Wikia

Psychology Wiki

Cognitive hypothesis testing

Talk0
34,142pages on
this wiki
Revision as of 17:30, January 16, 2010 by Dr Joe Kiff (Talk | contribs)

(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Cognitive Psychology: Attention · Decision making · Learning · Judgement · Memory · Motivation · Perception · Reasoning · Thinking  - Cognitive processes Cognition - Outline Index


Cognitive hypothesis testing is the development and testing of logical rules in the analysis of situations until a reliable set of operations have been developed.


See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Adsit, D. J. (1989). The effects of alternative hypotheses on cognitive hypothesis testing: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Alexander, J. M., Johnson, K. E., & Schreiber, J. B. (2002). Knowledge is not everything: Analysis of children's performance on a haptic comparison task: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology Vol 82(4) Aug 2002, 341-366.
  • Ames, H. G. I. (1995). Influence of counselor information gathering on information processing during a psychodiagnostic hypothesis testing task. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • An, A., & Cercone, N. (2001). Rule quality measures for rule induction systems: Description and evaluation: Computational Intelligence Vol 17(3) Aug 2001, 409-424.
  • Anderson, B. H. (1989). An examination of factors affecting auditors' hypothesis testing strategies: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Anderson, J. R., & Betz, J. (2001). A hybrid model of categorization: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review Vol 8(4) Dec 2001, 629-647.
  • Anserello, C. (1981). The relationship between children's locus of control orientation and response to blank trials in two verbal feedback combinations: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ast, M. E. (1996). Preschool children's conceptualization of safety and moral rules. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Awang, M. B. (1985). Rule usage in solving formal operational problems among Malay and Euro-American college students: An evaluation of the rule-assessment tests: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Babcock, R. L., & Laguna, K. D. (1996). An examination of the adult age-related differences on the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices: A structural equations approach: Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition Vol 3(3) Sep 1996, 187-200.
  • Bailet, L. L., & Lyon, G. R. (1985). Deficient linguistic rule application in a learning disabled speller: A case study: Journal of Learning Disabilities Vol 18(3) Mar 1985, 162-165.
  • Baker, L. M. (2000). How scientific experiments are designed: Problem solving in a knowledge-rich, error-rich environment. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Bardenhagen, F. J., & Bowden, S. C. (1995). Does knowledge of the response rule determine human performance on an animal test of amnesia? : Neuropsychology Vol 9(4) Oct 1995, 573-579.
  • Baron, J., Beattie, J., & Hershey, J. C. (1988). Heuristics and biases in diagnostic reasoning: II. Congruence, information, and certainty: Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes Vol 42(1) Aug 1988, 88-110.
  • Barrett, H. C. (2004). Descent versus design in Shuar children's reasoning about animals: Journal of Cognition and Culture Vol 4(1) 2004, 25-50.
  • Barrouillet, P., & Lecas, J.-F. (1998). How can mental models theory account for content effects in conditional reasoning? A developmental perspective: Cognition Vol 67(3) Jul 1998, 209-253.
  • Bassok, M., & Trope, Y. (1983). People's strategies for testing hypotheses about another's personality: Confirmatory or diagnostic? : Social Cognition Vol 2(3) 1983-1984, 199-216.
  • Beattie, J., & Baron, J. (1988). Confirmation and matching biases in hypothesis testing: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology Vol 40A(2) May 1988, 269-297.
  • Bender, T. A. (1982). Cooperative rule-learning: A metacognitive interpretation: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bender, T. A. (1985). Paired versus individual learning in testing hypotheses: Journal of General Psychology Vol 112(1) Jan 1985, 59-64.
  • Bennett, R. E., & Rock, D. A. (1995). Generalizability, validity, and examinee perceptions of a computer-delivered Formulating-Hypotheses test: Journal of Educational Measurement Vol 32(1) Spr 1995, 19-36.
  • Benson, N. J. (2000). Analysis of specific deficits: Evidence of transfer in disabled and normal readers following oral-motor awareness training: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 92(4) Dec 2000, 646-658.
  • Benson, N. J., Lovett, M. W., & Kroeber, C. L. (1997). Training and transfer-of-learning effects in disabled and normal readers: Evidence of specific deficits: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology Vol 64(3) Mar 1997, 343-366.
  • Bentall, R. P., & Young, H. F. (1996). Sensible hypothesis testing in deluded, depressed and normal subjects: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 168(3) Mar 1996, 372-375.
  • Bentz, B. G., Williamson, D. A., & Smith, C. F. (1999). The prediction of negative events associated with anxiety and dietary restraint: A test of the content specificity hypothesis: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment Vol 21(2) Jun 1999, 97-108.
  • Bereiter, C. (1991). Commentary: Human Development Vol 34(5) Sep-Oct 1991, 294-298.
  • Bergan, J. R., Towstopiat, O., Cancelli, A. A., & Karp, C. (1982). Replacement and component rules in hierarchically ordered mathematics rule learning tasks: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 74(1) Feb 1982, 39-50.
  • Bernt, F. M. (1986). The effects of perceptual differentiation and conceptual organization upon children's hypothesis-testing behavior: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Billig, M. (1994). Representing Words and Thoughts: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 39 (2), Feb, 1994.
  • Birnbaum, M. H. (1999). Testing critical properties of decision making on the Internet: Psychological Science Vol 10(5) Sep 1999, 399-407.
  • Biro, S., & Russell, J. (2001). The execution of arbitrary procedures by children with autism: Development and Psychopathology Vol 13(1) Mar 2001, 97-110.
  • Bisantz, A. M., & Kirlik, A. (2000). Adaptivity and rule verification tasks: An empirical investigation: International Journal of Cognitive Ergonomics Vol 4(1) 2000, 1-18.
  • Bischof, W. F. (2000). Learning to recognize objects: Spatial Vision Vol 13(2-3) 2000, 297-304.
  • Bischof, W. F. (2004). Visual Learning: An Overview: Swiss Journal of Psychology/Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Psychologie/Revue Suisse de Psychologie Vol 63(3) Sep 2004, 151-164.
  • Blustein, D. L., & Strohmer, D. C. (1987). Vocational hypothesis testing in career decision-making: Journal of Vocational Behavior Vol 31(1) Aug 1987, 45-62.
  • Boger, B. C. (1987). Teaching expository text comprehension to learning disabled adolescents by modeling a hypothesis testing strategy: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bonini, N., Arcuri, L., & Legrenzi, P. (1992). The role of linguistic formulation and the presence of risk in hypothesis-testing strategies: Giornale Italiano di Psicologia Vol 19(1) Feb 1992, 61-80.
  • Bonini, N., & Gonzalez, M. (2005). Inconsistent Probability Estimates of a Hypothesis: The Role of Contrasting Support: Experimental Psychology Vol 52(1) 2005, 55-66.
  • Bonner, C. J. (1983). Effects of sequence-relationship and analytic explanation of positive and negative examples on learning a set of rules: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Boreham, N. C. (1985). Transfer of training in the generation of diagnostic hypotheses: The effect of lowering fidelity of simulation: British Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 55(3) Nov 1985, 213-223.
