Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Cohort analysis in a cohort study or panel study is a form of longitudinal study used in medicine and social science. It is one type of study design and should be compared with a cross-sectional study.
A cohort is a group of people who share a common characteristic or experience within a defined period (e.g., are born, leave school, lose their job, are exposed to a drug or a vaccine, etc.). Thus a group of people who were born on a day or in a particular period, say 1948, form a birth cohort. The comparison group may be the general population from which the cohort is drawn, or it may be another cohort of persons thought to have had little or no exposure to the substance under investigation, but otherwise similar. Alternatively, subgroups within the cohort may be compared with each other.
In medicine, a cohort study is often undertaken to obtain evidence to try to refute the existence of a suspected association between cause and disease; failure to refute a hypothesis strengthens confidence in it. Crucially, the cohort is identified before the appearance of the disease under investigation. The study groups, so defined, are observed over a period of time to determine the frequency of new incidence of the studied disease among them. The cohort cannot therefore be defined as a group of people who already have the disease. Distinguishing causality from mere correlation cannot usually be done with results of a cohort study alone.
The advantage of cohort study data is the longitudinal observation of the individual through time, and the collection of data at regular intervals, so recall error is reduced. However, cohort studies are expensive to conduct, are sensitive to attrition and take a long time to generate useful data.
Some cohort studies track groups of children from their birth, and record a wide range of information (exposures) about them. The value of a cohort study depends on the researchers' capacity to stay in touch with all members of the cohort. Some of these studies have continued for decades.
An example of an epidemiologic question that can be answered by the use of a cohort study is: does exposure to X (say, smoking) correlate with outcome Y (say, lung cancer)? Such a study would recruit a group of smokers and a group of non-smokers (the unexposed group) and follow them for a set period of time and note differences in the incidence of lung cancer between the groups at the end of this time. The groups are matched in terms of many other variables such as economic status and other health status so that the variable being assesed, the independent variable (in this case, smoking) can be isolated as the cause of the dependent variable (in this case, lung cancer).
In this example, a statistically significant increase in the incidence of lung cancer in the smoking group as compared to the non-smoking group is evidence in favor of the hypothesis. However, rare outcomes, such as lung cancer, are generally not studied with the use of a cohort study, but are rather studied with the use of a case-control study.
Shorter term studies are commonly used in medical research as a form of clinical trial, or means to test a particular hypothesis of clinical importance. Such studies typically follow two groups of patients for a period of time and compare an endpoint or outcome measure between the two groups.
Randomized controlled trials, or RCTs are a superior methodology in the hierarchy of evidence, because they limit the potential for bias by randomly assigning one patient pool to an intervention and another patient pool to non-intervention (or placebo). This minimises the chance that the incidence of confounding variables will differ between the two groups.
Nevertheless, it is sometimes not practical or ethical to perform RCTs to answer a clinical question. To take our example, if we already had reasonable evidence that smoking causes lung cancer then persuading a pool of non-smokers to take up smoking in order to test this hypothesis would generally be considered quite unethical.
An example of a cohort study that has been going on for more than 50 years is the Framingham Heart Study.
The largest cohort study in women is the Nurses' Health Study. Started in 1976, it is tracking over 120,000 nurses and has been analyzed for many different conditions and outcomes.
A "prospective cohort" defines the groups before the study is done, while a "retrospective cohort" does the grouping after the data is collected. Whereas prospective cohorts should be summarized with the relative risk, retrospective cohorts should be summarized with the odds ratio. An example of a retrospective cohort is Long-Term Mortality after Gastric Bypass Surgery.
Nested case-control study
- Main article: Nested case-control study
An example of a nested case-control study is Inflammatory markers and the risk of coronary heart disease in men and women which was a case control analyses extracted from the Framingham Heart Study cohort.
Household panel survey
Household panel surveys are an important sub-type of cohort study. These draw representative samples of households and survey them, following all individuals through time on a usually annual basis. Examples include the US Panel Study on Income Dynamics (since 1968), the German Socio-Economic Panel (since 1984), the British Household Panel Survey (since 1991), the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey (since 2001) and the European Community Household Panel (1994-2001).
- Age diferences
- Cohort (educational group)
- Cohort (statistics)
- Generational cohorts
- Generation gap
- Panel analysis
- Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT): I. Cohort results from a four-year community intervention. (1995).): American Journal of Public Health Vol 85(2) Feb 1995, 183-192.
- HIV-infected pregnant adolescents and youth: Results from a European cohort study. (2006).): Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies Vol 1(3) Dec 2006, 195-204.
- Adams, W., & Kendell, R. E. (1999). Annual variation in birth rate of people who subsequently develop schizophrenia: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 175 Dec 1999, 522-527.
- Ajdacic-Gross, V., Bopp, M., Gostynski, M., Lauber, C., Gutzwiller, F., & Rossler, W. (2006). Age-period-cohort analysis of Swiss suicide data, 1881-2000: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience Vol 256(4) Jun 2006, 207-214.
- Al Mousawi, A. H. F., & Dunstan, F. D. J. (1998). Changes in the risk of schizophrenia in Scotland: Is there an environmental factor? : Schizophrenia Bulletin Vol 24(4) 1998, 529-535.
- Alba, R. D. (1988). Cohorts and the dynamics of ethnic change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
- Allebeck, P., Brandt, L., Nordstrom, P., & Asgard, U. (1996). Are suicide trends among the young reversing? Age, period and cohort analyses of suicide rates in Sweden: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 93(1) Jan 1996, 43-48.
- Alwin, D. F., & McCammon, R. J. (1999). Aging versus cohort interpretations of intercohort differences in GSS vocabulary scores: American Sociological Review Vol 64(2) Apr 1999, 272-286.
- Alwin, D. F., McCammon, R. J., & Hofer, S. M. (2006). Studying Baby Boom Cohorts Within a Demographic and Developmental Context: Conceptual and Methodological Issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Alzate, H. (1989). Sexual behavior of unmarried Colombian university students: A follow-up: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 18(3) Jun 1989, 239-250.
- Andersen, J. E., & Hynnekleiv, T. (2007). Hospital-treated psychosis and suicide in a rural community (1877-2005). Part 1: Incidence rates: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 116(Suppl436) Dec 2007, 6-19.
- Anderson, E. R. (1993). Analyzing change in short-term longitudinal research using cohort-sequential designs: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 61(6) Dec 1993, 929-940.
- Anstey, K. J., Butterworth, P., Windsor, T. D., Burns, R., Sargent-Cox, K., von Sanden, C., et al. (2007). The value of comparing health outcomes in cohort studies: An example of self-rated health in seven studies including 79 653 participants: Australasian Journal on Ageing Vol 26(4) Dec 2007, 194-200.
- Arduengo, N. J. (2006). Learning together: Understanding the cohort experience of an online graduate degree program. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Arseneault, L., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Taylor, P. J., & Silva, P. A. (2000). Mental disorders and violence in a total birth cohort: Results from the Dunedin Study: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 57(10) Oct 2000, 979-986.
- Artis, J. E., & Pavalko, E. K. (2003). Explaining the Decline in Women's Household Labor: Individual Change and Cohort Differences: Journal of Marriage and Family Vol 65(3) Aug 2003, 746-761.
- Asgard, U., Nordstrom, P., & Raback, G. (1987). Birth cohort analysis of changing suicide risk by sex and age in Sweden 1952 to 1981: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 76(4) Oct 1987, 456-463.
- Azevedo, J. (1992). Academic and vocational expectations of 9th grade adolescents: 1989-1991: Cadernos de Consulta Psicologica No 8 1992, 17-45.
- Azevedo, J. (1992). Academic and vocational expectations of 9th grade adolescents: 1989superscript 1991: Cadernos de Consulta Psicologica No 8 1992, 17-45.
- Bagley, C. (1990). Is the prevalence of child sexual abuse decreasing? Evidence from a random sample of 750 young adult women: Psychological Reports Vol 66(3, Pt 1) Jun 1990, 1037-1038.
- Bangerter, A. (2005). Entitativity of Generations, Age Groups and Cohorts as Perceived by Young Adults: Swiss Journal of Psychology/Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Psychologie/Revue Suisse de Psychologie Vol 64(4) Dec 2005, 273-280.
- Barnett, A., Blumstein, A., & Farrington, D. P. (1996). Probabilistic models of youthful criminal careers. Brookfield, VT: Dartmouth Publishing Company.
- Barnett, A., Blumstein, A., & Farrington, D. P. (1996). A prospective test of a criminal career model. Brookfield, VT: Dartmouth Publishing Company.
- Bartels, S. J., Clark, R. E., Peacock, W. J., Dums, A. R., & Pratt, S. I. (2003). Medicare and Medicaid Costs for Schizophrenia Patients by Age Cohort Compared With Costs for Depression, Dementia, and Medically Ill Patients: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Vol 11(6) Nov-Dec 2003, 648-657.
- Batt, A., Eudier, F., Le Vaou, P., Breurec, J.-Y., Baert, A., Curtes, J.-P., et al. (1998). Repetition of parasuicide: Risk factors in general hospital referred patients: Journal of Mental Health Vol 7(3) Jun 1998, 285-297.
- Beaver, C. B. (1990). Gender and cohort differences in high school students' sex role orientation: 1984-1987: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Bell, R. Q. (1992). Multiple-risk cohorts and segmenting risk as solutions to the problem of false positives in risk for the major psychoses: Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes Vol 55(4) Nov 1992, 370-381.
- Bennett, M. E., McCrady, B. S., Johnson, V., & Pandina, R. J. (1999). Problem drinking from young adulthood to adulthood: Patterns, predictors and outcomes: Journal of Studies on Alcohol Vol 60(5) Sep 1999, 605-614.
