# Color constancy

34,200pages on
this wiki

 Color perception Articles Other Articles This box: view • talk • edit

Color constancy is an example of subjective constancy and a feature of the human color perception system which ensures that the perceived color of objects remains relatively constant under varying illumination conditions. An apple for instance looks green to us at midday, when the main illumination is white sunlight, and also at sunset, when the main illumination is red. This helps us identify objects. Some nonhuman species, such as monkeys and goldfish have also been shown to have color constancy. It is likely that all animals with color vision have color constancy.

Color constancy works only if the incident illumination contains a range of wavelengths. The different cone cells of the eye register different ranges of wavelengths of the light reflected by every object in the scene. From this information, the visual system attempts to determine the approximate composition of the illuminating light. This illumination is then discounted in order to obtain the object's "true color" or reflectance: the wavelengths of light the object reflects. This reflectance then largely determines the perceived color. The precise algorithm used for this process is not known.

The effect was described in 1971 by Edwin Land, who formulated retinex theory to explain it. The word "retinex" is formed from "retina" and "cortex", suggesting that both the eye and the brain are involved in the processing.

The effect can be experimentally demonstrated as follows. A display, called a "Mondrian" (after the Piet Mondrian whose paintings are similar) consisting of numerous colored patches is shown to a person. The display is illuminated by three white lights, one projected through a red filter, one projected through a green filter, and one projected through a blue filter. The person is asked to adjust the intensity of the lights so that a particular patch in the display appears white. The experimenter then measures the intensities of red, green, and blue light reflected from this white-appearing patch. Then the experimenter asks the person to identify the color of a neighboring patch, which, for example, appears green. Then the experimenter adjusts the lights so that the intensities of red, blue, and green light reflected from the green patch are the same as were originally measured from the white patch. The person shows color constancy in that the green patch continues to appear green, the white patch continues to appear white, and all the remaining patches continue to have their original colors.

Color constancy is a desirable feature of robotic color vision, or computer vision, and several algorithms have been developed. These are known as retinex algorithms. These algorithms receive as input the red/green/blue values of each pixel of the image and attempt to estimate the reflectances of each point. One such algorithm operates as follows: the maximal red value rmax of all pixels is determined, and also the maximal green value gmax and the maximal blue value bmax. Assuming that the scene contains objects which reflect all red light, and (other) objects which reflect all green light and still others which reflect all blue light, one can then deduce that the illuminating light source is described by (rmax, gmax, bmax). For each pixel with values (r, g, b) its reflectance is estimated as (r/rmax, g/gmax, b/bmax).

## References

• Abrams, A. B., Hillis, J. M., & Brainard, D. H. (2007). The relation between color discrimination and color constancy: When is optimal adaptation task dependent? : Neural Computation Vol 19(10) Oct 2007, 2610-2637.
• Agarwal, V., Gribok, A. V., & Abidi, M. A. (2007). Machine learning approach to color constancy: Neural Networks Vol 20(5) Jul 2007, 559-563.
• Akishige, Y. (1968). Studies on constancy problem in Japan: IIB: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient 11(3-4) 1968, 127-138.
• Amano, K., Foster, D. H., & Nascimento, S. M. C. (2005). Minimalist surface-colour matching: Perception Vol 34(8) 2005, 1009-1013.
• Amano, K., Foster, D. H., & Nascimento, S. M. C. (2006). Color constancy in natural scenes with and without an explicit illuminant cue: Visual Neuroscience Vol 23(3-4) May-Aug 2006, 351-356.
• Arend, L. (1994). Surface colors, illumination, and surface geometry: Intrinsic-image models of human color perception. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
• Arend, L., & Reeves, A. (1986). Simultaneous color constancy: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 3(10) Oct 1986, 1743-1751.
• Arend, L. E., Reeves, A., Schirillo, J., & Goldstein, R. (1991). Simultaneous color constancy: Papers with diverse Munsell values: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 8(4) Apr 1991, 661-672.
• Avendano-Alejo, M., Stavroudis, O. N., & Rosa Boyain y Goitia, A. (2002). Huygenss principle and rays in uniaxial anisotropic media. I. Crystal axis normal to refracting surface: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image Science & Vision Vol 19(8) Aug 2002, 1668-1673.
• Baraas, R. C., Foster, D. H., Amano, K., & Nascimento, S. M. C. (2004). Protanopic observers show nearly normal color constancy with natural reflectance spectra: Visual Neuroscience Vol 21(3) May-Jun 2004, 347-351.
• Baraas, R. C., Foster, D. H., Amano, K., & Nascimento, S. M. C. (2006). Anomalous trichromats' judgments of surface color in natural scenes under different daylights: Visual Neuroscience Vol 23(3-4) May-Aug 2006, 629-635.
• Bauml, K.-H. (1999). Color constancy: The role of image surfaces in illuminant adjustment: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image Science & Vision Vol 16(7) Jul 1999, 1521-1530.
• Bauml, K.-H. (1999). Simultaneous color constancy: How surface color perception varies with the illuminant: Vision Research Vol 39(8) Apr 1999, 1531-1550.
• Beck, J. (1974). Surface Color Covered Fully: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 19 (10), Oct, 1974.
• Bergstrom, S. S. (1977). Common and relative components of reflected light as information about the illumination, colour, and three-dimensional form of objects: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology Vol 18(3) 1977, 180-186.
• Bergstrom, S. S. (1994). Color constancy: Arguments for a vector model for the perception of illumination, color, and depth. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
• Bergstrom, S. S. (2004). The AMBEGUJAS phenomenon and colour constancy: Perception Vol 33(7) 2004, 831-835.
• Bergstrom, S. S., Gustafsson, K.-A., & Putaansuu, J. (1984). Information about three-dimensional shape and direction of illumination in a square-wave grating: Perception Vol 13(2) 1984, 129-140.
• Blackwell, K. T., & Buchsbaum, G. (1988). Quantitative studies of color constancy: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 5(10) Oct 1988, 1772-1780.
• Bocksch, H. (1927). Duplicity theory and color constancy: Zeitschrift fur Psychologie 102 1927, 338-449.