  • Borowsky, R., Owen, W. J., & Fonos, N. (1999). Reading speech and hearing print: Constraining models of visual word recognition by exploring connections with speech perception: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie experimentale Vol 53(4) Dec 1999, 294-305.
  • Bourne, L. E., Jr., Healy, A. F., Kole, J. A., & Graham, S. M. (2006). Strategy shifts in classification skill acquisition: Does memory retrieval dominate rule use? : Memory & Cognition Vol 34(4) Jun 2006, 903-913.
  • Brake, G. L. (1999). Calibration of probability judgments: Effects of number of focal hypotheses and predictability of the environment. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Brenner, L. A., & Koehler, D. J. (1999). Subjective probability of disjunctive hypotheses: Local-weight models for decomposition of evidential support: Cognitive Psychology Vol 38(1) Feb 1999, 16-47.
  • Briars, D. J. (1985). Individual differences in rule discovery: An exploratory study of the inductive reasoning game Eleusis: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Brodbeck, F. C., & Greitemeyer, T. (2000). Effects of individual versus mixed individual and group experience in rule induction on group member learning and group performance: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Vol 36(6) Nov 2000, 621-648.
  • Brooks, p. J., Hanauer, J. B., & Frye, D. (2001). Training 3-year-olds in rule-based causal reasoning: British Journal of Developmental Psychology Vol 19(4) Nov 2001, 573-595.
  • Brooks, R. (1983). Towards a theory of the comprehension of computer programs: International Journal of Man-Machine Studies Vol 18(6) Jun 1983, 543-554.
  • Brown, D. M. (1984). The effects of self-monitoring upon the use of a focusing strategy during hypotheses sampling in kindergarten children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bruce, A. J., & Cox, M. O. (1983). Metamemory and structure: Spelling: Educational Research Quarterly Vol 8(2) 1983, 38-43.
  • Brunas-Wagstaff, J., Bergquist, A., Morgan, K., & Wagstaff, G. F. (1996). Impulsivity, interference on perceptual tasks and hypothesis testing: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 20(4) Apr 1996, 471-482.
  • Bryant, P. E. (1982). The role of conflict and of agreement between intellectual strategies in children's ideas about measurement: British Journal of Psychology Vol 73(2) May 1982, 243-251.
  • Bryceland, J. A. (1995). Rule-governed behavior: Effects of internal versus external instructions on sequential ordering behavior. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Buonomano, D. V. (2005). A Learning Rule for the Emergence of Stable Dynamics and Timing in Recurrent Networks: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 94(4) Oct 2005, 2275-2283.
  • Burgess, P. W., & Shallice, T. (1996). Bizarre responses, rule detection and frontal lobe lesions: Cortex Vol 32(2) Jun 1996, 241-259.
  • Byrne, R. M. J., & Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1990). Remembering conclusions we have inferred: What biases reveal. Oxford, England: North-Holland.
  • Byrne, R. M. J., Segura, S., Culhane, R., Tasso, A., & Berrocal, P. (2000). The temporality effect in counterfactual thinking about what might have been: Memory & Cognition Vol 28(2) Mar 2000, 264-281.
  • Byrne, R. M. J., & Tasso, A. (1999). Deductive reasoning with factual, possible, and counterfactual conditionals: Memory & Cognition Vol 27(4) Jul 1999, 726-740.
  • Cahill, C., Al-Eithan, M., & Frith, C. D. (1993). Conscious and unconscious rule-induction: A neuropsychological case study: Consciousness and Cognition: An International Journal Vol 2(3) Sep 1993, 210-224.
  • Cantor, J. H., & Spiker, C. C. (1982). The effect of the temporal locus of the introtact probe on the hypothesis-testing strategies of kindergarten children: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology Vol 34(3) Dec 1982, 510-525.
  • Cantor, J. H., & Spiker, C. C. (1984). Evidence for long-term planning in children's hypothesis testing: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 22(6) Nov 1984, 493-496.
  • Capaldi, E. J., & Miller, R. M. (2003). Serial learning vs. reward schedules: What is learned? : Learning and Motivation Vol 34(2) May 2003, 127-147.
  • Carlisle, E., & Shafir, E. (2005). Questioning the cheater-detection hypothesis: New studies with the selection task: Thinking & Reasoning Vol 11(2) May 2005, 97-122.
  • Carlson, R. A., & Schneider, W. (1989). Acquisition context and the use of causal rules: Memory & Cognition Vol 17(3) May 1989, 240-248.
  • Carpenter, G. A., Grossberg, S., & Rosen, D. B. (1991). ART 2-A: An adaptive resonance algorithm for rapid category learning and recognition: Neural Networks Vol 4(4) 1991, 493-504.
  • Carretero, M. (1982). Formal thought: New findings about an old theme: Revista de Psicologia General y Aplicada Vol 37(2) 1982, 247-260.
  • Case, S. M. (1983). The development and evaluation of a new instrument to assess medical problem solving: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Caskey, B. J. (1986). The relationship between subset size and hypothesis selection during children's discrimination learning: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Catania, A. C., Matthews, B. A., & Shimoff, E. H. (1990). Properties of rule-governed behaviour and their implications. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Catania, A. C., Shimoff, E., & Matthews, B. A. (1989). An experimental analysis of rule-governed behavior. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Cauzinille-Marmeche, E., Mathieu, J., & Weil-Barais, A. (1982). Experimental reasoning of preadolescents: Hypothesis testing strategies: Enfance No 1-2 Jan-May 1982, 23-37.
  • Chaiklin, S. (1984). On the nature of verbal rules and their role in problem solving: Cognitive Science: A Multidisciplinary Journal Vol 8(2) Apr-Jun 1984, 131-155.
  • Chambers, M., & Rehfeldt, R. A. (2003). Effects of rules on preference for reliable reinforcement in a 5-year old child: North American Journal of Psychology Vol 5(1) 2003, 67-74.
  • Chamrad, D. L. (1987). Confirmation biases in paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenia: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Channon, S., Jones, M.-C., & Stephenson, S. (1993). Cognitive strategies and hypothesis testing during discrimination learning in Parkinson's disease: Neuropsychologia Vol 31(1) Jan 1993, 75-82.
  • Chase, V. M. (2000). Where to look to find out why: Rational information search in causal hypothesis testing. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Chasseigne, G., Lafon, P., & Mullet, E. (2002). Aging and rule learning: The case of the multiplicative law: American Journal of Psychology Vol 115(3) Fal 2002, 315-330.
  • Chasseigne, G., & Mullet, E. (2001). Functional learning and cognitive aging: Psicologia Educacao Cultura Vol 5(2) Dec 2001, 165-193.