- Bijnen, F. C. H., Feskens, E. J. M., Caspersen, C. J., Mosterd, W. L., & Kromhout, D. (1998). Age, period, and cohort effects on physical activity among elderly men during 10 years of follow-up: The Zutphen Elderly Study: Journals of Gerontology: Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences Vol 53A(3) May 1998, M235-M241.
- Bille-Brahe, U., & Jessen, G. (1994). The frequency of suicide in individual Danish birth cohorts, 1922-1991: Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior Vol 24(3) Fal 1994, 275-281.
- Birkett, N. J. (1997). Trends in smoking by birth cohort for births between 1940 and 1975: A reconstructed cohort analysis of the 1990 Ontario Health Survey: Preventive Medicine: An International Journal Devoted to Practice and Theory Vol 26(4) Jul-Aug 1997, 534-541.
- Black, S. A., & Markides, K. S. (1994). Aging and generational patterns of alcohol consumption among Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans and mainland Puerto Ricans: International Journal of Aging & Human Development Vol 39(2) 1994, 97-103.
- Blieszner, R., & Roberto, K. A. (2006). Perspectives on Close Relationships Among the Baby Boomers. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Blossfeld, H.-P., Hamerle, A., & Mayer, K. U. (1994). Event-history models in social mobility research. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
- Bo, I. (1999). Urban adolescents' perception of self-control as surveyed in 1959 and in 1994: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health Vol 11(3-4) Jul-Dec 1999, 257-281.
- Boehnke, K. (2000). What is a cohort and why?--An old question revisited. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
- Bonneux, L., & Looman, C. W. N. (2003). High coronary heart disease rates among Dutch women of the baby boom, born 1945-1959: Age-cohort analysis and projection: European Journal of Public Health Vol 13(3) Sep 2003, 226-229.
- Boys, A., Marsden, J., Stillwell, G., Hatchings, K., Griffiths, P., & Farrell, M. (2003). Minimizing respondent attrition in longitudinal research: Practical implications from a cohort study of adolescent drinking: Journal of Adolescence Vol 26(3) Jun 2003, 363-373.
- Brand, C. R., Freshwater, S., & Dockrell, W. B. (1989). Has there been a "massive" rise in IQ levels in the West? Evidence from Scottish children: Irish Journal of Psychology Vol 10(3) 1989, 388-393.
- Bray, I., Waraich, P., Jones, W., Slater, S., Goldner, E. M., & Somers, J. (2006). Increase in schizophrenia incidence rates: Findings in a Canadian cohort born 1975-1985: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology Vol 41(8) Aug 2006, 611-618.
- Breen, R., & Goldthorpe, J. H. (1999). Class inequality and meritocracy: A critique of Saunders and an alternative analysis: British Journal of Sociology Vol 50(1) Mar 1999, 1-27.
- Breen, R., & Goldthorpe, J. H. (2002). Merit, mobility and method: Another reply to Saunders: British Journal of Sociology Vol 53(4) Dec 2002, 575-582.
- Brennan, P. A., Mednick, S. A., & John, R. S. (1996). Specialization in violence: Evidence of a criminal subgroup. Brookfield, VT: Dartmouth Publishing Company.
- Britt, C. L. (1997). Reconsidering the unemployment and crime relationship: Variation by age group and historical period: Journal of Quantitative Criminology Vol 13(4) Dec 1997, 405-428.
- Brunswick, A. F. (2002). Phenomenological perspectives on natural history research: The Longitudinal Harlem Adolescent Cohort Study. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
- Brunswick, A. F., & Flory, M. J. (1998). Changing HIV infection rates and risk in an African-American community cohort: AIDS Care Vol 10(3) Jun 1998, 267-281.
- Brunswick, A. F., & Titus, S. P. (1998). Heroin patterns and trajectories in an African American cohort (1969-1990). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
- Burke, K. C., Burke, J. D., Rae, D. S., & Regier, D. A. (1991). Comparing age at onset of major depression and other psychiatric disorders by birth cohorts in five US community populations: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 48(9) Sep 1991, 789-795.
- Cannon, M., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Harrington, H., Taylor, A., Murray, R. M., et al. (2002). Evidence for early-childhood pan-developmental impairment specific to schizophreniform disorder: Results from a longitudinal birth cohort: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 59(5) May 2002, 449-457.
- Castilla, J., Pollan, M., & Lopez-Abente, G. (1997). The AIDS epidemic among Spanish drug users: A birth cohort-associated phenomenon: American Journal of Public Health Vol 87(5) May 1997, 770-774.
- Cernovsky, Z. Z. (1993). J. P. Rushton's aggregational errors in racial psychology: Journal of Black Psychology Vol 19(3) Aug 1993, 282-289.
- Chen, K., & Kandel, D. B. (1995). The natural history of drug use from adolescence to the mid-thirties in a general population sample: American Journal of Public Health Vol 85(1) Jan 1995, 41-47.
- Chengappa, K. N. R., Kupfer, D. J., Frank, E., Houck, P. R., Grochocinski, V. J., Cluss, P. A., et al. (2003). Relationship of Birth Cohort and Early Age at Onset of Illness in a Bipolar Disorder Case Registry: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 160(9) Sep 2003, 1636-1642.
- Cherrington, R. (1997). Generational issues in China: A case study of the 1980s generation of young intellectuals: British Journal of Sociology Vol 48(2) Jun 1997, 302-320.
- Chiswick, A., Egan, V., Brettle, R. P., & Goodwin, G. M. (1992). The Edinburgh cohort of HIV positive drug users: Who are they and who cares for them? : AIDS Care Vol 4(4) 1992, 421-424.
- Christakis, N. A., Iwashyna, T. J., & Zhang, J. X. (2002). Care After the Onset of Serious Illness: A Novel Claims-Based Dataset Exploiting Substantial Cross-Set Linkages to Study End-of-Life Care: Journal of Palliative Medicine Vol 5(4) Aug 2002, 515-519.
- Clarke, S. C., & Wilson, B. F. (1994). The relative stability of remarriages: A cohort approach using vital statistics: Family Relations Vol 43(3) Jul 1994, 305-310.
- Clement, U. (1989). Profile analysis as a method of comparing intergenerational differences in sexual behavior: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 18(3) Jun 1989, 229-237.
- Collins, S. M. (1997). Race up the corporate ladder: The dilemmas and contradictions of first-wave Black executives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
- Colopy, M. W. (1992). Design of mixed-longitudinal studies: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Cook, E. A., Jelen, T. G., & Wilcox, C. (1993). Generational differences in attitudes toward abortion. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
- Corcoran, M., & Matsudaira, J. (2005). Is It Getting Harder to Get Ahead? Economic Attainment in Early Adulthood for Two Cohorts. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
- Cornman, J. M., & Kingson, E. R. (1996). Trends, issues, perspectives, and values for the aging of the baby boom cohorts: The Gerontologist Vol 36(1) Feb 1996, 15-26.
- Cruz, J. A. A., Haveman-Nies, A., Schlettwein-Gsell, D., & De Henauw, S. (2002). Gender, cohort and geographical differences in 10-year mortality in elderly people living in 12 European towns: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging Vol 6(4) 2002, 269-274.
- Cummings, P., McKnight, B., & Weiss, N. S. (2003). Matched-pair cohort methods in traffic crash research: Accident Analysis & Prevention Vol 35(1) Jan 2003, 131-141.
- Cummings, P., Wells, J. D., & Rivara, F. P. (2003). Estimating seat belt effectiveness using matched-pair cohort methods: Accident Analysis & Prevention Vol 35(1) Jan 2003, 143-149.
- Dahlback, O. (1996). Urban place of residence and individual criminality: British Journal of Criminology Vol 36(4) Fal 1996, 529-545.
- Dannefer, D., & Miklowski, C. (2006). Developments in the Life Course. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.
- Davidson, J. R., Kudler, H. S., Saunders, W. B., & Smith, R. D. (1990). Symptom and comorbidity patterns in World War II and Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: Comprehensive Psychiatry Vol 31(2) Mar-Apr 1990, 162-170.
- Davie, R. (1993). The impact of the National Child Development Study: Children & Society Vol 7(1) 1993, 20-36.
- Davies, J. (1999). Decline in average reading scores in year 6 in one area: Journal of Research in Reading Vol 22(2) Jun 1999, 203-208.
- de Frias, C. M., Lovden, M., Lindenberger, U., & Nilsson, L.-G. (2007). Revisiting the dedifferentiation hypothesis with longitudinal multi-cohort data: Intelligence Vol 35(4) Jul 2007, 381-392.
- Dellatolas, G., Tubert, P., Castresana, A., Mesbah, M., & et al. (1991). Age and cohort effects in adult handedness: Neuropsychologia Vol 29(3) 1991, 255-261.
- Deshauer, D., Fergusson, D., Duffy, A., Albuquerque, J., & Grof, P. (2005). Re-evaluation of randomized control trials of lithium monotherapy: A cohort effect: Bipolar Disorders Vol 7(4) Aug 2005, 382-387.
- Deshauer, D., Fergusson, D., & Grof, P. (2006). Letter to the Editor: Response to Severus, Kleindienst and Greil regarding 'Re-evaluation of randomized controlled trials of lithium monotherapy: A cohort effect': Bipolar Disorders Vol 8(5 pt 1) Oct 2006, 521.
- Di Maggio, C., Martinez, M., Menard, J.-F., Petit, M., & Thibaut, F. (2001). Evidence of a cohort effect for age at onset of schizophrenia: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 158(3) Mar 2001, 489-492.