• Bolles, R. C., Hulicka, I. M., & Hanly, B. (1959). Colour judgment as a function of stimulus conditions and memory colour: Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Vol 13(3) 1959, 175-185.
• Bologna, N. B., May, J. G., & Kunen, S. (1984). Age-related differences in the magnitude of pattern-contingent color aftereffects: Perception & Psychophysics Vol 36(4) Oct 1984, 349-352.
• Boyaci, H., Doerschner, K., & Maloney, L. T. (2004). Perceived surface color in binocularly viewed scenes with two light sources differing in chromaticity: Journal of Vision Vol 4(9) Sep 2004, 664-679.
• Boynton, R. M. (1988). Color vision. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
• Brainard, D. H. (1998). Color constancy in the nearly natural image: 2. Achromatic loci: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image Science & Vision Vol 15(2) Feb 1998, 307-325.
• Brainard, D. H., Brunt, W. A., & Speigle, J. M. (1997). Color constancy in the nearly natural image: I. Asymmetric matches: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image Science & Vision Vol 14(9) Sep 1997, 2091-2110.
• Brainard, D. H., Kraft, J. M., & Longere, P. (2003). Colour constancy: Developing empirical tests of computational models. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
• Brainard, D. H., & Maloney, L. T. (2004). Perception of color and material properties in complex scenes: Journal of Vision Vol 4(9) Sep 2004, No Pagination Specified.
• Brainard, D. H., & Wandell, B. A. (1986). Analysis of the retinex theory of color vision: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 3(10) Oct 1986, 1651-1661.
• Brainard, D. H., Wandell, B. A., & Chichilnisky, E.-J. (1993). Color constancy: From physics to appearance: Current Directions in Psychological Science Vol 2(5) Oct 1993, 165-170.
• Bramwell, D. I., & Hurlbert, A. C. (1996). Measurements of colour constancy by using a forced-choice matching technique: Perception Vol 25(2) 1996, 229-241.
• Breive, K., Vaitkevicius, G., Stanikunas, R., Svegzda, A., Kulikowski, J. J., & Al-Attar, Z. (1999). Studies of color constancy: Sensory Systems Vol 13(4) Oct-Dec 1999, 271-278.
• Brenner, E., Granzier, J. J. M., & Smeets, J. B. J. (2007). Combining local and global contributions to perceived colour: An analysis of the variability in symmetric and asymmetric colour matching: Vision Research Vol 47(1) Jan 2007, 114-125.
• Bright, A., Waas, J. R., King, C. M., & Cuming, P. D. (2004). Bill colour and correlates of male quality in blackbirds: An analysis using canonical ordination: Behavioural Processes Vol 65(2) Feb 2004, 123-132.
• Brill, M. H., & Finlayson, G. (2002). Illuminant invariance from a single reflected light: Color Research and Application Vol 27(1) Feb 2002, 45-48.
• Brown, R. O. (2003). Backgrounds and illuminants: The yin and yang of colour constancy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
• Bruno, N. (1992). Chromatic constancy and artificial vision: Sistemi Intelligenti Vol 4(1) Apr 1992, 45-74.
• Burzlaff, W. (1931). Methodological contributions to the problem of color constancy: Zeitschrift fur Psychologie 119 1931, 177-235.
• Byrne, A., & Hilbert, D. R. (1997). Readings on color, Vol. 2: The science of color. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
• Cardei, V. C., Funt, B., & Barnard, K. (2002). Estimating the scene illumination chromaticity by using a neural network: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image Science & Vision Vol 19(12) Dec 2002, 2374-2386.
• Carden, D., Hilken, H., Butler, S. R., & Kulikowski, J. J. (1992). Lesions of primate visual area V4 produce long-lasting deficits to colour constancy: Irish Journal of Psychology Vol 13(4) 1992, 455-472.
• Chau, A. W., & Yeh, Y.-Y. (1995). Segregation by color and stereoscopic depth in three-dimensional visual space: Perception & Psychophysics Vol 57(7) Oct 1995, 1032-1044.
• Cho, S.-Y., & Chow, T. W. S. (2002). A new color 3D SFS methodology using neural-based color reflectance models and iterative recursive method: Neural Computation Vol 14(11) Nov 2002, 2751-2789.
• Clifford, C. (2004). Review of Colour perception: Mind and the physical world: Perception Vol 33(11) 2004, 1399-1400.
• Conway, B. R., & Livingstone, M. S. (2006). Spatial and temporal properties of cone signals in alert macaque primary visual cortex: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 26(42) Oct 2006, 10826-10846.
• Cornelissen, F. W., & Brenner, E. (1995). Simultaneous colour constancy revisited: An analysis of viewing strategies: Vision Research Vol 35(17) Sep 1995, 2431-2448.
• Courtney, S. M. (1993). Retinal and cortical contributions to color constancy and color induction in a multi-stage network model: Dissertation Abstracts International.
• Courtney, S. M., Finkel, L. H., & Buchsbaum, G. (1995). Network simulations of retinal and cortical contributions to color constancy: Vision Research Vol 35(3) Feb 1995, 413-434.
• Craven, B. J., & Foster, D. H. (1992). An operational approach to colour constancy: Vision Research Vol 32(7) Jul 1992, 1359-1366.
• Dannemiller, J. L. (1989). Computational approaches to color constancy: Adaptive and ontogenetic considerations: Psychological Review Vol 96(2) Apr 1989, 255-266.
• Dannemiller, J. L. (1989). A test of color constancy in 9- and 20-week-old human infants following simulated illuminant changes: Developmental Psychology Vol 25(2) Mar 1989, 171-184.
• Dannemiller, J. L. (1991). Lightness is not illuminant invariant: Reply to Troost and de Weert (1990): Psychological Review Vol 98(1) Jan 1991, 146-148.
• Dannemiller, J. L. (1993). Rank orderings of photoreceptor photon catches from natural objects are nearly illuminant-invariant: Vision Research Vol 33(1) Jan 1993, 131-140.
• Dannemiller, J. L. (1998). Color constancy and color vision during infancy: Methodological and empirical issues. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
• Dannemiller, J. L., & Hanko, S. A. (1987). A test of color constancy in 4-month-old human infants: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology Vol 44(2) Oct 1987, 255-267.
