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{{CogPsy}}
 
{{CogPsy}}
'''Cognitive maps''', mental maps, [[mind map]]s, cognitive models, or [[mental model]]s are a type of mental processing ([[cognition]]) composed of a series of psychological transformations by which an individual can acquire, code, store, recall, and decode information about the relative locations and attributes of phenomena in their everyday or metaphorical spatial environment.
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A '''cognitive map''' (also: mental map or [[mental model]]) is a type of [[mental representation]] which serves an individual to acquire, code, store, recall, and decode information about the relative locations and attributes of phenomena in their everyday or metaphorical spatial environment. The concept was introduced by [[Edward C. Tolman|Edward Tolman]] in 1948.<ref name="pmid18870876">{{cite journal |author=Tolman E.C. |title=Cognitive maps in rats and men |journal=[[Psychological Review]] |volume=55 |issue=4 |pages=189–208 |year=1948 |month=July |pmid=18870876| doi=10.1037/h0061626|url= }}</ref>
   
[[Edward C. Tolman|Tolman]] (1948) is generally credited with the introduction of the term 'cognitive [[map]]'. Here, 'cognition' can be used to refer to the mental models, or [[belief system]]s, that people use to perceive, contextualize, simplify, and make sense of otherwise complex problems. Cognitive maps have been studied in various fields, such as psychology, education, archaeology, planning, geography and management. As a consequence, these mental models are often referred to, variously, as cognitive maps, mental maps, scripts, schemata, and frames of reference.
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Cognitive maps have been studied in various fields, such as psychology, education, archaeology, planning, geography, cartography, architecture, landscape architecture, urban planning, management and history.<ref>{{cite book |title=Conspiracy Nation: the Politics of Paranoia in Postwar America |last=Knight |first=Peter |year=2002 |publisher=New York University Press |location=New York and London |isbn=0-8147-4735-3}}</ref> As a consequence, these mental models are often referred to, variously, as cognitive maps, mental maps, scripts, schemata, and frames of reference.
   
Put more simply, cognitive maps are a method we use to structure and store spatial knowledge, allowing the "[[mind's eye]]" to visualize images in order to reduce cognitive load, and enhance [[recall]] and [[learning]] of information. This type of spatial thinking can also be used as a metaphor for non-spatial tasks, where people performing non-spatial tasks involving [[memory]] and imaging use spatial knowledge to aid in processing the task.
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Cognitive maps serve the construction and accumulation of spatial knowledge, allowing the "[[mind's eye]]" to visualize images in order to reduce [[cognitive load]], enhance [[recollection|recall]] and [[learning]] of information. This type of spatial thinking can also be used as a metaphor for non-spatial tasks, where people performing non-spatial tasks involving [[memory]] and imaging use spatial knowledge to aid in processing the task.<ref>{{cite journal | author=Kitchin RM | title=Cognitive Maps: What Are They and Why Study Them? | journal=[[Journal of Environmental Psychology]] | year=1994 | volume=14 | issue=1 | pages=1–19 | doi=10.1016/S0272-4944(05)80194-X}}</ref>
   
These can be abstract, flat or spatial representations of [[cognitive space]]s. When these cognitive spaces are combined they can form a cognitive panorama. We can distinguish cognitive maps or cognitive spaces as being either "workbenches of the mind" ([[Bernard Baars|Baars]]) or "externally related workbenches of the mind" ([[Heiner Benking|Benking]]) as representations of the inside or outside.
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The [[neural correlate]]s of a cognitive map have been speculated to be the [[place cell]] system in the [[hippocampus]]<ref name="O'Keefe">{{cite book | author=O'Keefe J, Nadel L | title=The Hippocampus as a Cognitive Map | year=1978 |url=http://www.cognitivemap.net/}}</ref> and the recently discovered [[grid cells]] in the [[entorhinal cortex]].<ref name="pmid16675704">{{cite journal |author=Sargolini F, Fyhn M, Hafting T, McNaughton BL, Witter MP, Moser MB, Moser EI |title=Conjunctive representation of position, direction, and velocity in entorhinal cortex |journal=[[Science (journal)|Science]] |volume=312 |issue=5774 |pages=758–62 |year=2006 |month=May |pmid=16675704 |doi=10.1126/science.1125572 |accessdate=2008-12-08 |bibcode=2006Sci...312..758S}}</ref>
   