- Diehr, P., Derleth, A., Newman, A. B., & Cai, L. (2007). The number of sick persons in a cohort: Research on Aging Vol 29(6) Nov 2007, 555-575.
- Dolezal, C., Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F. L., Liu, X., Ehrhardt, A. A., Exner, T. M., Rabkin, J. G., et al. (1999). Longitudinal changes in sexual risk behavior among HIV+ and HIV- male injecting drug users: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse Vol 25(2) May 1999, 281-303.
- Doody, R., Pavlik, V., Massman, P., Kenan, M., Yeh, S., Powell, S., et al. (2005). Changing Patient Characteristics and Survival Experience in an Alzheimer's Center Patient Cohort: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Vol 20(2-3) Aug 2005, 198-208.
- Dowden, S., & Robinson, J. P. (1993). Age and cohort differences in American racial attitudes: The generational replacement hypothesis revisited: Sniderman, Paul M (Ed); Tetlock, Philip E (Ed); Carmines, Edward G (Ed).
- Duberstein, P. R., & Conwell, Y. (1997). Personality disorders and completed suicide: A methodological and conceptual review: Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice Vol 4(4) Win 1997, 359-376.
- Duncan, O. D. (1982). Recent cohorts lead rejection of sex typing: Sex Roles Vol 8(2) Feb 1982, 127-133.
- Easterlin, R. A., & Crimmins, E. M. (1988). Recent social trends: Changes in personal aspirations of American youth: Sociology & Social Research Vol 72(4) Jul 1988, 217-223.
- Eggebeen, D. J. (1992). Changes in sibling configurations for American preschool children: Social Biology Vol 39(1-2) Spr-Sum 1992, 27-44.
- Ehrensaft, M. K., Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (2004). Clinically Abusive Relationships in an Unselected Birth Cohort: Men's and Women's Participation and Developmental Antecedents: Journal of Abnormal Psychology Vol 113(2) May 2004, 258-270.
- Elder, G. H., Jr. (1999). Children of the Great Depression: Social change in life experience (25th anniversary ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
- English, J. V. (1993). Cohorts as constructs in health regimen adherence: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Epstein, E., McCrady, B. S., Morgan, T. J., Cook, S. M., Kugler, G., & Ziedonis, D. (2007). The successive cohort design: A model for developing new behavioral therapies for drug use disorders, and application to behavioral couple treatment: Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment Vol 6(1) 2007, 1-19.
- Etzersdorfer, E., Piribauer, F., & Sonneck, G. (1996). Sex differential for suicide among Austrian age cohorts: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 93(4) Apr 1996, 240-245.
- Evandrou, M., & Falkingham, J. (2006). Will the Baby-boomers be Better off than their Parents in Retirement? Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.
- Fabianic, D. (1994). Managerial change and organizational effectiveness in major league baseball: Findings for the eighties: Journal of Sport Behavior Vol 17(3) Sep 1994, 135-147.
- Farrington, D. P. (1991). Predictability and continuity of offending: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 36 (1), Jan, 1991.
- Felton, B. J. (1987). Cohort variation in happiness: Some hypotheses and exploratory analyses: International Journal of Aging & Human Development Vol 25(1) 1987, 27-42.
- Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Lynskey, M. T. (1992). Confirmatory factor models of TOSCA: New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies Vol 27(2) 1992, 183-189.
- Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., Ridder, E. M., & Beautrais, A. L. (2005). Sexual orientation and mental health in a birth cohort of young adults: Psychological Medicine Vol 35(7) Jul 2005, 971-981.
- Fingerman, K., & Dolbin-MacNab, M. (2006). The Baby Boomers and Their Parents: Cohort Influences and Intergenerational Ties. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Finkel, D., Pedersen, N. L., Plomin, R., & McClearn, G. E. (1998). Longitudinal and cross-sectional twin data on cognitive abilities in adulthood: The Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging: Developmental Psychology Vol 34(6) Nov 1998, 1400-1413.
- Finkel, D., Reynolds, C. A., McArdle, J. J., & Pedersen, N. L. (2007). Cohort differences in trajectories of cognitive aging: Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences Vol 62B(5) Sep 2007, P286-P294.
- Flieller, A. (1999). Comparison of the development of formal thought in adolescent cohorts aged 10 to 15 years (1967-1996 and 1972-1993): Developmental Psychology Vol 35(4) Jul 1999, 1048-1058.
- Forthofer, M. S., Kessler, R. C., Story, A. L., & Gotlib, I. H. (1996). The effects of psychiatric disorders on the probability and timing of first marriage: Journal of Health and Social Behavior Vol 37(2) Jun 1996, 121-132.
- Friday, P. C., Ren, X., Weitekamp, E., Kerner, H.-J., & Taylor, T. (2005). A Chinese Birth Cohort: Theoretical Implications: Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency Vol 42(2) May 2005, 123-146.
- Fussell, E., & Gauthier, A. H. (2005). American Women's Transition to Adulthood in Comparative Perspective. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
- Gay, D. A. (1987). Life crisis or cohort crunch: A comparison of the Levinson and Easterlin hypotheses: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Geary, D. C., Hamson, C. O., Chen, G.-P., Liu, F., Hoard, M. K., & Salthouse, T. A. (1997). Computational and reasoning abilities in arithmetic: Cross-generational change in China and the United States: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review Vol 4(3) Sep 1997, 425-430.
- Gilhooly, M. L. M. (2005). Reduced drinking with age: Is it normal? : Addiction Research & Theory Vol 13(3) Jun 2005, 267-280.
- Gilleard, C. (2004). Cohorts and Generations in the Study of Social Change: Social Theory & Health Vol 2(1) Feb 2004, 106-119.
- Giuffra, L. A., & Risch, N. (1994). Diminished recall and the cohort effect of major depression: A simulation study: Psychological Medicine Vol 24(2) May 1994, 375-383.
- Glenn, N. D. (1998). The course of marital success and failure in five American 10-year marriage cohorts: Journal of Marriage & the Family Vol 60(3) Aug 1998, 569-576.
- Glenn, N. D. (1999). Further discussion of the evidence for an intercohort decline in education-adjusted vocabulary: American Sociological Review Vol 64(2) Apr 1999, 267-271.
- Goldberg, J., True, W., Eisen, S., Henderson, W., & et al. (1987). The Vietnam Era Twin (VET) Registry: Ascertainment bias: Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae: Twin Research Vol 36(1) 1987, 67-78.
- Goldstein, G., & Shemansky, W. J. (2000). Length and number of hospitalizations in two cohorts of veterans with chronic schizophrenia: Psychiatric Services Vol 51(2) Feb 2000, 245-247.
- Golub, A., & Johnson, B. D. (1994). A recent decline in cocaine use among youthful arrestees in Manhattan, 1987 through 1993: American Journal of Public Health Vol 84(8) Aug 1994, 1250-1254.
- Gomes Da Conceicao, M. C. (2002). Life course, households and institutions: Brazil and Mexico: Journal of Comparative Family Studies Vol 33(3) Sum 2002, 317-344.
- Grasbeck, A., Hagnell, O., Otterbeck, L., & Rorsman, B. (1993). Anxiety in the Lundby study: Re-evaluation according to DSM-III--R, incidence and risk: Neuropsychobiology Vol 27(1) 1993, 1-8.
- Greenberg, D. F., & Larkin, N. J. (1996). Age-cohort analysis of arrest rates. Brookfield, VT: Dartmouth Publishing Company.
- Grunendahl, M., Minnemann, E., & Stosberg, M. (1997). Social relations and social network: Comparison of members from the birth cohorts 1930/32 living either in the eastern or western part of Germany: Zeitschrift fur Gerontopsychologie & -psychiatrie Vol 10(4) Dec 1997, 237-244.
- Gunnell, D., Middleton, N., Whitley, E., Dorling, D., & Frankel, S. (2003). Influence of cohort effects on patterns of suicide in England and Wales, 1950-1999: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 182(2) Feb 2003, 164-170.
- Hackstaff, K. B. (1993). The rise of divorce culture and its gendered foundations: III: Feminism & Psychology Vol 3(3) Oct 1993, 363-368.
- Hagenaars, J. A. (2000). Cohort effects: Kazdin, Alan E (Ed).
- Hall, S. S. (2005). Change in Paternal Involvement from 1977 to 1997: A Cohort Analysis: Family & Consumer Sciences Research Journal Vol 34(2) Dec 2005, 127-139.
- Hamberg, E. M. (1991). Stability and change in religious beliefs, practice, and attitudes: A Swedish panel study: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion Vol 30(1) Mar 1991, 63-80.
- Harley, B., & Firebaugh, G. (1993). Americans' belief in an afterlife: Trends over the past two decades: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion Vol 32(3) Sep 1993, 269-278.
- Hasin, D., & Link, B. (1988). Age and recognition of depression: Implications for a cohort effect in major depression: Psychological Medicine Vol 18(3) Aug 1988, 683-688.
- Hatta, T., & Kawakami, A. (1995). Patterns of Handedness in Modern Japanese: A Cohort Effect Shown by Re-administration of the H. N. Handedness Inventory After 20 Years: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie experimentale Vol 49(4) Dec 1995, 505-512.
- Haukka, J., Suvisaari, J., & Lonnqvist, J. (2002). Early onset of schizophrenia: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 159(2) Feb 2002, 322-322-a.