• Daugirdiene, A., Murray, I. J., Vaitkevicius, H., & Kulikowski, J. (2006). Cone contrast computations: Physical versus perceived background and colour constancy: Spatial Vision Vol 19(2-4) May 2006, 173-192.
• De Almeida, V. M. N., Fiadeiro, P. T., & Nascimento, S. M. C. (2004). Color constancy by asymmetric color matching with real objects in three-dimensional scenes: Visual Neuroscience Vol 21(3) May-Jun 2004, 341-345.
• Decker, D. S. (1973). An investigation of the relationship between consistencies in cognitive and perceptual style and color constancy and color preference: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
• Delahunt, P. B. (2002). An evaluation of color constancy across illumination and mutual reflection changes. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
• Delahunt, P. B., & Brainard, D. H. (2004). Color constancy under changes in reflected illumination: Journal of Vision Vol 4(9) Sep 2004, 764-778.
• Delahunt, P. B., & Brainard, D. H. (2004). Does human color constancy incorporate the statistical regularity of natural daylight? : Journal of Vision Vol 4(2) Feb 2004, 57-81.
• Desimone, R., Moran, J., Schein, S. J., & Mishkin, M. (1993). A role for the corpus callosum in visual area V4 of the macaque: Visual Neuroscience Vol 10(1) Jan-Feb 1993, 159-171.
• Dobkins, K. R., & Albright, T. D. (1994). What happens if it changes color when it moves? The nature of chromatic input to macaque visual area MT: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 14(8) Aug 1994, 4854-4870.
• Dorr, S., & Neumeyer, C. (1996). The goldfish--A colour-constant animal: Perception Vol 25(2) 1996, 243-250.
• Dowling, C. E., Roberts, F. S., & Theuns, P. (1998). Recent progress in mathematical psychology: Psychophysics, knowledge, representation, cognition, and measurement. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
• Dzhafarli, M. T., Maksimov, V. V., Kezeli, A. R., & Antelidze, N. B. (1991). Color constancy in monkeys: Sensory Systems Vol 5(3) Jul-Sep 1991, 200-204.
• D'Zmura, M. (1992). Color constancy: Surface color from changing illumination: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 9(3) Mar 1992, 490-493.
• D'Zmura, M., Colantoni, P., & Hagedorn, J. (2001). Perception of color change: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S186-S191.
• D'Zmura, M., & Iverson, G. (1993). Color constancy: I. Basic theory of two-stage linear recovery of spectral descriptions for lights and surfaces: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 10(10) Oct 1993, 2148-2165.
• D'Zmura, M., & Iverson, G. (1993). Color constancy: II. Results for two-stage linear recovery of spectral descriptions for lights and surfaces: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 10(10) Oct 1993, 2166-2180.
• D'Zmura, M., & Iverson, G. (1994). Color constancy: III. General linear recovery of spectral descriptions for lights and surfaces: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image Science & Vision Vol 11(9) Sep 1994, 2389-2400.
• D'Zmura, M., & Iverson, G. (1998). A formal approach to color constancy: The recovery of surface and light source spectral properties using bilinear models. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
• D'Zmura, M., Iverson, G., & Singer, B. (1995). Probabilistic color constancy. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
• D'Zmura, M., Knoblauch, K., Henaff, M.-A., & Francois, M. (1998). Dependence of color on context in a case of cortical color vision deficiency: Vision Research Vol 38(21) Nov 1998, 3455-3459.
• D'Zmura, M., & Lennie, P. (1986). Mechanisms of color constancy: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 3(10) Oct 1986, 1662-1672.
• Ekroll, V., & Golz, J. (2003). [Commentary]: Comparing the behaviour of machine vision algorithms and human observers. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
• Emmerson, P., & Ross, H. (1985). Colour constancy with change of viewing distance under water: Perception Vol 14(3) 1985, 349-358.
• Fairchild, M. D. (2007). Spectral adaptation: Color Research and Application Vol 32(2) Apr 2007, 100-112.
• Finlayson, G. D., Drew, M. S., & Funt, B. V. (1994). Spectral sharpening: Sensor transformations for improved color constancy: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image Science & Vision Vol 11(5) May 1994, 1553-1563.
• Finlayson, G. D., & Funt, B. V. (1996). Coefficient channels: Derivation and relationship to other theoretical studies: Color Research and Application Vol 21(2) Apr 1996, 87-96.
• Finlayson, G. D., Hordley, S., & Hubel, P. M. (2002). Illumination estimation for object recognition: Color Research and Application Vol 27(4) Aug 2002, 260-270.
• Fleischer, E. (1941). The constancy of hue: Zeitschrift fur Psychologie 151 1941, 33-80.
• Foster, D. H. (2003). Does colour constancy exist? : Trends in Cognitive Sciences Vol 7(10) Oct 2003, 439-443.
• Foster, D. H., Amano, K., & Nascimento, S. M. C. (2001). Colour constancy from temporal cues: Better matches with less variability under fast illuminant changes: Vision Research Vol 41(3) Feb 2001, 285-293.
• Foster, D. H., Amano, K., & Nascimento, S. M. C. (2001). How temporal cues can aid colour constancy: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S180-S185.
• Foster, D. H., Amano, K., & Nascimento, S. M. C. (2006). Color constancy in natural scenes explained by global image statistics: Visual Neuroscience Vol 23(3-4) May-Aug 2006, 341-349.
• Foster, D. H., Craven, B. J., & Sale, E. R. (1992). Immediate colour constancy: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 12(2) Apr 1992, 157-160.
• Foster, D. H., Nascimento, S. M. C., & Amano, K. (2004). Information limits on neural identification of colored surfaces in natural scenes: Visual Neuroscience Vol 21(3) May-Jun 2004, 331-336.
• Foster, D. H., Nascimento, S. M. C., & Amano, K. (2005). Information limits on identification of natural surfaces by apparent colour: Perception Vol 34(8) 2005, 1003-1008.
• Foster, D. H., Nascimento, S. M. C., Craven, B. J., Linnell, K. J., Cornelissen, F. W., & Brenner, E. (1997). Four issues concerning colour constancy and relational colour constancy: Vision Research Vol 37(10) May 1997, 1341-1345.