The oldest known formal method of using spatial locations to remember data is the "[[method of loci]]". This method was originally used by students of [[rhetoric]] in ancient Rome when memorizing speeches. To use it one must first memorize the appearance of a physical location (for example, the sequence of rooms in a building). When a list of words, for example, needs to be memorized, the learner visualizes an object representing that word in one of the pre-memorized locations. To recall the list, the learner mentally "walks through" the memorized locations, noticing the objects placed there during the memorization phase.
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== Neurological basis ==
   
Cognitive maps may also be represented and assessed on paper or screen through various practical methods such as a [[concept map]], [[sketch map]], [[spider diagram]], [[Hasse diagram]] or any variety of spatial representation.
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Cognitive mapping is believed to largely be a function of the hippocampus. The hippocampus is connected to the rest of the brain in such a way that it is ideal for integrating both spatial and nonspatial information. Connections from the [[postrhinal cortex]] and the medial entorhinal cortex provide spatial information to the hippocampus. Connections from the [[perirhinal cortex]] and lateral entorhinal cortex provide nonspatial information. The integration of this information in the hippocampus makes the hippocampus a practical location for cognitive mapping, which necessarily involves combining information about an object’s location and its other features.<ref name="Manns">{{cite journal|last=Manns|first=Joseph|coauthors=Howard Eichenbaum|title=A cognitive map for object memory in the hippocampus|journal=Learning & Memory|year=2009|issue=16|doi=10.1101/lm.1484509|accessdate=11 November 2012|issn=1072-0502/09}}</ref>
   