- Heath, A. C., Howells, W., Bucholz, K. K., Glowinski, A. L., Nelson, E. C., & Madden, P. A. F. (2002). Ascertainment of a Mid-Western US Female Adolescent Twin Cohort for Alcohol Studies: Assessment of Sample Representativeness Using Birth Record Data: Twin Research Vol 5(2) Apr 2002, 107-112.
- Heikura, U., Taanila, A., Olsen, P., Hartikainen, A.-L., von Wendt, L., & Jarvelin, M.-R. (2003). Temporal changes in incidence and prevalence of intellectual disability between two birth cohorts in Northern Finland: American Journal on Mental Retardation Vol 108(1) Jan 2003, 19-31.
- Heimberg, R. G., Stein, M. B., Hiripi, E., & Kessler, R. C. (2000). Trends in the prevalence of social phobia in the United States: A synthetic cohort analysis of changes over four decades: European Psychiatry Vol 15(1) Feb 2000, 29-37.
- Heller, R. F., Dobson, A. J., Attia, J., & Page, J. (2002). Impact numbers: Measures of risk factor impact on the whole population from case-control and cohort studies: Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health Vol 56(8) Aug 2002, 606-610.
- Heringa, M. S. (2003). A longitudinal study of childhood risk factors for hospitalization under a depression-related diagnosis. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Herridge, P., & Gold, M. S. (1988). The new user of cocaine: Evidence from 800-COCAINE: Psychiatric Annals Vol 18(9) Sep 1988, 521-522.
- Hetsroni, A. (1998). All we were saying was give peace a chance: The future of Israeli high school peace activists: Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology Vol 4(3) 1998, 237-255.
- Hill, S. E., Blakely, T. A., Kawachi, I., & Woodward, A. (2004). Mortality among "never smokers" living with smokers: Two cohort studies, 1981-4 and 1996-9: BMJ: British Medical Journal Vol 328(7446) May 2004, 988-989.
- Hoberman, H. M., & Garfinkel, B. D. (1988). Completed suicide in children and adolescents: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 27(6) Nov 1988, 689-695.
- Holdcraft, L. C., & Iacono, W. G. (2002). Cohort effects on gender differences in alcohol dependence: Addiction Vol 97(8) Aug 2002, 1025-1036.
- Holinger, P. C., & Lester, D. (1991). Suicide, homicide, and demographic shifts: An epidemiologic study of regional and national trends: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 179(9) Sep 1991, 574-575.
- Holloway, F., Wykes, T., Petch, E., & Lewis-Cole, K. (1999). The new long stay in an inner city service: A tale of two cohorts: International Journal of Social Psychiatry Vol 45(2) Sum 1999, 93-103.
- Hornik, J., & Shapiro, J. Z. (1993). Investigating spousal inconsistencies in temporal reports: A methodological framework: Journal of Economic Psychology Vol 14(2) Jun 1993, 387-403.
- Hotopf, M., Mayou, R., Wadsworth, M., & Wessely, S. (1998). Temporal relationships between physical symptoms and psychiatric disorder: Results from a national birth cohort: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 173 Sep 1998, 255-261.
- Hsu, H.-C., Lew-Ting, C.-Y., & Wu, S.-C. (2001). Age, period, and cohort effects on the attitude toward supporting parents in Taiwan: The Gerontologist Vol 41(6) Dec 2001, 742-750.
- Huber, B. J. (1988). Social structures and human lives: Variation on a theme. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
- Hur, Y.-M., McGue, M., & Iacono, W. G. (1995). Unequal rate of monozygotic and like-sex dizygotic twin birth: Evidence from the Minnesota Twin Family Study: Behavior Genetics Vol 25(4) Jul 1995, 337-340.
- Jackson, B. B., Taylor, J., & Pyngolil, M. (1991). How age conditions the relationship between climacteric status and health symptoms in African American women: Research in Nursing & Health Vol 14(1) Feb 1991, 1-9.
- Jackson, D. D., & Chapleski, E. E. (2000). Not traditional, not assimilated: Elderly American Indians and the notion of 'cohort.' Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology Vol 15(3) 2000, 229-259.
- Joshi, V., Grella, C. E., & Hser, Y.-I. (2001). Drug use and treatment initiation patterns: Differences by birth-cohorts: Journal of Drug Issues Vol 31(4) Fal 2001, 1039-1062.
- Joyce, P. R., Oakley-Browne, M. A., Wells, J. E., Bushnell, J. A., & et al. (1990). Birth cohort trends in major depression: Increasing rates and earlier onset in New Zealand: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 18(2) Feb 1990, 83-89.
- Kanagy, C. L., Humphrey, C. R., & Firebaugh, G. (1994). Surging environmentalism: Changing public opinion or changing publics? : Social Science Quarterly Vol 75(4) Dec 1994, 804-819.
- Kaprio, J., Rose, R. J., Sarna, S., Langinvainio, H., & et al. (1987). Design and sampling considerations, response rates, and representativeness in a Finnish twin family study: Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae: Twin Research Vol 36(1) 1987, 79-93.
- Kastrup, M. (1987). Sex differences in the utilization of mental health services: A nation-wide register study: International Journal of Social Psychiatry Vol 33(3) Fal 1987, 171-184.
- Kastrup, M. (1988). Uses and limitations of the Danish Psychiatric Register in predicting the need of psychiatric care: European Journal of Psychiatry Vol 2(1) Jan-Mar 1988, 22-31.
- Kemm, J. (2003). An analysis of birth cohort of alcohol consumption by adults in Great Britain 1978-1998: Alcohol and Alcoholism Vol 38(2) Mar 2003, 142-147.
- Kennedy, G. J., & Tanenbaum, S. (2000). Suicide and aging: International perspectives: Psychiatric Quarterly Vol 71(4) Win 2000, 345-362.
- Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., Nelson, C. B., Hughes, M., & et al. (1994). Sex and depression in the National Comorbidity Survey: II. Cohort effects: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 30(1) Jan 1994, 15-26.
- Keyes, K. M., Grant, B. F., & Hasin, D. S. (2008). Evidence for a closing gender gap in alcohol use, abuse, and dependence in the United States population: Drug and Alcohol Dependence Vol 93(1-2) Jan 2008, 21-29.
- Killias, M., & Haas, H. (2002). The role of weapons in violent acts: Some results of a Swiss national cohort study: Journal of Interpersonal Violence Vol 17(1) Jan 2002, 14-32.
- Kovacs, M., & Gatsonis, C. (1994). Secular trends in age at onset of major depressive disorder in a clinical sample of children: Journal of Psychiatric Research Vol 28(3) May-Jun 1994, 319-329.
- Krau, E. (1989). The transition in life domain salience and the modification of work values between high school and adult employment: Journal of Vocational Behavior Vol 34(1) Feb 1989, 100-116.
- Krohn, M. D., Skinner, W. F., Zielinski, M., & Naughton, M. (1989). Elaborating the relationship between age and adolescent cigarette smoking: Deviant Behavior Vol 10(2) 1989, 105-129.
- Kroksmark, A.-K., Ekstrom, A.-B., Bjorck, E., & Tulinius, M. (2005). Myotonic dystrophy: Muscle involvement in relation to disease type and size of expanded CTG-repeat sequence: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology Vol 47(7) Jul 2005, 478-485.
- Krueger, R. F., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., & Silva, P. A. (1998). The structure and stability of common mental disorders (DSM-III-R): A longitudinal-epidemiological study: Journal of Abnormal Psychology Vol 107(2) May 1998, 216-227.
- Kruppa, R., & Meda, A. K. (2005). Group Dynamics in the Formation of a PhD Cohort: A Reflection in Experiencing While Learning Organizational Development Theory: Organization Development Journal Vol 23(1) Spr 2005, 56-67.
- Kuo, P.-H., Wood, P., Morley, K. I., Madden, P., Martin, N. G., & Heath, A. C. (2007). Cohort trends in prevalence and spousal concordance for smoking: Drug and Alcohol Dependence Vol 88(2-3) May 2007, 122-129.
- la Vecchia, C., Bollini, P., Imazio, C., & Decarli, A. (1986). Age, period of death and birth cohort effects on suicide mortality in Italy, 1955-1979: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 74(2) Aug 1986, 137-143.
- Langholz, B. (2007). Use of cohort information in the design and analysis of case-control studies: Scandinavian Journal of Statistics Vol 34(1) Mar 2007, 120-136.
- Lasch, K., Wiessman, M., Wickramaratne, P., & Bruce, M. L. (1990). Birth-cohort changes in the rates of mania: Psychiatry Research Vol 33(1) Jul 1990, 31-37.
- Laursen, P. (1997). The impact of aging on cognitive functions: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica Supplementum Vol 96(Suppl 172) 1997, 3-86.
- Lavori, P. W., Klerman, G. L., Keller, M. B., Reich, T., & et al. (1987). Age-period-cohort analysis of secular trends in onset of major depression: Findings in siblings of patients with major affective disorder: Journal of Psychiatric Research Vol 21(1) 1987, 23-35.
- Lavori, P. W., Warshaw, M., Klerman, G. L., Mueller, T. I., & et al. (1993). Secular trends in lifetime onset of MDD stratified by selected sociodemographic risk factors: Journal of Psychiatric Research Vol 27(1) Jan-Mar 1993, 95-109.
- Lehtinen, V., Lindholm, T., Veijola, J., Vaisanen, E., & et al. (1991). Stability of prevalences of mental disorders in a normal population cohort followed for 16 years: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology Vol 26(1) Jan 1991, 40-46.
- Leinbach, R. M. (1993). Euthanasia attitudes of older persons: A cohort analysis: Research on Aging Vol 15(4) Dec 1993, 433-448.