  • Chi, M. T. H. (2000). Self-explaining: The dual processes of generating inference and repairing mental models. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Chinn, R. N. (1985). A comparison of two developmental models of concept learning: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Cho, Y., & Telch, M. J. (2005). Testing the Cognitive Content-Specificity Hypothesis of Social Anxiety and Depression: An Application of Structural Equation Modeling: Cognitive Therapy and Research Vol 29(4) Aug 2005, 399-416.
  • Choi, S., McDaniel, M. A., & Busemeyer, J. R. (1993). Incorporating prior biases in network models of conceptual rule learning: Memory & Cognition Vol 21(4) Jul 1993, 413-423.
  • Christiansen, M. H., & Curtin, S. (1999). Transfer of learning: Rule acquisition or statistical learning? : Trends in Cognitive Sciences Vol 3(8) Aug 1999, 289-290.
  • Cicerone, K. D. (1983). Discrimination learning and hypothesis sampling by subjects with unilateral frontal-lobe lesions: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Cicerone, K. D., Lazar, R. M., & Shapiro, W. R. (1983). Effects of frontal lobe lesions on hypothesis sampling during concept formation: Neuropsychologia Vol 21(5) 1983, 513-524.
  • Cock, J. J., Berry, D. C., & Gaffan, E. A. (1994). New strings for old: The role of similarity processing in an incidental learning task: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology Vol 47A(4) Nov 1994, 1015-1034.
  • Colliver, J. A. (2001). Are qualitative studies of PBL tutorial process indicated? : Academic Medicine Vol 76(3) Mar 2001, 215.
  • Colman, A. M., & Stirk, J. A. (1998). Stackelberg reasoning in mixed-motive games: An experimental investigation: Journal of Economic Psychology Vol 19(2) Apr 1998, 279-293.
  • Connell, P. J., & Stone, C. A. (1994). The conceptual basis for morpheme learning problems in children with specific language impairment: Journal of Speech & Hearing Research Vol 37(2) Apr 1994, 389-398.
  • Corson, Y. (1984). Hypotheses research, test and chronology in open situations: Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive/Current Psychology of Cognition Vol 4(5) Oct 1984, 421-447.
  • Crocker, J. (1982). Biased questions in judgment of covariation studies: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Vol 8(2) Jun 1982, 214-220.
  • Crott, H. W., Giesel, M., & Hoffmann, C. (1998). The process of inductive inference in groups: The use of positive and negative hypothesis and target testing in sequential rule-discovery tasks: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 75(4) Oct 1998, 938-952.
  • Cuqlock, V. G. (1983). A behavioral assessment of the weights applied to redundant cues: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Cutietta, R. (1984). The musical hypothesis-testing ability of the adolescent learner: Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education No 80 Fal 1984, 27-50.
  • Dabrowska, E. (2001). Learning a morphological system without a default: The Polish genitive: Journal of Child Language Vol 28(3) Oct 2001, 545-574.
  • Daly, B. L. (1991). The effects of computer-mediated communication on inductive learning by groups: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • D'Amato, M. F., & Guber, S. (1982). Rules and paired-associate retention: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 54(1) Feb 1982, 110.
  • Dark, V. J., & Schmidt, P. A. (2000). Conceptual activation of distractors during selection is not sufficient to produce negative priming: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review Vol 7(1) Mar 2000, 126-132.
  • Dark, V. J., & Schmidt, P. A. (2000). "Conceptual activation of distractors during selection is not sufficient to produce negative priming": Errata: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review Vol 7(4) Dec 2000, 741.
  • Dashen, M. L. (1994). Context effects in the application of rules. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • D'Astous, A. (1986). The use of nonanalytic cognitive processes in evaluative judgment making: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Davidson, G. M. (1988). Evaluation of evidence for necessity and for sufficiency: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • de Jonghe, L. S. (1982). Negative hypothesis testing and the child's development of the concept of balance: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • de Swart, J. H., Kok, A., & Das-Smaal, E. A. (1981). P300 and uncertainty reduction in a concept-identification task: Psychophysiology Vol 18(6) Nov 1981, 619-629.
  • Deak, G. O., Ray, S. D., & Pick, A. D. (2004). Effects of age, reminders, and task difficulty on young children's rule-switching flexibility: Cognitive Development Vol 19(3) Jul-Sep 2004, 385-400.
  • Deakin, J. M., & Proteau, L. (2000). The role of scheduling in learning through observation: Journal of Motor Behavior Vol 32(3) Sep 2000, 268-276.
  • DeSantis, A., Markowsky, G., & Wegman, M. N. (1989). Learning probabilistic prediction functions. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.
  • Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2005). Implicit learning in a prediction task: Neither abstract nor based on exemplars: Current Psychology Letters: Behaviour, Brain & Cognition No 17(3) 2005, No Pagination Specified.
  • Devine, P. G., Hirt, E. R., & Gehrke, E. M. (1990). Diagnostic and confirmation strategies in trait hypothesis testing: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 58(6) Jun 1990, 952-963.
  • Diakidoy, I.-A. N., & Ioannides, C. (2004). Elementary School Children's Ability to Distinguish Hypothetical Beliefs From Statements of Preference: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 96(3) Sep 2004, 536-544.
  • Dickstein, L. S. (1981). Conversion and possibility in syllogistic reasoning: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 18(5) Nov 1981, 229-232.
  • Diefenderfer, K. K., Holzman, T. G., & Thompson, D. N. (1985). Verbal self-monitoring and solution flexibility in rule induction: Journal of Genetic Psychology Vol 146(1) Mar 1985, 79-88.
  • Dieussaert, K., Schaeken, W., Schroyens, W., & d'Ydewalle, G. (1999). Strategies for dealing with complex deductive problems: Combining and dividing: Psychologica Belgica Vol 39(4) 1999, 215-234.
  • Dijkstra, S., & Dekker, P. H. (1982). Inference processes in learning well-defined concepts: Acta Psychologica Vol 51(3) Oct 1982, 181-205.
  • Doherty, M. E., Schiavo, M. B., Tweney, R. D., & Mynatt, C. R. (1981). The influence of feedback and diagnostic data on pseudodiagnosticity: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 18(4) Oct 1981, 191-194.
  • Donnelly, M. B., Sisson, J. C., & Woolliscroft, J. O. (1990). The reliability of a hypothesis generation and testing task: Medical Education Vol 24(6) Nov 1990, 507-511.
  • Dunbar, K., & Klahr, D. (1989). Developmental differences in scientific discovery processes. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Dupagne, M., Salwen, M. B., & Paul, B. (1999). Impact of question order on the third-person effect: International Journal of Public Opinion Research Vol 11(4) Win 1999, 334-345.
  • Durand, R. P., Fincher, R.-M. E., Reigart, J. R., Lancaster, C. J., & et al. (1991). Association between third-year medical students' abilities to organize hypotheses about patients' problems and to order appropriate diagnostic tests: Academic Medicine Vol 66(11) Nov 1991, 702-704.
  • Durnin, J. H. (1991). Rules, higher order rules and problem solving: Journal of Structural Learning Vol 11(1) Apr 1991, 13-25.