A [[fuzzy cognitive map]] (FCM) is a cognitive map which can be processed based on [[fuzzy logic]].
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O’Keefe and Nadel were the first to outline a relationship between the hippocampus and cognitive mapping.<ref name="O'Keefe" /> Many additional studies have shown additional evidence that supports this conclusion.<ref name=Moser>{{cite journal|last=Moser|first=E.|coauthors=E. Kroppf & M. Moser|title=Place cells, grid cells, and the brain's spatial representation system|journal=Annual Review of Neuroscience|year=2008|issue=31|pages=68–81|pmid=18284371}}</ref> Specifically, place cells, [[pyramidal cells]], and [[grid cells]] have been implicated as the neuronal basis for cognitive maps within the hippocampal system.
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Numerous studies by O’Keefe have implicated the involvement of place cells. Individual place cells within the hippocampus correspond to separate locations in the environment with the sum of all cells contributing to a single map of an entire environment. The strength of the connections between the cells represents the distances between them in the actual environment. The same cells can be used for constructing several environments, though individual cells’ relationships to each other may differ on a map by map basis.<ref name="O'Keefe" /> The possible involvement of place cells in cognitive mapping has been seen in a number of mammalian species, including rats and macaque monkeys.<ref name=Moser /> Additionally, in a study of rats by Manns and Eichenbaum, pyramidal cells from within the hippocampus were also involved in representing object location and object identity, indicating their involvement in the creation of cognitive maps.<ref name=Manns /> However, there has been some dispute as to whether such studies of mammalian species indicate the presence of a cognitive map and not another, simpler method of determining one's environment.<ref name=Bennet />
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While not located in the hippocampus, grid cells from within the medial entorhinal cortex have also been implicated in the process of [[path integration]], actually playing the role of the path integrator while place cells display the output of the information gained through path integration.<ref name=McNaughton>{{cite journal|last=McNaughton|first=B. L.|coauthors=F. Battaglia, O. Jensen, E. Moser, & M. Moser|title=Path integration and the neural basis of the 'cognitive map'|journal=National Review of Neuroscience|year=2006|month=August|volume=7|issue=8|pages=663–78|accessdate=11 November 2012}}</ref> The results of path integration are then later used by the hippocampus to generate the cognitive map.<ref name=Jacobs /> The cognitive map likely exists on a circuit involving much more than just the hippocampus, even if it is primarily based there. Other than the medial entorhinal cortex, the presubiculum and parietal cortex have also been implicated in the generation of cognitive maps.<ref name=Moser />
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=== Parallel Map Theory ===
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There has been some evidence for the idea that the cognitive map is represented in the hippocampus by two separate maps. The first is the bearing map, which represents the environment through self-movement cues and gradient cues. The use of these vector-based cues creates a rough, 2D map of the environment. The second map would be the sketch map that works off of positional cues. The second map integrates specific objects, or landmarks, and their relative locations to create a 2D map of the environment. The cognitive map is thus obtained by the integration of these two separate maps.<ref name=Jacobs />
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==Generating the cognitive map ==
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The cognitive map is generated from a number of sources, both from the [[visual system]] and elsewhere. Much of the cognitive map is created through self-generated movement [[sensory cues|cues]]. Inputs from senses like vision, [[proprioception]], olfaction, and hearing are all used to deduce a person’s location within their environment as they move through it. This allows for path integration, the creation of a vector that represents one’s position and direction within one’s environment, specifically in comparison to an earlier reference point. This resulting vector can be passed along to the hippocampal place cells where it is interpreted to provide more information about the environment and one’s location within the context of the cognitive map.<ref name=Jacobs>{{cite journal|last=Jacobs|first=L. F.|coauthors=F. Schenk|title=Unpacking the cognitive map: The parallel map theory of hippocampal function|journal=Psychological Review|year=2003|volume=110|issue=2|pages=285–315|doi=10.1037/0033-295X.110.2.285}}</ref>
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Directional cues and positional landmarks are also used to create the cognitive map. Within directional cues, both explicit cues, like markings on a compass, as well as gradients, like shading or magnetic fields, are used as inputs to create the cognitive map. Directional cues can be used both statically, when a person does not move within his environment while interpreting it, and dynamically, when movement through a gradient is used to provide information about the nature of the surrounding environment. Positional landmarks provide information about the environment by comparing the relative position of specific objects, whereas directional cues give information about the shape of the environment itself. These landmarks are processed by the hippocampus together to provide a graph of the environment through relative locations.<ref name=Jacobs />
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== History ==
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The idea of a cognitive map was first developed by [[Edward C. Tolman]]. Tolman, one of the early cognitive psychologists, introduced this idea when doing an experiment involving rats and mazes. In Tolman's experiment, a rat was placed in a cross shaped maze and allowed to explore it. After this initial exploration, the rat was placed at one arm of the cross and food was placed at the next arm to the immediate right. The rat was conditioned to this layout and learned to turn right at the intersection in order to get to the food. When placed at different arms of the cross maze however, the rat still went in the correct direction to obtain the food because of the initial cognitive map it had created of the maze. Rather than just deciding to turn right at the intersection no matter what, the rat was able to determine the correct way to the food no matter where in the maze it was placed.<ref>Goldstein, B. (2011). ''Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience--with coglab manual. (3rd ed.).'' Belmont, CA: Wadsworth: 11-12.</ref>
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== Criticism ==
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In a review by Bennett<ref name=Bennet>{{cite journal | author=Bennett ATD | title=Do animals have cognitive maps? | journal=[[The Journal of Experimental Biology]] | year=1996 | volume=199 | pages=219–224 | url=http://jeb.biologists.org/content/199/1/219.full.pdf}}</ref> it is argued that there are no clear evidence for cognitive maps in non-human animals (i.e. cognitive map according to Tolman's definition). This argument is based on analyses of studies where it has been found that simpler explanations can account for experimental results. Bennett highlight three simpler alternative that cannot be ruled out in test of cognitive maps in non-human animals "These alternatives are (1) that the apparently novel short-cut is not truly novel; (2) that path integration is being used; and (3) that familiar landmarks are being recognised from a new angle, followed by movement towards them."
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== Related term ==
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A '''cognitive map''' is a spatial representation of the outside world that is kept within the mind, until an actual manifestation (usually, a drawing) of this perceived knowledge is generated, a '''mental map'''. Cognitive mapping is the implicit, mental mapping the explicit part of the same process.<ref>article from International Encyclopedia of Human Geography</ref> In most cases, a cognitive map exists independently of a mental map, an article covering just cognitive maps would remain limited to theoretical considerations.
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In some uses, '''mental map''' refers to a practice done by urban theorists by having city dwellers draw a map, from memory, of their city or the place they live. This allows the theorist to get a sense of which parts of the city or dwelling are more substantial or imaginable. This, in turn, lends itself to a decisive idea of how well urban planning has been conducted.
   