- Lester, D. (1988). An analysis of the suicide rates of birth cohorts in Canada: Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior Vol 18(4) Win 1988, 372-378.
- Lester, D. (1994). The Holinger/Easterlin cohort hypothesis about youth suicide and homicide rates: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 79(3, Pt 2), Spec Issue Dec 1994, 1545-1546.
- Lester, D. (1994). Suicide rates in cohorts over time in Denmark: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 79(2) Oct 1994, 974.
- Lester, D. (1995). Suicide rates in birth cohorts in England and Wales: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 81(3, Pt 2) Dec 1995, 1146.
- Lester, D. (1996). Youth cohort size and suicide rates: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 83(1) Aug 1996, 306.
- Levenson, M. R., Aldwin, C. M., & Spiro, A., III. (1998). Age, cohort and period effects on alcohol consumption and problem drinking: Findings from the Normative Aging Study: Journal of Studies on Alcohol Vol 59(6) Nov 1998, 712-722.
- Lewinsohn, P. M., Rohde, P., Seeley, J. R., & Fischer, S. A. (1993). Age-cohort changes in the lifetime occurrence of depression and other mental disorders: Journal of Abnormal Psychology Vol 102(1) Feb 1993, 110-120.
- Li, F., Duncan, T. E., & Hops, H. (2001). Examining developmental trajectories in adolescent alcohol use using piecewise growth mixture modeling analysis: Journal of Studies on Alcohol Vol 62(2) Mar 2001, 199-210.
- Li, G., Long, Y.-f., Yang, L.-j., Zhan, C.-l., Li, C.-j., & Huang, J. (2000). Risk factors of psychiatric morbidity among workers in high levels of noise: Case-control study nested in a cohort study: Homeostasis in Health and Disease Vol 40(1-2) May 2000, 23-26.
- Lie, N., & Haeggernes, A. M. (1987). Lawbreaking in former remedial-class pupils: Criminal Justice and Behavior Vol 14(1) Mar 1987, 26-32.
- Lindstrom, D. P., & Massey, D. S. (1994). Selective emigration, cohort quality, and models of immigrant assimilation: Social Science Research Vol 23(4) Dec 1994, 315-349.
- Lloyd, L., Armour, P. K., & Smith, R. J. (1987). Suicide in Texas: A cohort analysis of trends in suicide rates, 1945-1980: Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior Vol 17(3) Fal 1987, 205-217.
- Long, Y.-f., Li, G., Yang, L.-j., Wang, W.-j., Zhan, C.-l., & Zhou, A.-p. (2000). Risk of psychiatric morbidity among workers exposed to high levels of noise: Homeostasis in Health and Disease Vol 40(1-2) May 2000, 20-22.
- Luthar, S. S., & McMahon, T. J. (1996). Peer reputation among inner-city adolescents: Structure and correlates: Journal of Research on Adolescence Vol 6(4) 1996, 581-603.
- Lynskey, M., Degenhardt, L., & Hall, W. (2000). Cohort trends in youth suicide in Australia 1964-1997: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry Vol 34(3) Jun 2000, 408-412.
- Mahlstedt, D. L. (1987). A descriptive study of concepts of responsibility to self and others in women born 1920-1925: A developmental and sociological perspective: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Mandel, H. (1987). A comparison of differences in gender identity and sex-role adoption between males and females younger than 25 and older than 60: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Manton, K. G., Blazer, D. G., & Woodbury, M. A. (1987). Suicide in middle age and later life: Sex and race specific life table and cohort analyses: Journal of Gerontology Vol 42(2) Mar 1987, 219-227.
- Marcelis, M., Navarro-Mateu, F., Murray, R., Selten, J. P., & van Os, J. (1998). Urbanization and psychosis: A study of 1942-1978 birth cohort in the Netherlands: Psychological Medicine Vol 28(4) Jul 1998, 871-879.
- Marmor, L. G. (1987). The perceived relationships of peers on the process of professional socialization of women thirty-nine years old or older and women twenty-five years old or younger in four graduate departments: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Marshall, N. B., Duke, L. W., & Walley, A. C. (1996). Effects of age and Alzheimer's disease on recognition of gated spoken words: Journal of Speech & Hearing Research Vol 39(4) Aug 1996, 724-733.
- Marugame, T., Kamo, K.-i., Sobue, T., Akiba, S., Mizuno, S., Satoh, H., et al. (2006). Trends in smoking by birth cohorts born between 1900 and 1977 in Japan: Preventive Medicine: An International Journal Devoted to Practice and Theory Vol 42(2) Feb 2006, 120-127.
- Maughan, B., & Lindelow, M. (1997). Secular change in psychosocial risks: The case of teenage motherhood: Psychological Medicine Vol 27(5) Sep 1997, 1129-1144.
- Mayer, K. U. (1988). German survivors of World War II: The impact on the life course of the collective experience of birth cohorts. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
- Mayer, K. U., & Huinink, J. (1990). Age, period, and cohort in the study of the life course: A comparison of classical A-P-C-analysis with event history analysis or Farewell to Lexis? New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
- McCulloch, B. J. (1997). Life satisfaction and older women: Factor structure consistency across age cohorts. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press/Greenwood Publishing Group.
- McGlashan, T. H. (1987). Do twenty years make a difference? Chestnut Lodge 1950-1955 versus Chestnut Lodge 1970-1975: Psychiatric Hospital Vol 18(3) Sum 1987, 107-113.
- McIntosh, J. L. (1994). Generational analyses of suicide: Baby Boomers and 13ers: Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior Vol 24(4) Win 1994, 334-342.
- McNiece, R., Bidgood, P., & Soan, P. (2004). An investigation into using national longitudinal studies to examine trends in educational attainment and development: Educational Research Vol 46(2) Sum 2004, 119-136.
- McNiece, R., & Jolliffe, F. (1998). An investigation into regional differences in educational performance in the National Child Development Study: Educational Research Vol 40(1) Spr 1998, 17-30.
- McRae, J. A., & Kohen, J. A. (1988). Changes in attributions of marital problems: Social Psychology Quarterly Vol 51(1) Mar 1988, 74-80.
- Menard, S. (1992). Demographic and theoretical variables in the age-period-cohort analysis of illegal behavior: Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency Vol 29(2) May 1992, 178-199.
- Menard, S., & Huizinga, D. (1989). Age, period, and cohort size effects on self-reported alcohol, marijuana, and polydrug use: Results from the National Youth Survey: Social Science Research Vol 18(2) Jun 1989, 174-194.
- Messeri, P. A., & Brunswick, A. F. (1987). Heroin availability and aggregate levels of use: Secular trends in an urban Black cohort: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse Vol 13(1-2) Mar-Jun 1987, 109-133.
- Miech, R. A., & Elder, G. H. (1996). The service ethic and teaching: Sociology of Education Vol 69(3) Jul 1996, 237-253.
- Minnemann, E., Schmitt, M., Sperling, U., & Juchtern, J. C. (1997). Patterns of life styles: Social, health-related and biographical context: Zeitschrift fur Gerontopsychologie & -psychiatrie Vol 10(4) Dec 1997, 251-257.
- Mitchell, S. (1987). Nine-year-olds grow up: A follow-up study of schoolchildren. New York, NY: Tavistock/Routledge.
- Miyazaki, Y., & Raudenbush, S. W. (2000). Tests for linkage of multiple cohorts in an accelerated longitudinal design: Psychological Methods Vol 5(1) Mar 2000, 44-63.
- Moen, P., Robison, J., & Fields, V. (1994). Women's work and caregiving roles: A life course approach: Journals of Gerontology Vol 49(4) Jul 1994, S176-S186.
- Moens, G. F., Van Oortmarssen, G. J., Honggokoesoemo, S., & Van de Voorde, H. (1987). Birth cohort analysis of suicide mortality in Belgium 1954-1981 by a graphic and a quantitative method: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 76(4) Oct 1987, 450-455.
- Morrell, S., Page, A., & Taylor, R. (2002). Birth cohort effects in New South Wales suicide, 1865-1998: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 106(5) Nov 2002, 365-372.
- Morrell, S., Page, A., & Taylor, R. (2003). "Birth cohort effects in New South Wales suicide, 1865-1998": Erratum: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 107(2) Feb 2003, 160.
- Mouridsen, S. E., Nielsen, S., Rich, B., & Isager, T. (1994). Season of birth in infantile autism and other types of childhood psychoses: Child Psychiatry & Human Development Vol 25(1) Fal 1994, 31-43.
- Mrazek, D. A., Shapiro, T., & Pincus, H. A. (1991). Current status of research activity in American child and adolescent psychiatry: II. A developmental analysis by age cohorts: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 30(6) Nov 1991, 1003-1008.
- Muller, T. E. (1997). The benevolent society: Value and lifestyle changes among middle-aged baby boomers. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Munk-Jorgensen, P., & Jorgensen, P. (1986). Alcoholics in psychiatric institutions: A nationwide Danish follow-up: Social Psychiatry Vol 21(3) Jul 1986, 146-151.
- Murray, C. (2007). The magnitude and components of change in the black-white IQ difference from 1920 to 1991: A birth cohort analysis of the Woodcock-Johnson standardizations: Intelligence Vol 35(4) Jul 2007, 305-318.
- Murray, M., Pullman, D., & Rodgers, T. H. (2003). Social representations of health and illness among 'babyboomers' in Eastern Canada: Journal of Health Psychology Vol 8(5) Sep 2003, 485-500.
- Nelson, C. B., Heath, A. C., & Kessler, R. C. (1998). Temporal progression of alcohol dependence symptoms in the U.S. household population: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 66(3) Jun 1998, 474-483.