  • Dybdahl, C. S. (1983). A theoretical analysis of revision strategies employed by proficient and less proficient readers for underlying model construction in narrative text: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Echevarria, M. (2003). Anomalies as a catalyst for middle school students' knowledge construction and scientific reasoning during science inquiry: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 95(2) Jun 2003, 357-374.
  • Edgell, S. E., Castellan, N. J., Jr., Roe, R. M., Barnes, J. M., Ng, P. C., Bright, R. D., et al. (1996). Irrelevant information in probabilistic categorization: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol 22(6) Nov 1996, 1463-1481.
  • Eitel, P., Friend, R., Griffin, K. W., & Wadhwa, N. K. (1998). Cognitive control and consistency in compliance: Psychology & Health Vol 13(6) Nov 1998, 953-973.
  • Ellis, A. (1994). A corrective note on O'Donohue and Szymanski's study of logical analysis and REBT's use of empirical hypothesis testing as well as logical analysis: Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy Vol 12(1) Spr 1994, 73-76.
  • Endress, A. D., Scholl, B. J., & Mehler, J. (2005). The Role of Salience in the Extraction of Algebraic Rules: Journal of Experimental Psychology: General Vol 134(3) Aug 2005, 406-419.
  • Enns, J. T., & King, K. A. (1990). Components of line-drawing interpretation: A developmental study: Developmental Psychology Vol 26(3) May 1990, 469-479.
  • Eva, K. W., Brooks, L. R., & Norman, G. R. (2002). Forward reasoning as a hallmark of expertise in medicine: Logical, psychological, phenomenological inconsistencies. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
  • Evans, J. S. B. T. (2002). The influence of prior belief on scientific thinking. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Evans, J. S. B. T., & Handley, S. J. (1999). The role of negation in conditional inference: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology Vol 52A(3) Aug 1999, 739-769.
  • Evans, J. S. B. T., Venn, S., & Feeney, A. (2002). Implicit and explicit processes in a hypothesis testing task: British Journal of Psychology Vol 93(1) Feb 2002, 31-46.
  • Evett, S. R., Devine, P. G., Hirt, E. R., & Price, J. (1994). The role of the hypothesis and the evidence in the trait hypothesis testing process: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Vol 30(5) Sep 1994, 456-481.
  • Farris, H. H., & Revlin, R. (1989). Sensible reasoning in two tasks: Rule discovery and hypothesis evaluation: Memory & Cognition Vol 17(2) Mar 1989, 221-232.
  • Feinberg, H. (1987). Generalization via multiple exemplar training and two methods of rule training: Do rules help? : Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Feldman, M. P. (1963). A reconsideration of the extinction hypothesis of warm up in motor behavior: Psychological Bulletin Vol 60(5) Sep 1963, 452-459.
  • Fiedler, K. (1983). Are confirmation biases due to confirmation biases? A reply to Gadenne: Psychologische Beitrage Vol 25(1-2) 1983, 280-286.
  • Findler, N. V., & Dhulipalla, S. (1999). A decision support system for rule discovery in social networks: Social Networks Vol 21(2) Apr 1999, 167-185.
  • Fiorello, C. A., Hale, J. B., & Snyder, L. E. (2006). Cognitive hypothesis testing and response to intervention for children with reading problems: Psychology in the Schools Vol 43(8) Nov 2006, 835-853.
  • Fischer, B. (1983). The development of hypothesis behavior in retarded adults: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Fisher, D. H., Edgerton, M. E., Chen, Z., Tang, L., & Frey, L. (2006). Backward chaining rule induction: Intelligent Data Analysis Vol 10(5) 2006, 397-417.
  • Fisher, S. (1965). Body sensation and perception of projective stimuli: Journal of Consulting Psychology Vol 29(2) Apr 1965, 135-138.
  • Fisher, S. D. (1987). Cue selection in hypothesis generation: Reading habits, consistency checking, and diagnostic scanning: Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes Vol 40(2) Oct 1987, 170-192.
  • Fisher, S. D., & et al. (1983). Consistency checking in hypothesis generation: Organizational Behavior & Human Performance Vol 31(2) Apr 1983, 233-254.
  • Fisk, A. D., & Lloyd, S. J. (1988). The role of stimulus-to-rule consistency in learning rapid application of spatial rules: Human Factors Vol 30(1) Feb 1988, 35-49.
  • Fitzgerald, L. F. (1988). On the importance of operational definitions: A comment on Hayden: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 35(3) Jul 1988, 351-352.
  • Flach, P. A., Lachiche, N., & Fisher, D. H. (2001). Confirmation-guided discovery of first-order rules with Tertius: Machine Learning Vol 42(1-2) Jan-Feb 2001, 61-95.
  • Foster, D. P., & Young, H. P. (1998). On the nonconvergence of fictitious play in coordination games: Games and Economic Behavior Vol 25(1) Oct 1998, 79-96.
  • Fountain, S. B. (1990). Rule abstraction, item memory, and chunking in rat serial-pattern tracking: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes Vol 16(1) Jan 1990, 96-105.
  • Fountain, S. B., Rowan, J. D., & Benson, D. M., Jr. (1999). Rule learning in rats: serial tracking in interleaved patterns: Animal Cognition Vol 2(1) 1999, 41-54.
  • Frydman, O., Light, P., & Alegria, J. (1999). Pragmatic determinants of children's responses to the Wason Selection Task: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient Vol 42(1) Mar 1999, 59-68.
  • Fu, Q., & Fu, X. (2005). The Effects of Exemplar Quantity on Implicit Sequence Learning: Psychological Science (China) Vol 28(4) Jul 2005, 801-805.
  • Fuchs, K. D., & Turner, R. R. (1981). Classification skills and feedback sequence as determinants of hypothesis testing and problem solving: International Journal of Behavioral Development Vol 4(2) Jun 1981, 223-236.
  • Fugelsang, J. A., & Thompson, V. A. (2000). Strategy selection in causal reasoning: When beliefs and covariation collide: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie experimentale Vol 54(1) Mar 2000, 15-32.
  • Fuhs, M. C., & Touretzky, D. S. (2000). Synaptic learning models of map separation in the hippocampus: Neurocomputing: An International Journal Vol 32-33 Jun 2000, 379-384.
  • Gachowetz, H., & Schiepek, G. (1982). The observer as an attribution source: The acceptance of causal attributions by the actor: Zeitschrift fur Sozialpsychologie Vol 13(3) 1982, 209-216.
  • Gadenne, V. (1982). Confirmation bias and rationality of cognitive processes: Psychologische Beitrage Vol 24(1) 1982, 11-25.
  • Gadenne, V., & Oswald, M. (1986). Origin of and changes in confirmatory tendencies in hypothesis testing: Zeitschrift fur Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie Vol 33(3) 1986, 360-374.
  • Gagnon, R., Charlin, B., Roy, L., St-Martin, M., Sauve, E., Boshuizen, H. P. A., et al. (2006). The Cognitive Validity of the Script Concordance Test: A Processing Time Study: Teaching and Learning in Medicine Vol 18(1) Win 2006, 22-27.
