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Tests administered to humans include various forms of IQ tests; those administered to animals include the mirror test (a test of self-awareness) and the T maze test (which tests learning ability). Such study is important to research concerning the philosophy of mind and psychology, as well as determination of human and animal intelligence.
Modern cognitive tests originated through the work of Sir Francis Galton who coined the term "mental tests". Surprisingly, though, most of his measurements were physical and physiological, rather than "mental". For instance he measured strength of grip and height and weight. He established an "Anthropometric Laboratory" in the 1880's where patrons paid to have physical and physiological attributes measured to estimate their intelligence. So, his measures of mental or cognitive components were not successful, although his indirect effects were arguably enormous. His work influenced later researchers who developed better measures of intelligence using cognitive tests (see Alfred Binet , Raymond Cattell and Lewis Terman).
See also Edit
- Intelligence quotient
- Consensus Based Assessment
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