- Neve, R. J., Diederiks, J. P., & Knibbe, R. A. (1993). Developments in drinking behavior by age and gender in the Netherlands from 1958 to 1989: A cohort analysis: Tijdschrift voor Alcohol, Drugs en Andere Psychotrope Stoffen Vol 19(2) 1993, 91-106.
- Neve, R. J., Diederiks, J. P., Knibbe, R. A., & Drop, M. J. (1993). Developments in drinking behavior in the Netherlands from 1958 to 1989, a cohort analysis: Addiction Vol 88(5) May 1993, 611-621.
- Newman, D. L., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Magdol, L., Silva, P. A., & Stanton, W. R. (1996). Psychiatric disorder in a birth cohort of young adults: Prevalence, comorbidity, clinical significance, and new case incidence from ages 11-21: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 64(3) Jun 1996, 552-562.
- Newman, S. C., & Dyck, R. J. (1988). On the age-period-cohort analysis of suicide rates: Psychological Medicine Vol 18(3) Aug 1988, 677-681.
- Ng'weshemi, J. Z. L., Boerma, J. T., Pool, R., Barongo, L., & et al. (1996). Changes in male sexual behaviour in response to the AIDS epidemic: Evidence from a cohort study in urban Tanzania: AIDS Vol 10(12) Oct 1996, 1415-1420.
- Nickols-Richardson, S. M., Johnson, M. A., Poon, L. W., & Martin, P. (1996). Mental health and number of illnesses are predictors of nutritional risk in elderly persons: Experimental Aging Research Vol 22(2) Apr-Jun 1996, 141-154.
- Nilsson, L.-G., Backman, L., Erngrund, K., Nyberg, L., & et al. (1997). The Betula prospective cohort study: Memory, health, and aging: Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition Vol 4(1) Mar 1997, 1-32.
- Noble, S. M., & Schewe, C. D. (2003). Cohort segmentation: An exploration of its validity: Journal of Business Research Vol 56(12) Dec 2003, 979-987.
- Nordstrom, P., & Asgard, U. (1986). Suicide risk by age and birth cohort in Sweden: Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention Vol 7(2) Sep 1986, 75-80.
- Norquist, G. S., Hough, R. L., Golding, J. M., & Escobar, J. I. (1990). Psychiatric disorder in male veterans and nonveterans: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 178(5) May 1990, 328-335.
- O'Brien, R. M., & Stockard, J. (2003). The cohort-size sample-size conundrum: An empirical analysis and assessment using homicide arrest data from 1960 to 1999: Journal of Quantitative Criminology Vol 19(1) Mar 2003, 1-32.
- Oheneba-Sakyi, Y. (1989). Cohort shifts in the timing of births in Ghana: Sociological Perspectives Vol 32(4) Win 1989, 485-500.
- Oliver, J. M., & Novak, B. B. (1993). Depression, Seligman's "modernity" hypothesis, and birth cohort effects in university students: Journal of Social Behavior & Personality Vol 8(1) 1993, 99-110.
- Pandey, S., & Coulton, C. (1994). Unraveling neighborhood change using two-wave panel analysis: A case study of Cleveland in the 1980s: Social Work Research Vol 18(2) Jun 1994, 83-96.
- Parker, B., & Chusmir, L. H. (1990). A generational and sex-based view of managerial work values: Psychological Reports Vol 66(3, Pt 1) Jun 1990, 947-950.
- Parker, R. A., & Aldwin, C. M. (1997). Do aspects of gender identity change from early to middle adulthood? Disentangling age, cohort and period effects. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
- Paykel, E. S. (2000). Not an age of depression after all? Incidence rates may be stable over time: Psychological Medicine Vol 30(3) May 2000, 489-490.
- Peeters, A., Bonneux, L., Barendregt, J., & Nusselder, W. (2003). Methods of Estimating Years of Life Lost Due to Obesity: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association Vol 289(22) Jun 2003, 2941.
- Pekkarinen, A., Salminen, S., & Jarvelin, M.-R. (2003). Hand preference and risk of injury among the Northern Finland birth cohort at the age of 30: Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition Vol 8(4) Oct 2003, 339-346.
- Pennington-Gray, L., Fridgen, J. D., & Stynes, D. (2003). Cohort Segmentation: An Application to Tourism: Leisure Sciences Vol 25(4) Oct-Dec 2003, 341-361.
- Perron, J., Vondracek, F. W., Skorikov, V. B., Tremblay, C., & Corbiere, M. (1998). A longitudinal study of vocational maturity and ethnic identity development: Journal of Vocational Behavior Vol 52(3) Jun 1998, 409-424.
- Perucci, C. A., Davoli, M., Rapiti, E., Abeni, D. D., & et al. (1991). Mortality of intravenous drug users in Rome: A cohort study: American Journal of Public Health Vol 81(10) Oct 1991, 1307-1310.
- Phelps, L., Andrea, R. K., & Rizzo, F. G. (1994). Weight control techniques among female adolescents: A comparative study: Journal of School Psychology Vol 32(3) Fal 1994, 283-292.
- Pierce, J. P., & Gilpin, E. (1996). How long will today's new adolescent smoker be addicted to cigarettes? : American Journal of Public Health Vol 86(2) Feb 1996, 253-256.
- Pitkala, K. H., Valvanne, J., Kulp, S., Strandberg, T. E., & Tilvis, R. S. (2001). Secular trends in self-reported functioning, need for assistance and attitudes towards life: 10-year differences of three older cohorts: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Vol 49(5) May 2001, 596-600.
- Pogoda, J. M. (1994). Variance estimation in complex cohort problems. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Raudenbush, S. W., & Chan, W.-S. (1993). Application of a hierarchical linear model to the study of adolescent deviance in an overlapping cohort design: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 61(6) Dec 1993, 941-951.
- Reich, T., Cloninger, C. R., Van Eerdewegh, P., Rice, J. P., & et al. (1988). Secular trends in the familial transmission of alcoholism: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Vol 12(4) Jul-Aug 1988, 458-464.
- Reitter, T., & Tress, W. (1989). Specificity concepts reflected by psychoanalytic epidemiology: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics Vol 52(1-3) 1989, 21-25.
- Rentz, J. O., & Reynolds, F. D. (1991). Forecasting the effects of an aging population on product consumption: An age-period-cohort framework: Journal of Marketing Research Vol 28(3) Aug 1991, 355-360.
- Riala, K., Isohanni, I., Jokelainen, J., Taanila, A., Isohanni, M., & Rasanen, P. (2003). Low educational performance is associated with drunk driving: A 31-year follow-up of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort: Alcohol and Alcoholism Vol 38(3) May-Jun 2003, 219-223.
- Rice, J. P., Neuman, R. J., Saccone, N. L., Corbett, J., Rochberg, N., Hesselbrock, V., et al. (2003). Age and birth cohort effects on rates of alcohol dependence: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Vol 27(1) Jan 2003, 93-99.
- Riggs, J. E., McGraw, R. L., & Keefover, R. W. (1996). Suicide in the United States, 1951-1988: Constant age-period-cohort rates in 40- to 44-year-old men: Comprehensive Psychiatry Vol 37(3) May-Jun 1996, 222-225.
- Roberts, C. W. (1986). Tracing formative influences on event recall: A test of Mannheim's sensitivity hypothesis: Social Forces Vol 65(1) Sep 1986, 74-86.
- Roberts, R. E., Lee, E. S., & Roberts, C. R. (1991). Changes in prevalence of depressive symptoms in Alameda County: Age, period, and cohort trends: Journal of Aging and Health Vol 3(1) Feb 1991, 66-86.
- Robinson, R. V., & Jackson, E. F. (2001). Is trust in others declining in America? An age-period-cohort analysis: Social Science Research Vol 30(1) Mar 2001, 117-145.
- Roesti, J. S. (1987). An analysis of social orientation and aging utilizing FIRO-B inclusion scores: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Roether, D. (1997). The organization of postvocational life: An East-West comparison: Zeitschrift fur Gerontopsychologie & -psychiatrie Vol 10(4) Dec 1997, 245-250.
- Ronnestad, M. H., & Orlinsky, D. E. (2005). Comparative Cohort Development: Novice to Senior Therapists. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Ronnlund, M., Lovden, M., & Nilsson, L.-G. (2008). Cross-sectional versus longitudinal age gradients of Tower of Hanoi performance: The role of practice effects and cohort differences in education: Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition Vol 15(1) 2008, 1-28.
- Ross, B., Febbraro, A., Thoms-Chesley, H., Bauer, N., & et al. (1996). Is there a season for theory? Theoretical and methodological writings of men and women social psychologists over the lengths of their careers. North York, ON, England: Captus Press, Inc.
- Rowland, D. T. (1998). The prevalence of childlessness in cohorts of older women: Australasian Journal on Ageing Vol 17(1) Feb 1998, 18-23.
- Ruud, T. (2007). Preface: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 116(Suppl436) Dec 2007, 5.
- Samuelsen, S. O., Anestad, H., & Skrondal, A. (2007). Stratified case-cohort analysis of general cohort sampling designs: Scandinavian Journal of Statistics Vol 34(1) Mar 2007, 103-119.
- Samuelsson, G., & Dehlin, O. (1993). Family network and mortality: Survival chances through the lifespan of an entire age cohort: International Journal of Aging & Human Development Vol 37(4) 1993, 277-295.
- Samuelsson, G., McCamish-Svensson, C., Hagberg, B., Sundstrom, G., & Dehlin, O. (2005). Incidence and risk factors for depression and anxiety disorders: Results from a 34-year longitudinal Swedish cohort study: Aging & Mental Health Vol 9(6) Nov 2005, 571-575.