  • Gale, M., & Ball, L. J. (2006). Dual-goal facilitation in Wason's 2-4-6 task: What mediates successful rule discovery? : The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 59(5) May 2006, 873-885.
  • Gangemi, A., Balbo, M., Bocchi, C., Carriero, L., Filippi, B., Lelli, F., et al. (2002). Responsibility, fear of guilt and hypothesis testing process: Psicoterapia Cognitiva e Comportamentale Vol 8(3) 2002, 211-231.
  • Garavan, H., Doherty, M. E., & Mynatt, C. R. (1997). When falsification fails: Irish Journal of Psychology Vol 18(3) 1997, 267-292.
  • Garcia-Marques, L., Sherman, S. J., & Palma-Oliveira, J. M. (2001). Hypothesis testing and the perception of diagnosticity: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Vol 37(3) May 2001, 183-200.
  • Germano, F., & Lugosi, G. (2007). Global Nash convergence of Foster and Young's regret testing: Games and Economic Behavior Vol 60(1) Jul 2007, 135-154.
  • Gettys, C. F., Mehle, T., & Fisher, S. (1986). Plausibility assessments in hypothesis generation: Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes Vol 37(1) Feb 1986, 14-33.
  • Gibbons, H., & Rammsayer, T. H. (2001). Latent inhibition depends on inhibitory attentional learning to the preexposed stimulus: Evidence from visual search and rule-learning tasks: Learning and Motivation Vol 32(4) Nov 2001, 457-476.
  • Gierl, M. J. (2007). Making diagnostic inferences about cognitive attributes using the rule-space model and attribute hierarchy method: Journal of Educational Measurement Vol 44(4) Win 2007, 325-340.
  • Girotto, V., & Legrenzi, P. (1989). Mental representation and hypothetico-deductive reasoning: The case of the THOG problem: Psychological Research Vol 51(3) Nov 1989, 129-135.
  • Giurfa, M., & Benard, J. (2006). Prospective and retrospective learning in honeybees: International Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 19(3) 2006, 358-367.
  • Gleason, M. E., & Schauble, L. (1999). Parents' assistance of their children's scientific reasoning: Cognition and Instruction Vol 17(4) 1999, 343-378.
  • Goel, V., & Vartanian, O. (2005). Dissociating the Roles of Right Ventral Lateral and Dorsal Lateral Prefrontal Cortex in Generation and Maintenance of Hypotheses in Set-shift Problems: Cerebral Cortex Vol 15(8) Aug 2005, 1170-1177.
  • Goldsmith, A. H., Veum, J. R., & Darity, W., Jr. (2000). Working hard for the money? Efficiency wages and worker effort: Journal of Economic Psychology Vol 21(4) Aug 2000, 351-385.
  • Goldvarg, Y., & Johnson-Laird, P. N. (2000). Illusions in modal reasoning: Memory & Cognition Vol 28(2) Mar 2000, 282-294.
  • Gomez Becerra, I., & Luciano Soriano, M. C. (2000). Self control through altering function rules: Psicothema Vol 12(3) Aug 2000, 418-425.
  • Gopnik, A., Glymour, C., Sobel, D. M., Schulz, L. E., Kushnir, T., & Danks, D. (2004). A Theory of Causal Learning in Children: Causal Maps and Bayes Nets: Psychological Review Vol 111(1) Jan 2004, 3-32.
  • Gorman, H., & Bourne, L. E. (1983). Learning to think by learning LOGO: Rule learning in third-grade computer programmers: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 21(3) May 1983, 165-167.
  • Gorman, M. E. (1995). Hypothesis testing. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Gorsky, J. M. (1994). Vocational hypothesis testing: The relationship between stage of career development and hypothesis testing strategy. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Gowan, M. A., Riordan, C. M., & Gatewood, R. D. (1999). Test of a model of coping with involuntary job loss following a company closing: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 84(1) Feb 1999, 75-86.
  • Graham, L. M. (1997). A two-component theory of conditional reasoning: Content and process in the Wason four-card selection Task. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Greco, A. (1991). Confirmation bias and the use of evidence in a 2-4-6 task: Giornale Italiano di Psicologia Vol 18(1) Feb 1991, 79-96.
  • Green, D. W. (1990). Confirmation bias, problem-solving and cognitive models. Oxford, England: North-Holland.
  • Grewal, A. (1985). An interactional study of cognitive and socio-economic correlates of school achievement: Journal of Psychological Researches Vol 29(1) Jan 1985, 41-45.
  • Griggs, R. A., Platt, R. D., Newstead, S. E., & Jackson, S. L. (1998). Attentional factors in a disjunctive reasoning task: Thinking & Reasoning Vol 4(1) 1998, 1-14.
  • Grigorenko, Y. L., & Smirnov, S. D. (1988). Study of the process of advancement and verification of hypotheses in solving problems with unspecified conditions: Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta - Seriya 14: Psikhologiya No 1 Jan-Mar 1988, 61-68.
  • Gruen, G. E., Offenbach, S. I., & Keane, T. (1986). Hypothesis testing on a proportional reasoning task by children at different Piagetian stage levels: International Journal of Behavioral Development Vol 9(1) Mar 1986, 91-104.
  • Guttman, R., & Shoham, I. (1983). Parent-offspring resemblance and parental education: Behavior Genetics Vol 13(1) Jan 1983, 99-105.
  • Hacker, W. (1989). On the utility of procedural rules: Conditions of the use of rules in the production of operation sequences: Ergonomics Vol 32(7) Jul 1989, 717-732.
  • Hagafors, R. (1983). Effects of information presentation mode on subjects' hypotheses in a probabilistic inference task: Acta Psychologica Vol 53(3) Oct 1983, 195-204.
  • Hak, T. (2001). "Are qualitative studies of PBL tutorial process indicated?": Reply: Academic Medicine Vol 76(3) Mar 2001, 216.
  • Hak, T., & Maguire, P. (2000). Group process: The black box of studies on problem-based learning: Academic Medicine Vol 75(7) Jul 2000, 769-772.
  • Halberstadt, N., & Kareev, Y. (1995). Transitions between modes of inquiry in a rule discovery task: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology Vol 48A(2) May 1995, 280-295.
  • Hamm, R. M. (1993). Explanations for common responses to the Blue/Green Cab probabilistic inference word problem: Psychological Reports Vol 72(1) Feb 1993, 219-242.
  • Hamzei, G. H. S., Mulvaney, D. J., & Sillitoe, I. P. (1999). Multi-layer hierarchical rule learning in reactive robot control using incremental decision trees: Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems Vol 24(2) Feb 1999, 99-124.
  • Happaney, K., & Zelazo, P. D. (2003). Inhibition as a problem in the psychology of behavior: Developmental Science Vol 6(5) Nov 2003, 468-470.
  • Hardiman, P. T., Pollatsek, A., & Well, A. D. (1986). Learning to understand the balance beam: Cognition and Instruction Vol 3(1) 1986, 63-86.