• Gelb, A. (1932). The phenomena of simultaneous contrast and the impression of field illumination: Zeitschrift fur Psychologie 127 1932, 42-59.
• Gelb, A. (1938). Colour constancy. London, England: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Company.
• Gigerenzer, G. (1997). Ecological intelligence: An adaption for frequencies: Psychologische Beitrage Vol 39(1-2) 1997, 107-125.
• Gilchrist, A. L. (1994). Lightness, brightness, and transparency. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
• Goda, N., & Ejima, Y. (1997). Moving stimuli define the shape of stationary chromatic patterns: Perception Vol 26(11) 1997, 1413-1422.
• Golz, J., & MacLeod, D. I. A. (2002). Influence of scene statistics on colour constancy: Nature Vol 415(6872) Feb 2002, 637-640.
• Grossberg, S., & Hong, S. (2006). A neural model of surface perception: Lightness, anchoring, and filling-in: Spatial Vision Vol 19(2-4) May 2006, 263-321.
• Hansen, T., Walter, S., & Gegenfurtner, K. R. (2007). Effects of spatial and temporal context on color categories and color constancy: Journal of Vision Vol 7(4) 2007, 1-15.
• Hardin, C. L. (2000). Red and yellow, green and blue, warm and cool: Explaining colour appearance: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 7(8-9) Aug-Sep 2000, 113-122.
• Harris, L. (1971). Variability in maze drawings of young children: Effects of stimulus change and chronological age: Psychonomic Science Vol 23(4) May 1971, 305-307.
• Heggelund, P. (1974). Achromatic color vision: II. Measurement of simultaneous achromatic contrast within a bidimensional system: Vision Research Vol 14(11) Nov 1974, 1081-1088.
• Heller, J. (2001). Bisection with achromatic colors: Platueau's classical experiment: Zeitschrift fur Experimentelle Psychologie Vol 48(4) 2001, 259-271.
• Helson, H. (1938). Fundamental problems in color vision. I. The principle governing changes in hue, saturation, and lightness of non-selective samples in chromatic illumination: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 23(5) Nov 1938, 439-476.
• Hoffman, D. (2003). [Commentary]: Colour construction. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
• Hunt, R. W. G., Li, C. J., & Luo, M. R. (2003). Dynamic Cone Response Functions for Models of Colour Appearance: Color Research and Application Vol 28(2) Apr 2003, 82-88.
• Hurlbert, A. (1999). Colour vision: Is colour constancy real? : Current Biology Vol 9(15) Jul-Aug 1999, R558-R561.
• Hurlbert, A. (2003). Colour Vision: Primary Visual Cortex Shows Its Influence: Current Biology Vol 13(7) Apr 2003, R270-R272.
• Hurlbert, A. C. (1998). Computational models of color constancy. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
• Ingle, D. (1987). "Color vision and the Retinex theory": Response: Science Vol 238(4834) Dec 1987, 1732.
• Ingle, D. (1998). Perceptual constancies in lower vertebrates. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
• Ingle, D. J. (1985). The goldfish as a retinex animal: Science Vol 227(4687) Feb 1985, 651-654.
• Itel'Son, L. B., & Ivashkin, V. S. (1967). Some New Paradoxical Color Vision Phenomena and the Physical Correlates of Color Sensations: Voprosy Psychologii 13(6) 1967, 130-143.
• Iverson, G., & D'Zmura, M. (1995). Color constancy: Spectral recovery using trichromatic bilinear models. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
• Jaensch, E. R. (1939). New and fundamental concepts in the problems of the psychology of perception: Zeitschrift fur Psychologie 146 1939, 193-228.
• Jakab, Z. (2005). Opponent Processing, Linear Models, and the Veridicality of Color Perception. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
• Jameson, D., & Hurvich, L. M. (1989). Essay concerning color constancy. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
• Jenness, J. W., & Shevell, S. K. (1995). Color appearance with sparse chromatic context: Vision Research Vol 35(6) Mar 1995, 797-805.
• Jiao, S., Ji, G., & He, H. (1997). The process of human vision system's cognitive operation in keeping color constancy: Acta Psychologica Sinica Vol 29(2) 1997, 113-120.
• Jiao, S.-l., Chiang, C. C., & Zhang, W.-t. (1984). Color constancy under changing phases of daylight: Acta Psychologica Sinica Vol 16(1) 1984, 55-61.
• Jin, E. W., & Shevell, S. K. (1996). Color memory and color constancy: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image Science & Vision Vol 13(10) Oct 1996, 1981-1991.
• Jin, W. (1999). The role of color memory in mediating successive color constancy. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
• Joost, U., Lee, B. B., & Zaidi, Q. (2002). Lichtenberg's letter to Goethe on "Farbige Schatten": Color Research and Application Vol 27(4) Aug 2002, 300-303.
• Kardos, L. (1934). Thing and shadow. An experimental investigation on the basis of color vision: Zeitschrift fur Psychologie Suppl vol 23 1934, x + 184.
• Kardos, L. (1985). Buhler's "failed" theory on the constancy of colours: Magyar Pszichologiai Szemle Vol 42(5) 1985, 376-384.
• Katona, G. (1935). Color-contrast and color-constancy: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 18(1) Feb 1935, 49-63.
• Keegan, D. A., & Bannister, S. L. (2003). Effect of colour coordination of attire with poster presentation on poster popularity: Canadian Medical Association Journal Vol 169(12) Dec 2003, 1291-1292.
• Kelber, A. (2006). Invertebrate colour vision. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
• Kelber, A., Balkenius, A., & Warrant, E. J. (2002). Scotopic colour vision in nocturnal hawkmoths: Nature Vol 419(6910) Oct 2002, 922-925.
• Kentridge, R. W., Heywood, C. A., & Cowey, A. (2004). Chromatic edges, surfaces and constancies in cerebral achromatopsia: Neuropsychologia Vol 42(6) 2004, 821-830.
• Kentridge, R. W., Heywood, C. A., & Weiskrantz, L. (2007). Color contrast processing in human striate cortex: PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Vol 104(38) Sep 2007, 15129-15131.
• Khang, B.-G., & Zaidi, Q. (2002). Cues and strategies for color constancy: Perceptual scission, image junctions and transformational color matching: Vision Research Vol 42(2) Jan 2002, 211-226.
