfort objects may take the form of a blanket, a stuffed animal, or a favorite toy, and may be referred to by English-speaking toddlers as ''blankey'' and ''lovey''.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://pediatrics.about.com/od/infantparentingtips/a/04_loveys.htm|title=Security and Comfort Objects|last=Iannelli, M.D.|first=Dr. Vincent|date=Dec. 12, 2004|publisher=About.com|accessdate=2009-07-17}}</ref>
   
Comfort objects are very common among toddlers and [[preschool]] aged children, and while some give them up soon after entering school, the age at which one no longer needs a comfort object varies, as does the time one might need one. Some [[teenagers]] have been known to still sleep with comfort objects, though they will probably not talk to them as a small child might. Even adults can use comfort objects at times, as elderly people in nursing homes have been known to be comforted after being given a stuffed bear or doll. The theory is that this reminds them of the more serene moments of childhood.
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==Comfort objects for therapy==
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Emergency vehicles and police patrol cars are sometimes equipped with stuffed toys, to be given to victims involved in an accident or traumatic shock and provide them comfort. Paramedics are trained to treat physical [[Shock (circulatory)|shock]] with a wide array of blankets designed to preserve heat, blood, and wounds for life threatening traumas.
   
Another term for comfort object is [[security blanket]], a term made famous by Charles Schulz in his [[comic strip]] Peanuts.
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Often charities will provide comfort objects such as blankets and quilts to survivors of disasters.<ref>http://crafthope.com/2011/05/security-blankets-for-tornado-survivors/</ref>
   
==See Also==
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Psychologists are experimenting with the use of heavy thick fleece blankets to replace restraints such as [[straitjacket]]s. They have noted through experiments with children who have autism that weighted blankets have a desirable soothing effect to help calm agitated patients.<ref>http://www.ot-innovations.com/content/view/51/38/</ref>
*[[Transitional object]]
 