The [[neural correlate]]s of a cognitive map (at least in rodents') brains has been speculated to be the [[place cell]] system in the [[hippocampus]] or the recently discovered [[grid cells]] in the [[entorhinal cortex]].
 
   
   
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*[[Developmental topographical disorientation]]
 
*[[Developmental topographical disorientation]]
 
*[[Direction perception]]
 
*[[Direction perception]]
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*[[Fuzzy cognitive map]]
 
*[[Schema]]
 
*[[Schema]]
 
*[[Spatial imagery]]
 
*[[Spatial imagery]]

Latest revision as of 22:22, September 27, 2013

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A cognitive map (also: mental map or mental model) is a type of mental representation which serves an individual to acquire, code, store, recall, and decode information about the relative locations and attributes of phenomena in their everyday or metaphorical spatial environment. The concept was introduced by Edward Tolman in 1948.[1]

Cognitive maps have been studied in various fields, such as psychology, education, archaeology, planning, geography, cartography, architecture, landscape architecture, urban planning, management and history.[2] As a consequence, these mental models are often referred to, variously, as cognitive maps, mental maps, scripts, schemata, and frames of reference.

Cognitive maps serve the construction and accumulation of spatial knowledge, allowing the "mind's eye" to visualize images in order to reduce cognitive load, enhance recall and learning of information. This type of spatial thinking can also be used as a metaphor for non-spatial tasks, where people performing non-spatial tasks involving memory and imaging use spatial knowledge to aid in processing the task.[3]

The neural correlates of a cognitive map have been speculated to be the place cell system in the hippocampus[4] and the recently discovered grid cells in the entorhinal cortex.[5]

Neurological basis Edit

Cognitive mapping is believed to largely be a function of the hippocampus. The hippocampus is connected to the rest of the brain in such a way that it is ideal for integrating both spatial and nonspatial information. Connections from the postrhinal cortex and the medial entorhinal cortex provide spatial information to the hippocampus. Connections from the perirhinal cortex and lateral entorhinal cortex provide nonspatial information. The integration of this information in the hippocampus makes the hippocampus a practical location for cognitive mapping, which necessarily involves combining information about an object’s location and its other features.[6]

O’Keefe and Nadel were the first to outline a relationship between the hippocampus and cognitive mapping.[4] Many additional studies have shown additional evidence that supports this conclusion.[7] Specifically, place cells, pyramidal cells, and grid cells have been implicated as the neuronal basis for cognitive maps within the hippocampal system. Numerous studies by O’Keefe have implicated the involvement of place cells. Individual place cells within the hippocampus correspond to separate locations in the environment with the sum of all cells contributing to a single map of an entire environment. The strength of the connections between the cells represents the distances between them in the actual environment. The same cells can be used for constructing several environments, though individual cells’ relationships to each other may differ on a map by map basis.[4] The possible involvement of place cells in cognitive mapping has been seen in a number of mammalian species, including rats and macaque monkeys.[7] Additionally, in a study of rats by Manns and Eichenbaum, pyramidal cells from within the hippocampus were also involved in representing object location and object identity, indicating their involvement in the creation of cognitive maps.[6] However, there has been some dispute as to whether such studies of mammalian species indicate the presence of a cognitive map and not another, simpler method of determining one's environment.[8]

While not located in the hippocampus, grid cells from within the medial entorhinal cortex have also been implicated in the process of path integration, actually playing the role of the path integrator while place cells display the output of the information gained through path integration.[9] The results of path integration are then later used by the hippocampus to generate the cognitive map.[10] The cognitive map likely exists on a circuit involving much more than just the hippocampus, even if it is primarily based there. Other than the medial entorhinal cortex, the presubiculum and parietal cortex have also been implicated in the generation of cognitive maps.[7]