• Khang, B.-G., & Zaidi, Q. (2002). "Cues and strategies for color constancy: Perceptual scission, image junctions and transformational color matching": Erratum: Vision Research Vol 42(24) Nov 2002, 2729.
• Khang, B.-G., & Zaidi, Q. (2004). Illuminant color perception of spectrally filtered spotlights: Journal of Vision Vol 4(9) Sep 2004, 680-692.
• Komatsu, H. (1998). The physiological substrates of color constancy. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
• Kraft, J. M., Maloney, S. I., & Brainard, D. H. (2002). Surface-illuminant ambiguity and color constancy: Effects of scene complexity and depth cues: Perception Vol 31(2) 2002, 247-263.
• Kraft, J. M., & Werner, J. S. (1999). Aging and the saturation of colors: 2. Scaling of color appearance: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image Science & Vision Vol 16(2) Feb 1999, 231-235.
• Kremers, J., Lee, B. B., & Kaiser, P. K. (1992). Sensitivity of macaque retinal ganglion cells and human observers to combined luminance and chromatic temporal modulation: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 9(9) Sep 1992, 1477-1485.
• Kulikowski, J. J., Stanikunas, R., Jurkutaitis, M., Vaitkevicius, H., & Murray, I. J. (2001). Colour and brightness shifts for isoluminant samples and backgrounds: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S209-S213.
• Kulikowski, J. J., & Vaitkevicius, H. (1997). Colour constancy as a function of hue: Acta Psychologica Vol 97(1) Oct 1997, 25-35.
• Kulikowski, J. J., Walsh, V., McKeefry, D., Butler, S. R., & et al. (1994). The electrophysiological basis of colour processing in macaques with V4 lesions: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 60(1) Jan 1994, 73-78.
• Kuriki, I. (2006). The loci of achromatic points in a real environment under various illuminant chromaticities: Vision Research Vol 46(19) Sep 2006, 3055-3066.
• Kuriki, I., & Uchikawa, K. (1996). Limitations of surface-color and apparent-color constancy: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image Science & Vision Vol 13(8) Aug 1996, 1622-1636.
• Kusunoki, M., Moutoussis, K., & Zeki, S. (2006). Effect of Background Colors on the Tuning of Color-Selective Cells in Monkey Area V4: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 95(5) May 2006, 3047-3059.
• Landsberger, D. M. (2001). Color constancy from chromatic adaptation. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
• Lee, H.-c. (1986). Method for computing the scene-illuminant chromaticity from specular highlights: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 3(10) Oct 1986, 1694-1699.
• Lennon, L. J. (1934). The constancy of hypochromatic vision: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 17(5) Oct 1934, 662-670.
• Leonov, Y. P. (1986). A model for constant-contrast 4-space: Soviet Journal of Psychology Vol 7(2) 1986, 200-209.
• Lie, I. (1969). Psychophsical invariants of achromatic colour vision: II. Albedo/illumination substitution: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 10(3) 1969, 176-184.
• Lie, I. (1969). Psychophysical invariants of achromatic colour vision: III. Colour constancy and its relation to identification of illumination: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 10(4) 1969, 269-281.
• Lie, I. (1970). Achromatic colour constancy: A re-examination of its empirical basis and functional significance: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology Vol 11(3) 1970, 146-152.
• Liedemit, F. (1969). Some aspects of the functional relationships between light, colour, and visual activity: Studia Psychologica 11(2) 1969, 136-147.
• Lindsey, D. T., & Teller, D. Y. (1989). Influence of variations in edge blur on minimally distinct border judgments: A theoretical and empirical investigation: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 6(3) Mar 1989, 446-458.
• Linnell, K. J., & Foster, D. H. (1996). Dependence of relational colour constancy on the extraction of a transient signal: Perception Vol 25(2) 1996, 221-228.
• Linnell, K. J., & Foster, D. H. (2002). Scene articulation: Dependence of illuminant estimates on number of surfaces: Perception Vol 31(2) 2002, 151-159.
• Lotto, R. B., & Chittka, L. (2005). Seeing the light: Illumination as a contextual cue to color choice behavior in bumblebees: PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Vol 102(10) Mar 2005, 3852-3856.
• Lotto, R. B., & Purves, D. (1999). The effects of color on brightness: Nature Neuroscience Vol 2(11) Nov 1999, 1010-1014.
• Lucassen, M. P., & Walraven, J. (1993). Quantifying color constancy: Evidence for nonlinear processing of cone-specific contrast: Vision Research Vol 33(5-6) Mar-Apr 1993, 739-757.
• Lucassen, M. P., & Walraven, J. (2005). Separate Processing of Chromatic and Achromatic Contrast in Color Constancy: Color Research and Application Vol 30(3) Jun 2005, 172-185.
• Lucassen, M. P., & Walvaren, J. (1996). Color constancy under natural and artificial illumination: Vision Research Vol 36(17) Sep 1996, 2699-2711.
• Luce, R. D., D'Zmura, M., Hoffman, D. D., Iverson, G. J., & Romney, A. K. (1995). Geometric representations of perceptual phenomena: Papers in honor of Tarow Indow on his 70th birthday. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
• Luo, M. R., & Hunt, R. W. G. (1998). A chromatic adaptation transform and a colour inconstancy index: Color Research and Application Vol 23(3) Jun 1998, 154-158.
• MacLeod, D. I. A. (2003). New dimensions in color perception: Comment: Trends in Cognitive Sciences Vol 7(3) Mar 2003, 97-99.
• MacLeod, R. B. (1940). Brightness-constancy in unrecognized shadows: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 27(1) Jul 1940, 1-22.
• Maksimova, E. M. (1977). Cellular mechanisms of colour constancy: Activitas Nervosa Superior Vol 19(3) 1977, 199-201.
• Maksimova, E. M., & et al. (1975). The physiological mechanisms of color constancy: Neurophysiology Vol 7(1) 1975, 21-26.
• Mallot, H. A. (2000). Computational vision: Information processing in perception and visual behavior. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
• Maloney, L. T. (1985). Computational approaches to color constancy: Dissertation Abstracts International.