- Samuelsson, S. M., Alfredson, B. B., Hagberg, B., Samuelsson, G., Nordbeck, B., Brun, A., et al. (1997). The Swedish Centenarian Study: A multidisciplinary study of five consecutive cohorts at the age of 100: International Journal of Aging & Human Development Vol 45(3) 1997, 223-253.
- Saner, H., MacCoun, R., & Reuter, P. (1995). On the ubiquity of drug selling among youthful offenders in Washington, D.C., 1985-1991: Age, period, or cohort effect? : Journal of Quantitative Criminology Vol 11(4) Dec 1995, 337-362.
- Sarmiento, M. M. R., & Gomez-Restrepo, C. (2004). Cohort Studies: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatria Vol 33(4) Dec 2004, 409-414.
- Sato, S., Shimonaka, Y., Nakazato, K., & Kawaai, C. (1997). A life-span developmental study of age identity: Cohort and gender differences: Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology Vol 8(2) Jul 1997, 88-97.
- Saunders, P. (2002). Reflections on the meritocracy debate in Britain: A response to Richard Breen and John Goldthorpe: British Journal of Sociology Vol 53(4) Dec 2002, 559-574.
- Sauvola, A., Rasanen, P., Joukamma, M. I., Jokelainen, J., Jarvelin, M.-R., & Isohanni, M. K. (2001). Mortality of young adults in relation to single-parent family background: A prospective study of the Northern Finland 1966 birth cohort: European Journal of Public Health Vol 11(3) Sep 2001, 284-286.
- Schaie, K. W. (1992). The impact of methodological changes in gerontology: International Journal of Aging & Human Development Vol 35(1) 1992, 19-29.
- Schaie, K. W., Willis, S. L., & Pennak, S. (2005). An historical framework for cohort differences in intelligence: Research in Human Development Vol 2(1-2) 2005, 43-67.
- Schatz, S. (2002). Age cohort voting effects in the breakdown of single-party rule: Journal of Aging Studies Vol 16(2) May 2002, 199-219.
- Schlenger, W. E., Etheridge, R. M., Hansen, D. J., Fairbank, D. W., & et al. (1992). Evaluation of state efforts to improve systems of care for children and adolescents with severe emotional disturbances: The CASSP Initial Cohort Study: Journal of Mental Health Administration Vol 19(2) Sum 1992, 131-142.
- Schoen, R., & Canudas-Romo, V. (2006). Timing Effects on Divorce: 20th Century Experience in the United States: Journal of Marriage and Family Vol 68(3) Aug 2006, 749-758.
- Schoon, I. (2006). Risk and resilience: Adaptations in changing times. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
- Schulenberg, J., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Johnston, L. D. (2000). "Spread your wings and fly": The course of well-being and substance use during the transition to young adulthood. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
- Schulze, A., & Mons, U. (2006). The evolution of educational inequalities in smoking: A changing relationship and a cross-over effect among German birth cohorts of 1921-70: Addiction Vol 101(7) Jul 2006, 1051-1056.
- Schuman, H., & Corning, A. D. (2006). Comparing Iraq to Vietnam: Recognition, Recall, and the Nature of Cohort Effects: Public Opinion Quarterly Vol 70(1) Spr 2006, 78-87.
- Seematter-Bagnoud, L., & Santos-Eggimann, B. (2006). Population-based cohorts of the 50s and over: A summary of worldwide previous and ongoing studies for research on health in ageing: European Journal of Ageing Vol 3(1) Mar 2006, 41-59.
- Segal, N. L., McGuire, S. A., Havlena, J., Gill, P., & Hershberger, S. L. (2007). Intellectual similarity of virtual twin pairs: Developmental trends: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 42(7) May 2007, 1209-1219.
- Selten, J.-P., van der Graaf, Y., van Duursen, R., Gispen-de Wied, C., & Kahn, R. S. (1999). Psychotic illness after prenatal exposure to the 1953 Dutch Flood Disaster: Schizophrenia Research Vol 35(3) Feb 1999, 243-245.
- Senghas, A. (2003). Intergenerational influence and ontogenetic development in the emergence of spatial grammar in Nicaraguan Sign Language: Cognitive Development Vol 18(4) Oct-Dec 2003, 511-531.
- Sessa, V. I., Kabacoff, R. I., Deal, J., & Brown, H. (2007). Generational differences in leader values and leadership behaviors: Psychologist-Manager Journal Vol 10(1) 2007, 47-74.
- Severus, W. E., Kleindienst, N., & Greil, W. (2006). Letter to the Editor: Re-evaluation of randomized controlled trials of lithium monotherapy: Bipolar Disorders Vol 8(5 pt 1) Oct 2006, 519-520.
- Shavit, Y., & Rattner, A. (1996). Age, crime, and the early life course. Brookfield, VT: Dartmouth Publishing Company.
- Shepperdon, B. (1995). Two longitudinal studies of the abilities of people with Down's syndrome: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research Vol 39(5) Oct 1995, 419-431.
- Sherkat, D. E. (2001). Investigating the sect-church-sect cycle: Cohort-specific attendance differences across African-American denominations: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion Vol 40(2) Jun 2001, 221-233.
- Silverstone, B. (1996). Older people of tomorrow: A psychosocial profile: The Gerontologist Vol 36(1) Feb 1996, 27-32.
- Simizu, K. (1989). A quantitative analysis on the 3rd period of juvenile delinquency: Japanese Journal of Criminal Psychology Vol 27(2) 1989, 1-15.
- Sipos, A., Harrison, G., Gunnell, D., Amin, S., & Singh, S. P. (2002). "Hospitalisation in first-episode psychosis": Reply: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 180(1) Jan 2002, 85.
- Skaff, M. M. (2006). The View From the Driver's Seat: Sense of Control in the Baby Boomers at Midlife. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Skegg, K., & Cox, B. (1991). Suicide in New Zealand 1957-1986: The influence of age, period and birth-cohort: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry Vol 25(2) Jun 1991, 181-190.
- Smith, M. D. (1986). The era of increased violence in the United States: Age, period, or cohort effect? : Sociological Quarterly Vol 27(2) Sum 1986, 239-251.
- Smith, M. D., & Feiler, S. M. (1995). Absolute and relative involvement in homicide offending: Contemporary youth and the baby boom cohorts: Violence and Victims Vol 10(4) Win 1995, 327-333.
- Snowdon, J., & Hunt, G. E. (2002). Age, period and cohort effects on suicide rates in Australia, 1919-1999: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 105(4) Apr 2002, 265-270.
- Soares, I., Collet, L., & Duclaux, R. (1991). Electrophysiological correlates of auditory lexical decision: An attempt to test the "cohort model." International Journal of Neuroscience Vol 57(1-2) Mar 1991, 111-122.
- Sridharan, B., Arshad, P., & Marcos, M. (2002). "Hospitalisation in first-episode psychosis": Comment: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 180(1) Jan 2002, 84-85.
- Staats, S. (1996). Youthful and older biases as special cases of a self-age optimization bias: International Journal of Aging & Human Development Vol 43(4) 1996, 267-276.
- Stack, S. (1996). The impact of relative cohort size on national suicide trends, 1950-1980: A comparative analysis: Archives of Suicide Research Vol 2(4) 1996, 213-222.
- Stanger, C., Achenbach, T. M., & Verhulst, F. C. (1994). Accelerating longitudinal research on child psychopathology: A practical example: Psychological Assessment Vol 6(2) Jun 1994, 102-107.
- Stassen, H. H., Ragaz, M., & Reich, T. (1997). Age-of-onset or age-cohort changes in the lifetime occurrence of depression? : Psychiatric Genetics Vol 7(1) Spr 1997, 27-34.
- Steinhorn, L. (2006). The greater generation: In defense of the Baby Boom legacy. New York, NY: Thomas Dunne Books.
- Stewart, A. J. (2003). 2002 Carolyn Sherif award address: Gender, race, and generation in a Midwest high school: Using ethnographically informed methods in psychology: Psychology of Women Quarterly Vol 27(1) Mar 2003, 1-11.
- Stewart, A. J., & Ostrove, J. M. (1993). Social class, social change, and gender: Working-class women at Radcliffe and after: Psychology of Women Quarterly Vol 17(4) Dec 1993, 475-497.
- Stewart, A. J., & Torges, C. M. (2006). Social, Historical, and Developmental Influences on the Psychology of the Baby Boom at Midlife. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Stillion, J. M., & McDowell, E. E. (1996). Suicide across the life span: Premature exits (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis.
- Stockard, J., & O'Brien, R. M. (2002). Cohort effects on suicide rates: International variations: American Sociological Review Vol 67(6) Dec 2002, 854-872.
- Summers, M., Corney, G., & Childs, A. (2004). Student teachers' conceptions of sustainable development: The starting-points of geographers and scientists: Educational Research Vol 46(2) Sum 2004, 163-182.
- Sundet, J. M., Magnus, P., Kvalem, I. L., Samuelsen, S. O., & et al. (1992). Secular trends and sociodemographic regularities of coital debut age in Norway: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 21(3) Jun 1992, 241-252.
- Susser, E. (1999). Life course cohort studies of schizophrenia: Psychiatric Annals Vol 29(3) Mar 1999, 161-165.
- Suvisaari, J. M., Haukka, J. K., Tanskanen, A. J., & Lonnqvist, J. K. (1999). Decline in the incidence of schizophrenia in Finnish cohorts born from 1954 to 1965: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 56(8) Aug 1999, 733-740.