Parallel Map Theory Edit

There has been some evidence for the idea that the cognitive map is represented in the hippocampus by two separate maps. The first is the bearing map, which represents the environment through self-movement cues and gradient cues. The use of these vector-based cues creates a rough, 2D map of the environment. The second map would be the sketch map that works off of positional cues. The second map integrates specific objects, or landmarks, and their relative locations to create a 2D map of the environment. The cognitive map is thus obtained by the integration of these two separate maps.[10]

Generating the cognitive map Edit

The cognitive map is generated from a number of sources, both from the visual system and elsewhere. Much of the cognitive map is created through self-generated movement cues. Inputs from senses like vision, proprioception, olfaction, and hearing are all used to deduce a person’s location within their environment as they move through it. This allows for path integration, the creation of a vector that represents one’s position and direction within one’s environment, specifically in comparison to an earlier reference point. This resulting vector can be passed along to the hippocampal place cells where it is interpreted to provide more information about the environment and one’s location within the context of the cognitive map.[10] Directional cues and positional landmarks are also used to create the cognitive map. Within directional cues, both explicit cues, like markings on a compass, as well as gradients, like shading or magnetic fields, are used as inputs to create the cognitive map. Directional cues can be used both statically, when a person does not move within his environment while interpreting it, and dynamically, when movement through a gradient is used to provide information about the nature of the surrounding environment. Positional landmarks provide information about the environment by comparing the relative position of specific objects, whereas directional cues give information about the shape of the environment itself. These landmarks are processed by the hippocampus together to provide a graph of the environment through relative locations.[10]

History Edit

The idea of a cognitive map was first developed by Edward C. Tolman. Tolman, one of the early cognitive psychologists, introduced this idea when doing an experiment involving rats and mazes. In Tolman's experiment, a rat was placed in a cross shaped maze and allowed to explore it. After this initial exploration, the rat was placed at one arm of the cross and food was placed at the next arm to the immediate right. The rat was conditioned to this layout and learned to turn right at the intersection in order to get to the food. When placed at different arms of the cross maze however, the rat still went in the correct direction to obtain the food because of the initial cognitive map it had created of the maze. Rather than just deciding to turn right at the intersection no matter what, the rat was able to determine the correct way to the food no matter where in the maze it was placed.[11]

Criticism Edit

In a review by Bennett[8] it is argued that there are no clear evidence for cognitive maps in non-human animals (i.e. cognitive map according to Tolman's definition). This argument is based on analyses of studies where it has been found that simpler explanations can account for experimental results. Bennett highlight three simpler alternative that cannot be ruled out in test of cognitive maps in non-human animals "These alternatives are (1) that the apparently novel short-cut is not truly novel; (2) that path integration is being used; and (3) that familiar landmarks are being recognised from a new angle, followed by movement towards them."

Related term Edit

A cognitive map is a spatial representation of the outside world that is kept within the mind, until an actual manifestation (usually, a drawing) of this perceived knowledge is generated, a mental map. Cognitive mapping is the implicit, mental mapping the explicit part of the same process.[12] In most cases, a cognitive map exists independently of a mental map, an article covering just cognitive maps would remain limited to theoretical considerations.

In some uses, mental map refers to a practice done by urban theorists by having city dwellers draw a map, from memory, of their city or the place they live. This allows the theorist to get a sense of which parts of the city or dwelling are more substantial or imaginable. This, in turn, lends itself to a decisive idea of how well urban planning has been conducted.


See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • R. M. Kitchin (1994). Cognitive Maps: What Are They and Why Study Them?. Journal of Environmental Psychology 14: 1-19.
  • R. G. Downs and D. Stea (1973). Image and Environment: Cognitive Mapping and Spatial Behavior.
  • E. C. Tolman (1948). Cognitive Maps in Rats and Man. Psychological Review 55: 189-208.
  • J. O'Keefe and L. Nadel (1978). The Hippocampus as a Cognitive Map.
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