• Maloney, L. T. (1986). Evaluation of linear models of surface spectral reflectance with small numbers of parameters: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 3(10) Oct 1986, 1673-1683.
• Maloney, L. T. (1993). Color constancy and color perception: The linear-models framework. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
• Maloney, L. T. (2003). [Commentary]: Fitting linear models to data. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
• Maloney, L. T. (2003). [Commentary]: Surface colour perception and its environments. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
• Maloney, L. T., & Wandell, B. A. (1986). Color constancy: A method for recovering surface spectral reflectance: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 3(1) Jan 1986, 29-33.
• Maloney, L. T., & Wandell, B. A. (1990). Color constancy: A method for recovering surface spectral reflectance. Westport, CT: Ablex Publishing.
• Masin, S. C. (1989). Reply to Beck and Ivry: Perception & Psychophysics Vol 46(5) Nov 1989, 497.
• Mausfeld, R., & Andres, J. (2002). Second-order statistics of colour codes modulate transformations that effectuate varying degrees of scene invariance and illumination invariance: Perception Vol 31(2) 2002, 209-224.
• Maximov, V. V., Orlov, O. Y., & Reuter, T. (1985). Chromatic properties of the retinal afferents in the thalamus and the tectum of the frog (Rana temporaria): Vision Research Vol 25(8) 1985, 1037-1049.
• McCann, J. J. (1992). Rules for colour constancy: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 12(2) Apr 1992, 175-177.
• McIver Lopes, D. M. (1999). Pictorial color: Aesthetics and cognitive science: Philosophical Psychology Vol 12(4) Dec 1999, 415-428.
• Meyer, D. E., & Kornblum, S. (1993). Attention and performance 14: Synergies in experimental psychology, artificial intelligence, and cognitive neuroscience. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
• Mollon, J. D. (2003). The Origins of Modern Color Science. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.
• Monnier, P., & Shevell, S. K. (2003). Large shifts in color appearance from patterned chromatic backgrounds: Nature Neuroscience Vol 6(8) Aug 2003, 801-802.
• Montag, E. D., & Wilber, D. C. (2003). A Comparison of Constant Stimuli and Gray-Scale Methods of Color Difference Scaling: Color Research and Application Vol 28(1) Feb 2003, 36-44.
• Mowei, S., Shuo, C., Xing, Z., & Qiqun, W. (2004). The influence factors and nonlinear modeling of color constancy: Acta Psychologica Sinica Vol 36(4) 2004, 400-409.
• Murray, I. J., Daugirdiene, A., Stanikunas, R., Vaitkevicius, H., & Kulikowski, J. J. (2006). Cone contrasts do not predict color constancy: Visual Neuroscience Vol 23(3-4) May-Aug 2006, 543-547.
• Murray, I. J., Daugirdiene, A., Vaitkevicius, H., Kulikowski, J. J., & Stanikunas, R. (2006). Almost complete colour constancy achieved with full-field adaptation: Vision Research Vol 46(19) Sep 2006, 3067-3078.
• Murray, I. J., Kulikowski, J. J., Stanikunas, R., Vaitkevicius, H., & Daugirdiene, A. (2005). Colour matching of isoluminant samples and backgrounds: A dimming effect: Perception Vol 34(8) 2005, 927-932.
• Nam Yang, J., & Shevell, S. K. (2002). Stereo disparity improves color constancy: Vision Research Vol 42(16) Jul 2002, 1979-1989.
• Nascimento, S. M. C., De Almeida, V. M. N., Fiadeiro, P. T., & Foster, D. H. (2004). Minimum-variance cone-excitation ratios and the limits of relational color constancy: Visual Neuroscience Vol 21(3) May-Jun 2004, 337-340.
• Nascimento, S. M. C., de Almeida, V. M. N., Fiadeiro, P. T., & Foster, D. H. (2005). Effect of scene complexity on colour constancy with real three-dimensional scenes and objects: Perception Vol 34(8) 2005, 947-950.
• Nascimento, S. M. C., Ferreira, F. P., & Foster, D. H. (2002). Statistics of spatial cone-excitation ratios in natural scenes: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image Science & Vision Vol 19(8) Aug 2002, 1484-1490.
• Nascimento, S. M. C., & Foster, D. H. (2000). Relational color constancy in achromatic and isoluminant images: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image Science & Vision Vol 17(2) Feb 2000, 225-231.
• Nascimento, S. M. C., & Foster, D. H. (2001). Detecting changes of spatial cone-excitation ratios in dichoptic viewing: Vision Research Vol 41(20) Sep 2001, 2601-2606.
• Nascimento, S. M. C., & Foster, D. H. (2001). "Detecting changes of spatial cone-excitation ratios in dichoptic viewing": Erratum: Vision Research Vol 41(27) Dec 2001, 3783-3784.
• Neumeyer, C. (1998). Comparative aspects of color constancy. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
• Neumeyer, C., Dorr, S., Fritsch, J., & Kardelky, C. (2002). Colour constancy in goldfish and man: Influence of surround size and lightness: Perception Vol 31(2) 2002, 171-187.
• Nieves, J. L., Garcia-Beltran, A., & Romero, J. (2000). Response of the human visual system to variable illuminant conditions: An analysis of opponent-colour mechanisms in colour constancy: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 20(1) Jan 2000, 44-58.
• Nieves, J. L., Perez-Ocon, F., Hernandez-Andres, J., & Romero, J. (2002). Spectral-reflectance function recovery for improved colour-constancy experiments: Displays Vol 23(5) Nov 2002, 213-222.
• Nikolaev, P. P. (1998). Models of constant visual perception. IV. Cooperation between procedures of spatial and color analysis of images at the early stages of visual processing. Part 1. Color priority and the segmentation problem: Sensory Systems Vol 12(3) Jul-Sept 1998, 267-284.
• No authorship, i. (1990). Review of Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 40, 1989: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 35 (4), Apr, 1990.
• No authorship, i. (2004). VIII: Brightness and Color. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
• Noguchi, K., & Motoki, M. (1982). Achromatic color constancy and lightness functions for a complex pattern of luminance: Japanese Journal of Psychonomic Science Vol 1(1) Oct 1982, 51-58.