   
[[Category:Personal life]]
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== In child psychology ==
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[[File:Objet transitionnel.svg|thumb|250px|Legend: (a) mother, (b) child, (1) illusion, (2) transitional object]]
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In human [[childhood development]], the term '''transitional object''' is normally used. It is something, usually a physical object, which takes the place of the mother-child bond. Common examples include [[doll]]s, [[teddy bear]]s or blankets.
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[[Donald Woods Winnicott]] introduced the concepts of '''transitional objects''' and ''transitional experience'' in reference to a particular developmental sequence. With "transition" Winnicott means an intermediate developmental phase between the psychic and external reality. In this "transitional space" we can find the "transitional object."
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When the young child begins to separate the "me" from the "not-me" and evolves from complete dependence to a stage of relative independence, it uses transitional objects. Infants see themselves and the mother as a whole. In this phase the mother "brings the world" to the infant without delay which gives it a "moment of illusion," a belief that its own wish creates the object of its desire which brings with it a sense of satisfaction. Winnicott calls this [[Donald Winnicott#Subjective omnipotence|subjective omnipotence]]. Alongside the subjective omnipotence of a child lies an [[Donald Winnicott#Objective reality|objective reality]], which constitutes the child’s awareness of separateness between itself and desired objects. While the subjective omnipotence experience is one in which the child feels that its desires create satisfaction, the objective reality experience is one in which the child independently seeks out objects of desire.{{Citation needed|date=October 2007}}
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Later on the child comes to realize that the mother is separate from it through which it appears that the child has lost something. The child realizes that it is dependent on others and thus it loses the idea that it is independent, a realization which creates a difficult period and brings [[frustration]] and [[anxiety]] with it. In the end it is impossible that the mother is always there to "bring the world" to the baby, a realization which has a powerful, somewhat painful, but ultimately constructive impact on the child. Through fantasizing about the object of its wishes the child will find comfort. A transitional object can be used in this process. The transitional object is often the first "not me" possession that really belongs to the child. This could be a real object like a blanket or a teddy bear, but other "objects," such as a melody or a word, can fulfill this role as well. This object represents all components of "mothering," and it means that the child itself is able to create what it needs as well. It enables the child to have a fantasized bond with the mother when she gradually separates for increasingly longer periods of time. The transitional object is important at the time of going to sleep and as a defence against anxiety.{{Citation needed|date=October 2007}}
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In a later stage of the development the child no longer needs the transitional object. It is able to make a distinction between "me" and "not-me," and keeping inside and outside apart and yet interrelated. This development leads to the use of illusion, symbols and objects later on in life.
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Winnicott related the concept of transitional object to a more general one, transitional phenomena, which he considered to be the basis of science, religion and all of culture. Transitional objects and phenomena, he said, are neither subjective nor objective but partake of both. In ''Mental Space'', Robert Young has provided an exposition of these concepts and has generalized their role into psychic phenomena in adult life.<ref>Young, R. M. (1994). Mental Space. London: Process Press. ch. 8</ref><ref>Young, R. M. (1989). "Transitional phenomena: production and consumption," in B. Richards, ed., Crises of the Self: Further Essays on Psychoanalysis and Politics. London: Free Association Books, pp. 57-72.</ref>
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Research with children on this subject was performed at the [[University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee]] by Richard H. Passman and his associates. Among other findings, they showed that security blankets are appropriately named &mdash; they actually do give security to those children attached to them. Along with other positive benefits, having a security blanket available can help children adapt to new situations, aid in their learning, and adjust to physicians' and clinical psychologists' evaluations. Passman's research also points out that there is nothing abnormal about being attached to them. In the United States, about 60% of children have at least some attachment to a security object.
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== Use by adults ==
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Adults may also use comfort objects. In a 2008 study, the Sony [[AIBO]] robotic pet was found to decrease loneliness in the elderly in nursing homes.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,334529,00.html|title=Study: Dogs, Robots Cheer Elderly|date=March 3, 2008|publisher=Fox News|accessdate=2009-07-17}}</ref>
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Japanese adults use comfort objects to cope with modern stress.<ref>[http://www.toddlertime.com/dx/regression/security.htm Security Blankets for Adults] Kathi's Mental Health Review, March 25, 2002</ref>
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Stuffed animals may be given by [[emergency medical services]] workers, police, and others to victims of disasters such as fires and crime. After the [[September 11 attacks]], writes [[Marita Sturken]] in ''Tourists of History'', "the [[Oklahoma City National Memorial]] sent six hundred teddy bears and then the state of Oklahoma sent sixty thousand stuffed animals to New York, which were distributed to children in schools affected by 9/11, family support organizations, and New York fire stations."<ref>The recent history of such comfort objects, particularly teddy bears, as well a critique of their comfort-providing function can be found in Marita Sturken, ''Tourists of History: Memory, Kitsch, and Consumption from Oklahoma City to Ground Zero'' (Durham: Duke University Press, 2007), here p. 7.</ref>
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Many adults consider the comfort that security blankets provide as essential to their mental and emotional well-being.<ref>[http://psychcentral.com/blog/archives/2010/10/13/do-you-still-have-a-security-blanket/ Do You Still Have a Security Blanket?] Dr. John Grohol, PsychCentral, October 13, 2010</ref>
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Adults will take comfort objects away on business trips to remind them of home. According to a 2011 survey by [[Travelodge]], about 35 percent of British adults still sleep with a teddy bear.<ref>[http://www.upi.com/Odd_News/2012/02/21/35-percent-of-British-adults-sleep-with-bear/UPI-49791329806031/ 35 percent of British adults sleep with bear] United Press International, February 21, 2012</ref>
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==See also==
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* [[Child hood development]]
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* [[Comfort]]
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* [[Emotional security]]
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* [[Jointness (psychodynamics)]]
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* [[Pacifier]]
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* [[Object relations]]
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* [[Separation individuation]]
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* [[Toys as transitional objects]]
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* [[Transitional object]]
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==References==
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{{reflist}}
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==Further reading==
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* Abram, J. (1996). The Language of Winnicott. A Dictionary of Winnicott’s Use of Words, Karnac Books, London
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* Dell’Orto, S. (2003). W.D. Winnicott and the transitional object in infancy. Pediatric Medicine Chirurgic 25(2), 106-112.
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* Mitchell, S. A., Black, M. J. (1995). Freud and beyond: A history of modern psychoanalytic thought. New York: Basic Books.
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*O'Halloran, B.C. Creature Comforts, People and Their Security Objects
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* Passman, R. H. (1977). Providing attachment objects to facilitate learning and reduce distress: The effects of mothers and security blankets. ''Developmental Psychology'', 13, 25-28.
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* Passman, R. H. (1987). Attachments to inanimate objects: Are children who have security blankets insecure? ''Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology'', 55, 825-830.
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* Passman, R. H., & Halonen, J. S. (1979). A developmental survey of young children's attachments to inanimate objects. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 134, 165-178.
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* Passman, R. H., & Lautmann, L. A. (1982). Fathers', mothers', and security objects' effects on the responsiveness of young children during projective testing. ''Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology'', 50, 310-312.
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* Winnicott, D.W. (1971). Playing and Reality, Routledge, London
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* Young, R. M. (1989). 'Transitional phenomena: production and consumption', in B. Richards, ed., Crises of the Self: Further Essays on Psychoanalysis and Politics. London: [[Free Association Books]], pp.&nbsp;57–72.
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* Young, R. M. (1994). Mental Space. London: Process Press.
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*''Creature Comforts, People and Their Security Objects'' by Barbara Collopy O'Halloran and Photographed by Betty Udesen.
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{{DEFAULTSORT:Comfort Object}}
 