  • Hare, B., & Wrangham, R. (2002). Integrating two evolutionary models for the study of social cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Harre, R. (1988). Ethogenic methods: An empirical psychology of action. New York, NY ; Oxford, England: Cambridge University Press; British Psychological Society.
  • Harris, J. A., & Livesey, E. J. (2008). Comparing patterning and biconditional discriminations in humans: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes Vol 34(1) Jan 2008, 144-154.
  • Hauber, R. P. (1988). Diagnostic problem solving: The effects of knowledge/experience and problem complexity on early hypothesis generation in the nursing knowledge domain: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Haverkamp, B. E. (1990). An investigation of the hypothesis testing behavior of counseling trainees: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hayden, D. C. (1986). Counselor and client responses to hypothesis testing strategies: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hayden, D. C. (1987). Counselor and client responses to hypothesis-testing strategies: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 34(2) Apr 1987, 149-156.
  • Hayden, D. C. (1988). Should we lock the door for fear of spooks, pixies, or elves? Reply to Fitzgerald: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 35(3) Jul 1988, 353-354.
  • Hayes, S. C. (1989). Rule-governed behavior: Cognition, contingencies, and instructional control. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Hayes, S. C. (1992). The Two-Way Street of Narrowness: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 37 (5), May, 1992.
  • Hayes, S. C., & Hayes, L. J. (1989). The verbal action of the listener as a basis for rule-governance. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Hayes, S. C., Zettle, R. D., & Rosenfarb, I. (1989). Rule-following. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Haygood, R. C., & Bourne, L. E., Jr. (1965). Attribute- and rule-learning aspects of conceptual behavior: Psychological Review Vol 72(3) May 1965, 175-195.
  • Heibeck, T. H., & Markman, E. M. (1987). Word learning in children: An examination of fast mapping: Child Development Vol 58(4) Aug 1987, 1021-1034.
  • Heil, D. W. (1981). "What are you like?" An examination of interpersonal hypothesis testing strategies: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hertel, P. T. (1989). The generation effect: A reflection of cognitive effort? : Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 27(6) Nov 1989, 541-544.
  • Hineline, P. N., & Wanchisen, B. A. (1989). Correlated hypothesizing and the distinction between contingency-shaped and rule-governed behavior. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Hirshman, E., & Hostetter, M. (2000). Using ROC curves to test models of recognition memory: The relationship between presentation duration and slope: Memory & Cognition Vol 28(2) Mar 2000, 161-166.
  • Ho, C. P., Savenye, W., & Haas, N. (1986). The effects of orienting objectives and review learning from interactive video: Journal of Computer-Based Instruction Vol 13(4) Fal 1986, 126-129.
  • Hodgins, H. S., & Zuckerman, M. (1993). Beyond selecting information: Biases in spontaneous questions and resultant conclusions: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Vol 29(5) Sep 1993, 387-407.
  • Hoffmann, C., & Crott, H. W. (2004). Effects of amount of evidence and range of rule on the use of hypothesis and target tests by groups in rule-discovery tasks: Thinking & Reasoning Vol 10(4) Nov 2004, 321-354.
  • Hofmann, S. G. (1999). Introducing the grandmother test into psychological science: Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology Vol 19(2) Fal 1999, 167-176.
  • Holmstrom-Hintikka, G. (1992). On argumentation in legal contexts: Communication & Cognition Vol 25(2-3) 1992, 259-268.
  • Hong, L., Chijun, Z., Xuemei, G., Shan, G., & Chongde, L. (2005). The influence of complexity and reasoning direction on children's causal reasoning: Cognitive Development Vol 20(1) Jan-Mar 2005, 87-101.
  • Hoover, S. M. (1994). Scientific problem finding in gifted fifth-grade students: Roeper Review Vol 16(3) Feb 1994, 156-159.
  • Howard, G. S., & Englehardt, J. L. (1990). Teaching rival hypotheses in experimental psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Howe, C., Tolmie, A., Greer, K., & Mackenzie, M. (1995). Peer collaboration and conceptual growth in physics: Task influences on children's understanding of heating and cooling: Cognition and Instruction Vol 13(4) 1995, 483-503.
  • Hughes, L. A. (1984). Beyond the rules of the game: Girls gaming at a friends' school: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hullermeier, E., & Beringer, J. (2006). Learning from ambiguously labeled examples: Intelligent Data Analysis Vol 10(5) 2006, 419-439.
  • Ishii, T. (1999). The change of the basic rules in a CG maze: Japanese Journal of Social Psychology Vol 14(2) Feb 1999, 57-68.
  • Izawa, C. (1993). Power behind the scenes: Hidden effects of test trials unveiled. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Jacques, S., Zelazo, P. D., Kirkham, N. Z., & Semcesen, T. K. (1999). Rule selection versus rule execution in preschoolers: An error-detection approach: Developmental Psychology Vol 35(3) May 1999, 770-780.
  • Jansen, B. R. J., & van der Maas, H. L. J. (1997). Statistical test of the rule assessment methodology by latent class analysis: Developmental Review Vol 17(3) Sep 1997, 321-357.
  • Jin, S.-H., Kwon, Y.-J., Jeong, J.-S., Kwon, S. W., & Shin, D.-H. (2006). Increased information transmission during scientific hypothesis generation: Mutual information analysis of multichannel EEG: International Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 62(2) Nov 2006, 337-344.
  • Johnson, R., & Donchin, E. (1982). Sequential expectancies and decision making in a changing environment: An electrophysiological approach: Psychophysiology Vol 19(2) Mar 1982, 183-200.
  • Johnson, T. R., & Krems, J. F. (2001). Use of current explanations in multicausal abductive reasoning: Cognitive Science: A Multidisciplinary Journal Vol 25(6) Nov-Dec 2001, 903-939.
  • Johnston, J. R. (1985). Cognitive prerequisites: The evidence from children learning English. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Josephson, J. R., Chandrasekaran, B., Smith, J. W., & Tanner, M. C. (1987). A mechanism for forming composite explanatory hypotheses: IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, & Cybernetics Vol 17(3) May-Jun 1987, 445-454.
  • Joyce, B. G., Joyce, J. H., & Chase, P. N. (1989). Considerations for the use of rules in academic settings: Education & Treatment of Children Vol 12(1) Feb 1989, 82-92.
  • Kalina, M. L. (1991). Group verbal mediation effects on rule generation which govern subsequent transfer tasks for community college remedial reading students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kalohn, J. C., & Spray, J. A. (1999). The effect of model misspecification on classification decisions made using a computerized test: Journal of Educational Measurement Vol 36(1) Spr 1999, 47-59.
  • Kamhi, A. G., Nelson, L. K., Lee, R. F., & Gholson, B. (1985). The ability of language-disordered children to use and modify hypotheses in discrimination learning: Applied Psycholinguistics Vol 6(4) Dec 1985, 435-451.
  • Kareev, Y., & Avrahami, J. (1995). Teaching by examples: The case of number series: British Journal of Psychology Vol 86(1) Feb 1995, 41-54.