• Obein, G., Knoblauch, K., & Vienot, F. (2004). Difference scaling of gloss: Nonlinearity, binocularity, and constancy: Journal of Vision Vol 4(9) Sep 2004, 711-720.
• Ohyama, T., Couvillon, P. A., & Bitterman, M. E. (1995). Perseveration in the color choices of honeybees: Journal of Insect Behavior Vol 8(3) May 1995, 409-415.
• Osorio, D., Marshall, N. J., & Cronin, T. W. (1997). Stomatopod photoreceptor spectral tuning as an adaptation for colour constancy in water: Vision Research Vol 37(23) Dec 1997, 3299-3309.
• Oxtoby, E. K., & Foster, D. H. (2005). Perceptual limits on low-dimensional models of Munsell reflectance spectra: Perception Vol 34(8) 2005, 961-966.
• Paul, S., & Kersten, D. (2002). Vision, psychophysics and Bayes. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
• Pearson, P. M., & Kingdom, F. A. A. (2001). On the interference of task-irrelevant hue variation on texture segmentation: Perception Vol 30(5) 2001, 559-569.
• Petrov, A. P. (1993). Surface color and color constancy: Color Research and Application Vol 18(4) Aug 1993, 236-240.
• Pikler, J. (1931). The enclosed light of the eye as a measure of color: Zeitschrift fur Psychologie 120 1931, 189-208.
• Plebe, A., & Domenella, R. G. (2007). Object recognition by artificial cortical maps: Neural Networks Vol 20(7) Sep 2007, 763-780.
• Plet, S., & Gerbino, W. (2001). Background articulation and relational colour constancy: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S201-S204.
• Pridmore, R. W. (1999). Bezold-Brucke hue-shift as functions of luminance level, luminance ratio, interstimulus interval and adapting white for aperture and object colors: Vision Research Vol 39(23) Nov 1999, 3873-3891.
• Pridmore, R. W. (1999). Unique and binary hues as functions of luminance and illuminant color temperature, and relations with invariant hues: Vision Research Vol 39(23) Nov 1999, 3892-3908.
• Rinner, O., & Gegenfurtner, K. R. (2000). Time course of chromatic adaptation for color appearance and discrimination: Vision Research Vol 40(14) 2000, 1813-1826.
• Rosenzweig, M. R., & Porter, L. W. (1989). Annual review of psychology, Vol. 40. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
• Rutherford, M. D. (2001). The role of illumination perception in color constancy. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
• Rutherford, M. D., & Brainard, D. H. (2002). Lightness constancy: A direct test of the illumination-estimation hypothesis: Psychological Science Vol 13(2) Mar 2002, 142-149.
• Ruttiger, L., Braun, D. I., Gegenfurtner, K. R., Petersen, D., Schonle, P., & Sharpe, L. T. (1999). Selective color constancy deficits after circumscribed unilateral brain lesions: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 19(8) Apr 1999, 3094-3106.
• Ruttiger, L., Mayser, H., Serey, L., & Sharpe, L. T. (2001). The color constancy of the red-green color blind: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S209-S213.
• Schirillo, J. A. (1999). Surround articulation: II. Lightness judgments: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image Science & Vision Vol 16(4) Apr 1999, 804-811.
• Schmidt, H. J. (1986). The role of Gestalt principles in perceptual completion: A developmental approach: Dissertation Abstracts International.
• Schoppig, A., Clarke, S., Walsh, V., Assal, G., Meuli, R., & Cowley, A. (1999). Short-term memory for colour following posterior hemispheric lesions in man: Neuroreport: For Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research Vol 10(6) Apr 1999, 1379-1384.
• Shapiro, A. G., & Zaidi, Q. (1992). The effects of prolonged temporal modulation on the differential response of color mechanisms: Vision Research Vol 32(11) Nov 1992, 2065-2075.
• Shen, M., & Chen, S. (2003). A research on the method of color recognition experimentations with computer simulation technology: Psychological Science (China) Vol 26(4) Jul 2003, 583-586.
• Shepherd, A. J. (1992). Coloured shadows described in a cone contrast space: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 12(2) Apr 1992, 220-224.
• Shevell, S. K. (2000). Color vision: Kazdin, Alan E (Ed).
• Shevell, S. K. (2003). Color Appearance. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.
• Shevell, S. K., & Kingdom, F. A. A. (2008). Color in complex scenes: Annual Review of Psychology Vol 59 2008, 143-166.
• Shuo, C., & Mowei, S. (2003). Exploring the Theories and Models of Color Constancy: Psychological Science (China) Vol 26(2) Mar 2003, 215-218.
• Singer, B., & D'Zmura, M. (1994). Color contrast induction: Vision Research Vol 34(23) Dec 1994, 3111-3126.
• Smithson, H., & Zaidi, Q. (2004). Colour constancy in context: Roles for local adaptation and levels of reference: Journal of Vision Vol 4(9) Sep 2004, 693-710.
• Sobagaki, H., Yamanaka, T., Takahama, K., & Nayatani, Y. (1974). Chromatic-adaptation study by subjective-estimation method: Journal of the Optical Society of America Vol 64(6) Jun 1974, 743-749.
• Spehar, B., & Clifford, C. W. G. (2002). Painting with light by Rob and Nick Carter: Dramatic failures of colour constancy in articulated scenes: Perception Vol 31(2) 2002, 197-200.
• Spillmann, L., & Werner, J. S. (1996). Long-range interactions in visual perception: Trends in Neurosciences Vol 19(10) Oct 1996, 428-434.
• Spitzer, H., & Rosenbluth, A. (2002). Color constancy: The role of low-level mechanisms: Spatial Vision Vol 15(3) 2002, 277-302.
• Stanikunas, R., Vaitkevicius, H., & Kulikowski, J. J. (2004). Investigation of color constancy with a neural network: Neural Networks Vol 17(3) Apr 2004, 327-337.
• Stanikunas, R., Vaitkevicius, H., Kulikowski, J. J., Murray, I. J., & Daugirdiene, A. (2005). Colour matching of isoluminant samples and backgrounds: A model: Perception Vol 34(8) 2005, 995-1002.
• Sugita, Y. (2004). Experience in early infancy is indispensable for color perception: Current Biology Vol 14(14) Jul 2004, 1267-1271.