[[Category:Childhood]]
 
[[Category:Childhood]]
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[[Category:Child development]]
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[[Category:Comfort]]
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[[Category:Emotional security]]
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[[Category:Object relations theory]]
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[[Category:Personal life]]
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A comfort object, or security blanket is an item used to provide psychological comfort and emotional security, especially in unusual or unique situations, or at bedtime for small children. Among toddlers, comfort objects may take the form of a blanket, a stuffed animal, or a favorite toy, and may be referred to by English-speaking toddlers as blankey and lovey.[1]

Comfort objects for therapyEdit

Emergency vehicles and police patrol cars are sometimes equipped with stuffed toys, to be given to victims involved in an accident or traumatic shock and provide them comfort. Paramedics are trained to treat physical shock with a wide array of blankets designed to preserve heat, blood, and wounds for life threatening traumas.

Often charities will provide comfort objects such as blankets and quilts to survivors of disasters.[2]

Psychologists are experimenting with the use of heavy thick fleece blankets to replace restraints such as straitjackets. They have noted through experiments with children who have autism that weighted blankets have a desirable soothing effect to help calm agitated patients.[3]

In child psychology Edit

Objet transitionnel

Legend: (a) mother, (b) child, (1) illusion, (2) transitional object

In human childhood development, the term transitional object is normally used. It is something, usually a physical object, which takes the place of the mother-child bond. Common examples include dolls, teddy bears or blankets.

Donald Woods Winnicott introduced the concepts of transitional objects and transitional experience in reference to a particular developmental sequence. With "transition" Winnicott means an intermediate developmental phase between the psychic and external reality. In this "transitional space" we can find the "transitional object."

When the young child begins to separate the "me" from the "not-me" and evolves from complete dependence to a stage of relative independence, it uses transitional objects. Infants see themselves and the mother as a whole. In this phase the mother "brings the world" to the infant without delay which gives it a "moment of illusion," a belief that its own wish creates the object of its desire which brings with it a sense of satisfaction. Winnicott calls this subjective omnipotence. Alongside the subjective omnipotence of a child lies an objective reality, which constitutes the child’s awareness of separateness between itself and desired objects. While the subjective omnipotence experience is one in which the child feels that its desires create satisfaction, the objective reality experience is one in which the child independently seeks out objects of desire.[citation needed]

Later on the child comes to realize that the mother is separate from it through which it appears that the child has lost something. The child realizes that it is dependent on others and thus it loses the idea that it is independent, a realization which creates a difficult period and brings frustration and anxiety with it. In the end it is impossible that the mother is always there to "bring the world" to the baby, a realization which has a powerful, somewhat painful, but ultimately constructive impact on the child. Through fantasizing about the object of its wishes the child will find comfort. A transitional object can be used in this process. The transitional object is often the first "not me" possession that really belongs to the child. This could be a real object like a blanket or a teddy bear, but other "objects," such as a melody or a word, can fulfill this role as well. This object represents all components of "mothering," and it means that the child itself is able to create what it needs as well. It enables the child to have a fantasized bond with the mother when she gradually separates for increasingly longer periods of time. The transitional object is important at the time of going to sleep and as a defence against anxiety.[citation needed]

In a later stage of the development the child no longer needs the transitional object. It is able to make a distinction between "me" and "not-me," and keeping inside and outside apart and yet interrelated. This development leads to the use of illusion, symbols and objects later on in life.