  • Kareev, Y., & Halberstadt, N. (1993). Evaluating negative tests and refutations in a rule discovery task: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology Vol 46A(4) Nov 1993, 715-727.
  • Kareev, Y., Halberstadt, N., & Shafir, D. (1993). Improving performance and increasing the use of non-positive testing in a rule-discovery task: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology Vol 46A(4) Nov 1993, 729-742.
  • Kashyap, R. L., & Chang, L. (1993). Study of interval belief combination: Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems Vol 7(1) Feb 1993, 1-13.
  • Kassin, S. M. (1981). Distortions in estimating consensus from sequential events: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Vol 7(4) Dec 1981, 542-546.
  • Kavsek, B., & Lavrac, N. (2006). APRIORI-SD: Adapting association rule learning to subgroup discovery: Applied Artificial Intelligence Vol 20(7) Aug 2006, 543-583.
  • Kellogg, R. T. (1982). Hypothesis recognition failure in conjunctive and disconjunctive concept-identification tasks: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 19(6) Jun 1982, 327-330.
  • Kellogg, R. T. (1982). When can we introspect accurately about mental processes? : Memory & Cognition Vol 10(2) Mar 1982, 141-144.
  • Kellogg, R. T. (1983). Age differences in hypothesis testing and frequency processing in concept learning: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 21(2) Mar 1983, 101-104.
  • Kendler, T. S. (1981). Development of discrimination learning and problem solving: A critical review of The Cognitive-Developmental Basis of Human Learning: Studies in hypothesis testing: Developmental Review Vol 1(2) Jun 1981, 146-162.
  • Kern, L. H. (1983). The effect of data error in inducing confirmatory inference strategies in scientific hypothesis testing: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kiernan, B. J., & Snow, D. P. (1999). Bound-morpheme generalization by children with SLI: Is there a functional relationship with accuracy of response to training targets: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research Vol 42(3) Jun 1999, 649-662.
  • Kimmel, S., & MacGinitie, W. H. (1985). Helping students revise hypotheses while reading: Reading Teacher Vol 38(8) Apr 1985, 768-771.
  • Kirkham, N. Z., Cruess, L., & Diamond, A. (2003). Helping children apply their knowledge to their behavior on a dimension-switching task: Developmental Science Vol 6(5) Nov 2003, 449-476.
  • Kirkham, N. Z., & Diamond, A. (2003). Sorting between theories of perseveration: performance in conflict tasks requires memory, attention and inhibition: Developmental Science Vol 6(5) Nov 2003, 474-476.
  • Klaczynski, P. A. (2000). Motivated scientific reasoning biases, epistemological beliefs, and theory polarization: A two-process approach to adolescent cognition: Child Development Vol 71(5) Sep-Oct 2000, 1347-1366.
  • Klaczynski, P. A., & Laipple, J. S. (1993). Role of content domain, logic training, and IQ in rule acquisition and transfer: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol 19(3) May 1993, 653-672.
  • Klayman, J., & Ha, Y.-w. (1989). Hypothesis testing in rule discovery: Strategy, structure, and content: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol 15(4) Jul 1989, 596-604.
  • Kleinschmidt, H., & Lachnit, H. (1993). Pavlovian conditioning and rule learning: Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science Vol 28(2) Apr-Jun 1993, 158-162.
  • Klinger, L. G., & Dawson, G. (2001). Prototype formation in autism: Development and Psychopathology Vol 13(1) Mar 2001, 111-124.
  • Knowles, M. E., & Delaney, P. F. (2005). Lasting Reductions in Illegal Moves Following an Increase in Their Cost: Evidence From River-Crossing Problems: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol 31(4) Jul 2005, 670-682.
  • Kobayashi, H. (2007). Hypothesis evaluation schema and collaborative discovery: Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 55(1) Mar 2007, 48-59.
  • Koedijker, J. M., Oudejans, R. R. D., & Beek, P. J. (2007). Explicit rules and direction of attention in learning and performing the table tennis forehand: International Journal of Sport Psychology Vol 38(2) Apr-Jun 2007, 227-244.
  • Koehler, D. J. (1994). Hypothesis generation and confidence in judgment: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol 20(2) Mar 1994, 461-469.
  • Kramer, K. M. (2003). Testing the nonextensionality of support theory: A generalization to dual disjunctions. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Kreiner, D. S., & Gough, P. B. (1990). Two ideas about spelling: Rules and word-specific memory: Journal of Memory and Language Vol 29(1) Feb 1990, 103-118.
  • Kroner, S., Plass, J. L., & Leutner, D. (2005). Intelligence assessment with computer simulations: Intelligence Vol 33(4) Jul-Aug 2005, 347-368.
  • Kruglanski, A. W., & Mayseless, O. (1988). Contextual effects in hypothesis testing: The role of competing alternatives and epistemic motivations: Social Cognition Vol 6(1) 1988, 1-20.
  • Kurpius, D. J., Benjamin, D., & Morran, D. K. (1985). Effects of teaching a cognitive strategy on counselor trainee internal dialogue and clinical hypothesis formulation: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 32(2) Apr 1985, 263-271.
  • Kurtz, S. T. (1983). The development of rules in two different interpersonal situations: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Lachnit, H. (1992). Pavlovian conditioning and cognitive psychology: The case of inductive reasoning: German Journal of Psychology Vol 16(4) Dec 1992, 273-282.
  • Lafond, D., Lacouture, Y., & Mineau, G. (2007). Complexity minimization in rule-based category learning: Revising the catalog of Boolean concepts and evidence for non-minimal rules: Journal of Mathematical Psychology Vol 51(2) Apr 2007, 57-74.
  • Lagnado, D. A., & Sloman, S. (2004). The Advantage of Timely Intervention: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol 30(4) Jul 2004, 856-876.
  • Lalljee, M., Lamb, R., Furnham, A. F., & Jaspars, J. (1984). Explanations and information search: Inductive and hypothesis-testing approaches to arriving at an explanation: British Journal of Social Psychology Vol 23(3) Sep 1984, 201-212.
  • Langford, P. E. (1993). Evaluation of conditional and biconditional hypotheses in information-use tasks during adolescence: Journal of Genetic Psychology Vol 154(1) Mar 1993, 111-126.
  • Langford, P. E. (1998). A neglected window on hypothesis testing in adolescence: Explicit standard order conditional selection tasks: Psychological Reports Vol 83(3, Pt 2) Dec 1998, 1363-1386.
  • Langford, P. E., & Hunting, R. (1992). A test of a two-stage model of the evaluation of hypotheses from quantified first-order predicate logic in information use tasks: Psychological Reports Vol 71(3, Pt 2) Dec 1992, 1091-1104.
  • Laughlin, P. R., Bonner, B. L., & Altermatt, T. W. (1998). Collective versus individual induction with single versus multiple hypotheses: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 75(6) Dec 1998, 1481-1489.