• Thompson, P., & Latchford, G. (1986). Colour-contingent after-effects are really wavelength-contingent: Nature Vol 320(6062) Apr 1986, 525-526.
• Todorovic, D. (2006). Lightness, illumination, and gradients: Spatial Vision Vol 19(2-4) May 2006, 219-261.
• Troost, J. M. (1992). The invariance of colour perception: Irish Journal of Psychology Vol 13(4) 1992, 440-454.
• Troost, J. M. (1992). The perception of object color: Nederlands Tijdschrift voor de Psychologie en haar Grensgebieden Vol 47(1) Jan 1992, 15-23.
• Troost, J. M. (1998). Empirical studies in color constancy. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
• Troost, J. M., & de Weert, C. M. (1991). Naming versus matching in color constancy: Perception & Psychophysics Vol 50(6) Dec 1991, 591-602.
• Troost, J. M., & de Weert, C. M. (1991). Surface reflectances and human color constancy: Comment on Dannemiller (1989): Psychological Review Vol 98(1) Jan 1991, 143-145.
• Uchikawa, K., Uchikawa, H., & Boynton, R. M. (1989). Partial color constancy of isolated surface colors examined by a color-naming method: Perception Vol 18(1) 1989, 83-91.
• Ullman, S., & Richards, W. (1990). Image understanding 1989. Westport, CT: Ablex Publishing.
• Valberg, A., & Lange-Malecki, B. (1990). "Colour constancy" in Mondrian patterns: A partial cancellation of physical chromaticity shifts by simultaneous contrast: Vision Research Vol 30(3) 1990, 371-380.
• Van Es, J. J., Vladusich, T., & Cornelissen, F. W. (2007). Local and relational judgements of surface colour: Constancy indices and discrimination performance: Spatial Vision Vol 20(1-2) 2007, 139-154.
• van Trigt, C. (1997). Visual system-response functions and estimating reflectance: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image Science & Vision Vol 14(4) Apr 1997, 741-755.
• Vanleeuwen, M. T., Joselevitch, C., Fahrenfort, I., & Kamermans, M. (2007). The contribution of the outer retina to color constancy: A general model for color constancy synthesized from primate and fish data: Visual Neuroscience Vol 24(3) May-Jun 2007, 277-290.
• Vladusich, T., & Broerse, J. (2002). Color constancy and the functional significance of McCollough effects: Neural Networks Vol 15(7) Sep 2002, 775-809.
• von Campenhausen, C., & Schramme, J. (1995). 100 years of Benham's top in colour science: Perception Vol 24(6) 1995, 695-717.
• Von Fieandt, K., Ahonen, L., & Jarvinen, J. (1964). A scaling method for measuring color constancy: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 5(1) 1964, 10-16.
• Von Fieandt, K., Ahonen, L., & Jarvinen, J. (1967). Color Constancy and the Method of Categorical Judgment: Some Remarks on J. Pietarinen's Criticism: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 8(2) 1967, 123-126.
• Von Fieandt, K., Ahonen, L., Jarvinen, J., & Lian, A. (1964). Color experiments with modern sources of illumination: Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae Ser B , 134(2) 1964, 3-89.
• Vorobyev, M., Marshall, J., Osorio, D., de Ibarra, N. H., & Menzel, R. (2001). Colourful objects through animal eyes: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S214-S217.
• Walsh, V., Carden, D., Butler, S. R., & Kulikowski, J. J. (1993). The effects of V4 lesions on the visual abilities of macaques: Hue discrimination and colour constancy: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 53(1-2) Feb 1993, 51-62.
• Walsh, V., & Kulikowski, J. (1995). Seeing colour. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
• Walsh, V., & Kulikowski, J. (1998). Perceptual constancy: Why things look as they do. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
• Wandell, B. A. (1997). Color constancy and the natural image. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
• Weber, C. O. (1932). Experiments on color constancy with changing illumination: Zeitschrift fur Psychologie 127 1932, 325-329.
• Weber, C. O. (1933). The constancy of gray with constant and with changing illumination: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 16(6) Dec 1933, 815-830.
• Webster, M. A., & Mollon, J. D. (1995). Colour constancy influenced by contrast adaptation: Nature Vol 373(6516) Feb 1995, 694-698.
• Werner, A. (2006). The influence of depth segmentation on colour constancy: Perception Vol 35(9) 2006, 1171-1184.
• Worthey, J. A. (1982). Opponent-colors approach to color rendering: Journal of the Optical Society of America Vol 72(1) Jan 1982, 74-82.
• Worthey, J. A. (1985). Limitations of color constancy: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 2(7) Jul 1985, 1014-1026.
• Worthey, J. A., & Brill, M. H. (1986). Heuristic analysis of von Kries color constancy: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image & Science Vol 3(10) Oct 1986, 1708-1712.
• Wray, J., & Edelman, G. M. (1996). A model of color vision based on cortical reentry: Cerebral Cortex Vol 6(5) Sep-Oct 1996, 701-716.
• Yamashita, N., Stoner, K. E., Riba-Hernandez, P., Dominy, N. J., & Lucas, P. W. (2005). Light levels used during feeding by primate species with different color vision phenotypes: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 58(6) Oct 2005, 618-629.
• Yang, J. N., & Maloney, L. T. (2001). Illuminant cues in surface color perception: Tests of three candidate cues: Vision Research Vol 41(20) Sep 2001, 2581-2600.
• Yang, J. N., & Shevell, S. K. (2003). Surface color perception under two illuminants: The second illuminant reduces color constancy: Journal of Vision Vol 3(5) 2003, 369-379.
• Zaidi, Q. (2001). Color constancy in a rough world: Color Research and Application Vol 26(Suppl) 2001, S192-S200.
• Zaidi, Q., Spehar, B., & Debonet, J. (1997). Color constancy in variegated scenes: Role of low-level mechanisms in discounting illumination changes: Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Optics, Image Science & Vision Vol 14(10) Oct 1997, 2608-2621.
• Zeki, S., & Marini, L. (1998). Three cortical stages of colour processing in the human brain: Brain: A Journal of Neurology Vol 121(9) Sep 1998, 1669-1685.