Winnicott related the concept of transitional object to a more general one, transitional phenomena, which he considered to be the basis of science, religion and all of culture. Transitional objects and phenomena, he said, are neither subjective nor objective but partake of both. In Mental Space, Robert Young has provided an exposition of these concepts and has generalized their role into psychic phenomena in adult life.[4][5]

Research with children on this subject was performed at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee by Richard H. Passman and his associates. Among other findings, they showed that security blankets are appropriately named — they actually do give security to those children attached to them. Along with other positive benefits, having a security blanket available can help children adapt to new situations, aid in their learning, and adjust to physicians' and clinical psychologists' evaluations. Passman's research also points out that there is nothing abnormal about being attached to them. In the United States, about 60% of children have at least some attachment to a security object.

Use by adults Edit

Adults may also use comfort objects. In a 2008 study, the Sony AIBO robotic pet was found to decrease loneliness in the elderly in nursing homes.[6]

Japanese adults use comfort objects to cope with modern stress.[7]

Stuffed animals may be given by emergency medical services workers, police, and others to victims of disasters such as fires and crime. After the September 11 attacks, writes Marita Sturken in Tourists of History, "the Oklahoma City National Memorial sent six hundred teddy bears and then the state of Oklahoma sent sixty thousand stuffed animals to New York, which were distributed to children in schools affected by 9/11, family support organizations, and New York fire stations."[8]

Many adults consider the comfort that security blankets provide as essential to their mental and emotional well-being.[9]

Adults will take comfort objects away on business trips to remind them of home. According to a 2011 survey by Travelodge, about 35 percent of British adults still sleep with a teddy bear.[10]

See alsoEdit


ReferencesEdit

  1. Iannelli, M.D., Dr. Vincent Security and Comfort Objects. About.com. URL accessed on 2009-07-17.
  2. http://crafthope.com/2011/05/security-blankets-for-tornado-survivors/
  3. http://www.ot-innovations.com/content/view/51/38/
  4. Young, R. M. (1994). Mental Space. London: Process Press. ch. 8
  5. Young, R. M. (1989). "Transitional phenomena: production and consumption," in B. Richards, ed., Crises of the Self: Further Essays on Psychoanalysis and Politics. London: Free Association Books, pp. 57-72.
  6. Study: Dogs, Robots Cheer Elderly. Fox News. URL accessed on 2009-07-17.
  7. Security Blankets for Adults Kathi's Mental Health Review, March 25, 2002
  8. The recent history of such comfort objects, particularly teddy bears, as well a critique of their comfort-providing function can be found in Marita Sturken, Tourists of History: Memory, Kitsch, and Consumption from Oklahoma City to Ground Zero (Durham: Duke University Press, 2007), here p. 7.
  9. Do You Still Have a Security Blanket? Dr. John Grohol, PsychCentral, October 13, 2010
  10. 35 percent of British adults sleep with bear United Press International, February 21, 2012

Further readingEdit

  • Abram, J. (1996). The Language of Winnicott. A Dictionary of Winnicott’s Use of Words, Karnac Books, London
  • Dell’Orto, S. (2003). W.D. Winnicott and the transitional object in infancy. Pediatric Medicine Chirurgic 25(2), 106-112.
  • Mitchell, S. A., Black, M. J. (1995). Freud and beyond: A history of modern psychoanalytic thought. New York: Basic Books.
  • O'Halloran, B.C. Creature Comforts, People and Their Security Objects
  • Passman, R. H. (1977). Providing attachment objects to facilitate learning and reduce distress: The effects of mothers and security blankets. Developmental Psychology, 13, 25-28.
  • Passman, R. H. (1987). Attachments to inanimate objects: Are children who have security blankets insecure? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 825-830.
  • Passman, R. H., & Halonen, J. S. (1979). A developmental survey of young children's attachments to inanimate objects. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 134, 165-178.
  • Passman, R. H., & Lautmann, L. A. (1982). Fathers', mothers', and security objects' effects on the responsiveness of young children during projective testing. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 310-312.
  • Winnicott, D.W. (1971). Playing and Reality, Routledge, London
  • Young, R. M. (1989). 'Transitional phenomena: production and consumption', in B. Richards, ed., Crises of the Self: Further Essays on Psychoanalysis and Politics. London: Free Association Books, pp. 57–72.
  • Young, R. M. (1994). Mental Space. London: Process Press.
  • Creature Comforts, People and Their Security Objects by Barbara Collopy O'Halloran and Photographed by Betty Udesen.
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