- Suzuki, T. (1993). Macro analysis by means of cohort analysis: Behaviormetrika Vol 20(1) Jan 1993, 77-90.
- Tambs, K., Sundet, J. M., Magnus, P., & Berg, K. (1989). No recruitment bias for questionnaire data related to IQ in classical twin studies: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 10(2) 1989, 269-271.
- Tanoue, Y., Oda, S., Asano, F., & Kawashima, K. (1988). Epidemiology of infantile autism in southern Ibaraki, Japan: Differences in prevalence in birth cohorts: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders Vol 18(2) Jun 1988, 155-166.
- Tiihonen, J., Isohanni, M., Rasanen, P., Koiranen, M., & Moring, J. (1997). Specific major mental disorders and criminality: A 26-year prospective study of the 1996 Northern Finland Birth Cohort: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 154(6) Jun 1997, 840-845.
- Tracy, P. E., Wolfgang, M. E., & Figlio, R. M. (1990). Delinquency careers in two birth cohorts. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
- Tsai, S. P., Wendt, J. K., Donnelly, R. P., de Jong, G., & Ahmed, F. S. (2005). Age at retirement and long term survival of an industrial population: Prospective cohort study: BMJ: British Medical Journal Vol 331(7523) Oct 2005, No Pagination Specified.
- Twenge, J. M. (2002). Birth cohort, social change, and personality: The interplay of dysphoria and individualism in the 20th century. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
- Twenge, J. M., & Campbell, W. K. (2001). Age and birth cohort differences in self-esteem: A cross-temporal meta-analysis: Personality and Social Psychology Review Vol 5(4) Nov 2001, 321-344.
- Uhlenberg, P. (1988). Aging and the societal significance of cohorts. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
- Uhlenberg, P. (1996). Mutual attraction: Demography and life-course analysis: The Gerontologist Vol 36(2) Apr 1996, 226-229.
- Uhlenberg, P., & Miner, S. (1996). Life course and aging: A cohort perspective. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
- van den Broek, A. (1999). Does differential cohort socialization matter? The impact of cohort replacement and the presence of intergenerational differences in the Netherlands: Political Psychology Vol 20(3) Sep 1999, 501-523.
- van Os, J., Jones, P., Lewis, G., Wadsworth, M., & Murray, R. (1997). Developmental precursors of affective illness in a general population birth cohort: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 54(7) Jul 1997, 625-631.
- Varma, V. K., Malhotra, S., Yoo, E. S., & Jiloha, R. C. (1996). Course and outcome of acute non-organic psychotic states in India: Psychiatric Quarterly Vol 67(3) Fal 1996, 195-207.
- Vasterling, J. J., Proctor, S. P., Amoroso, P., Kane, R., Gackstetter, G., Ryan, M. A. K., et al. (2006). The Neurocognition Deployment Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study of Army Soldiers: Military Medicine Vol 171(3) Mar 2006, 253-260.
- Visscher, P. M., Yazdi, M. H., Jackson, A. D., Schalling, M., Lindblad, K., Qui-Ping, Y., et al. (2001). Genetic survival analysis of age-at-onset of bipolar disorder: Evidence for anticipation or cohort effect in families: Psychiatric Genetics Vol 11(3) Sep 2001, 129-137.
- Vogel, C. A. (1999). Using administrative databases to examine factors affecting length of stay in substitute care: Children and Youth Services Review Vol 21(8) Aug 1999, 677-690.
- Vollebergh, W. A. M., Iedema, J., & Meeus, W. (1999). The emerging gender gap: Cultural and economic conservatism in the Netherlands 1970-1992: Political Psychology Vol 20(2) Jun 1999, 291-321.
- von Sydow, K. (1996). Female sexuality and historical time: A comparison of sexual biographies of German women born between 1895 and 1936: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 25(5) Oct 1996, 473-493.
- Wallner, T. (1988). The number of mentally retarded--a result of steps taken by society? Changes in the age structure among mentally retarded persons in Sweden 1973-1982: Research in Developmental Disabilities Vol 9(2) 1988, 135-143.
- Walz, T. H., & Blum, N. S. (1988). The age cohort factor in activities programming for the elderly: Activities, Adaptation & Aging Vol 12(1-2) 1988, 1-12.
- Walz, T. H., & Blum, N. S. (1993). The age cohort factor in activities programming for the elderly: Activities, Adaptation & Aging Vol 17(3) 1993, 87-98.
- Warshaw, M. G., Klerman, G. L., & Lavori, P. W. (1991). The use of conditional probabilities to examine age-period-cohort data: Further evidence for a period effect in major depressive disorder: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 23(3) Nov 1991, 119-129.
- Wasserman, I. M. (1989). Age, period and cohort effects in suicide behavior in the United States and Canada in the 20th century: Journal of Aging Studies Vol 3(4) Win 1989, 295-311.
- Weakliem, D., McQuillan, J., & Schauer, T. (1995). Toward meritocracy? Changing social-class differences in intellectual ability: Sociology of Education Vol 68(4) Oct 1995, 271-286.
- Weich, S. (1998). The cohort study: International Review of Psychiatry Vol 10(4) Nov 1998, 284-290.
- Weich, S., Churchill, R., Lewis, G., & Mann, A. (1997). Do socio-economic risk factors predict the incidence and maintenance of psychiatric disorder in primary care? : Psychological Medicine Vol 27(1) Jan 1997, 73-80.
- Weitekamp, E. G. M., Kerner, H.-J., Schindler, V., & Schubert, A. (1995). On the "dangerousness" of chronic/habitual offenders: A re-analysis of the 1945 Philadelphia birth cohort data: Studies on Crime & Crime Prevention Vol 4(2) 1995, 159-175.
- West, P., Macintyre, S., Annandale, E., & Hunt, K. (1990). Social class and health in youth: Findings from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study: Social Science & Medicine Vol 30(6) 1990, 665-673.
- Wheelan, S. A., & Lisk, A. R. (2000). Cohort group effectiveness and the educational achievement of adult undergraduate students: Small Group Research Vol 31(6) Dec 2000, 724-738.
- Whitbourne, S. K., & Willis, S. L. (2006). Summary and Future Directions. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Widaman, K. F. (1998). Ruminations on aging changes in mental abilities and their heritability: Comment on Finkel, Pedersen, Plomin, and McClearn (1998): Developmental Psychology Vol 34(6) Nov 1998, 1414-1416.
- Wilhelm, B. (1998). Changes in cohabitation across cohorts: The influence of political activism: Social Forces Vol 77(1) Sep 1998, 289-313.
- Williams, A., Coupland, J., Folwell, A., & Sparks, L. (1997). Talking about Generation X: Defining them as they define themselves: Journal of Language and Social Psychology Vol 16(3) Sep 1997, 251-277.
- Williamson, G. L., Appelbaum, M., & Epanchin, A. (1991). Longitudinal analyses of academic achievement: Journal of Educational Measurement Vol 28(1) Spr 1991, 61-76.
- Wilson, J. A., & Gove, W. R. (1999). The age-period-cohort conundrum and verbal ability: Empirical relationships and their interpretation: Reply to Glenn and to Alwin & McCammon: American Sociological Review Vol 64(2) Apr 1999, 287-302.
- Wilson, J. A., & Gove, W. R. (1999). The intercohort decline in verbal ability: Does it exist? : American Sociological Review Vol 64(2) Apr 1999, 253-266.
- Wolbers, M. H., & de Graaf, P. M. (1996). Educational expansion or meritocratization? An explanation favoring the relationship between family background and children's highest educational achievements: Tijdschrift voor Onderwijsresearch Vol 21(2) 1996, 117-132.
- Wolinsky, F. D., Mosely, R. R., & Coe, R. M. (1986). A cohort analysis of the use of health services by elderly Americans: Journal of Health and Social Behavior Vol 27(3) Sep 1986, 209-219.
- Wolpert, E. A., Goldberg, J. F., & Harrow, M. (1990). Rapid cycling in unipolar and bipolar affective disorders: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 147(6) Jun 1990, 725-728.
- Woo, P. P.-S. (2008). Applications of age-period-cohort and state-transition Markov models in understanding cervical cancer incidence trends and evaluating the cost-effectiveness of cytologic screening. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Wu, L. L., & Li, J.-C. A. (2005). Historical Roots of Family Diversity: Marital and Childbearing Trajectories of American Women. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
- Wyatt, R. J., & Susser, E. S. (2000). Editors' Introduction: U.S. birth cohort studies of schizophrenia: A sea change: Schizophrenia Bulletin Vol 26(2) 2000, 255-256.
- Yang, Y. (2007). Is old age depressing? Growth trajectories and cohort variations in late-life depression: Journal of Health and Social Behavior Vol 48(1) Mar 2007, 16-32.
- Yu, J. (1995). Alcohol purchase age laws and the serial beginning drinker in New York: International Journal of the Addictions Vol 30(10) Aug 1995, 1289-1301.
- Zeh, J. (1987). Speech use in flux: On the use of cohort analysis in speech sociology and communication research: Communications Vol 13(1) 1987, 83-107.
- Zuschlag, M. K., & Whitbourne, S. K. (1994). Psychosocial development in three generations of college students: Journal of Youth and Adolescence Vol 23(5) Oct 1994, 567-577.
- Prospective cohorts
- Retrospective cohorts
- Born in Bradford - an example of a 2006 UK-based birth cohort study
Biomedical research: Clinical study design / Design of experiments
| Controlled study|
(EBM I to II-1; A to B)
| Observational study|
(EBM II-2 to II-3; B to C)
|Analysis of clinical trials|
|Interpretation of results|
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|