  • Laughlin, P. R., Bonner, B. L., & Altermatt, T. W. (1999). Effectiveness of positive hypothesis testing in inductive and deductive rule learning: Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes Vol 77(2) Feb 1999, 130-146.
  • Laughlin, P. R., & Futoran, G. C. (1985). Collective induction: Social combination and sequential transition: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 48(3) Mar 1985, 608-613.
  • Laughlin, P. R., Magley, V. J., & Shupe, E. I. (1997). Positive and negative hypothesis testing by cooperative groups: Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes Vol 69(3) Mar 1997, 265-275.
  • Laughlin, P. R., Shupe, E. I., & Magley, V. J. (1998). Effectiveness of positive hypothesis testing for cooperative groups: Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes Vol 73(1) Jan 1998, 27-38.
  • Laughlin, P. R., Zander, M. L., Knievel, E. M., & Tan, T. K. (2003). Groups perform better than the best individuals on letters-to-numbers problems: Informative equations and effective strategies: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 85(4) Oct 2003, 684-694.
  • Laupa, M. (2000). Children's understanding of logical and conventional rules in arithmetic algorithms: The Journal of Mathematical Behavior Vol 19(3) 3rdQtr 2000, 291-305.
  • Lawson, A. E., Lawson, D. I., & Lawson, C. A. (1984). Proportional reasoning and the linguistic abilities required for hypothetico-deductive reasoning: Journal of Research in Science Teaching Vol 21(2) Feb 1984, 119-131.
  • Lecas, J.-F., & Barrouillet, P. (1999). Understanding conditional rules in childhood and adolescence: A mental models approach: Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive/Current Psychology of Cognition Vol 18(3) Jun 1999, 363-396.
  • Lecoutre, M.-P. (1982). A direct investigation of two hypotheses in a concept identification situation: Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive/Current Psychology of Cognition Vol 2(3) Sep 1982, 313-326.
  • Lee, G., & Oakhill, J. (1984). The effects of externalization on syllogistic reasoning: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology Vol 36A(3) Aug 1984, 519-530.
  • Lee, O. M. (1985). The effect of type of feedback on rule learning in computer based instruction: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Lee, S.-s. (1984). Separability of coded attributes in logical rule acquisition: A two-process analysis: Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Vol 38(3) Sep 1984, 386-401.
  • Legrenzi, P., Butera, F., Mugny, G., & Perez, J. (1991). Majority and minority influence in inductive reasoning: A preliminary study: European Journal of Social Psychology Vol 21(4) Jul-Aug 1991, 359-363.
  • Lehman, D. R., Krosnick, J. A., West, R. L., & Li, F. (1992). The focus of judgment effect: A question wording effect due to hypothesis confirmation bias: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Vol 18(6) Dec 1992, 690-699.
  • Lehrer, R., & Schauble, L. (2000). Modeling in mathematics and science. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Leland, J. W. (1986). Individual choice under uncertainty: Finite discriminatory ability and systematic deviations from "strict" rationality: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Lewicka, M. (1998). Confirmation bias: Cognitive error or adaptive strategy of action control? New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Liberman, N., & Klar, Y. (1996). Hypothesis testing in Wason's selection task: Social exchange cheating detection or task understanding: Cognition Vol 58(1) Jan 1996, 127-156.
  • Liberman, N., Molden, D. C., Idson, L. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2001). Promotion and prevention focus on alternative hypotheses: Implications for attributional functions: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 80(1) Jan 2001, 5-18.
  • Like, R., & Reeb, K. G. (1984). Clinical hypothesis testing in family practice: A biopsychosocial perspective: The Journal of Family Practice Vol 19(4) Oct 1984, 517-523.
  • Lin, D.-Y. M., & Su, Y.-L. (1998). The effect of time pressure on expert system based training for emergency management: Behaviour & Information Technology Vol 17(4) Jul-Aug 1998, 195-202.
  • Ling, C. X., & Marinov, M. (1994). A symbolic model of the nonconscious acquisition of information: Cognitive Science: A Multidisciplinary Journal Vol 18(4) Oct-Dec 1994, 595-621.
  • Lippman, L. G. (1994). Rule-governed performance and sensitivity to contingencies: What's new? : Journal of General Psychology Vol 121(4) Oct 1994, 353-360.
  • Litchfield, B. C., Driscoll, M. P., & Dempsey, J. V. (1990). Presentation sequence and example difficulty: Their effect on concept and rule learning in computer-based instruction: Journal of Computer-Based Instruction Vol 17(1) Win 1990, 35-40.
  • Litowitz, B. E. (1981). Hypothetical speech: A developmental perspective: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research Vol 10(3) May 1981, 289-312.
  • Lochy, A., Seron, X., Delazer, M., & Butterworth, B. (2000). The odd-even effect in multiplication: Parity rule or familiarity with even numbers? : Memory & Cognition Vol 28(3) Apr 2000, 358-365.
  • Lockard, R. B. (1964). Preadaptation: Panacea for past puzzles: Reply to Kiernan: Psychological Bulletin Vol 62(5) Nov 1964, 358-360.
  • Loddo, S. (2002). Rulebound and nonrulebound tasks: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders Vol 32(1) Feb 2002, 61-62.
  • Logan, C. R. (2001). Need for closure and mediation: Effects of epistemic motivation on strategy perseverance and hypothesis testing. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Lohaus, A., Thomas, H., Kessler, T., & Gediga, G. (1996). Decomposing water-level responses: Field effects as separate influences: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology Vol 63(1) Oct 1996, 79-102.
  • Lopez-Rousseau, A. (1993). Argument testing: Hypothesis testing in categorical arguments: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ludlow, B. L., & Woodrum, D. T. (1985). Hypothesis testing and problem solving by learning disabled and nondisabled boys: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 60(1) Feb 1985, 160.
  • Lundy, D. H., Carlson, R. A., & Paquiot, J. (1995). Acquisition of rule-application skills: Practice schedules, rule types, and working memory: American Journal of Psychology 108(4) Win 1995, 471-497.
  • MacDonald, G. (1996). Inferences in therapy: Processes and hazards: Professional Psychology: Research and Practice Vol 27(6) Dec 1996, 600-603.
  • MacDonald, G. L. (1991). Counselor cognitive processing during hypothesis formation: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • MacLeod, C. M., & Daniels, K. A. (2000). Direct versus indirect tests of memory: Directed forgetting meets the generation effect: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review Vol 7(2) Jun 2000, 354-359.
  • Maddox, W. T., Ashby, F. G., & Bohil, C. J. (2003). Delayed feedback effects on rule-based and information-integration category learning: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol 29(4) Jul 2003, 650-662.
  • Maddox, W. T., Baldwin, G. C., & Markman, A. B. (2006). A test of the regulatory fit hypothesis in perceptual classification learning: Memory & Cognition Vol 34(7) Oct 2006, 1377-1397.
  • Maddox, W. T., Bohil, C. J., & Ing, A. D. (2004). Evidence for a procedural-learning-based system in perceptual category learning: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review Vol 11(5) Oct 2004, 945-952.
  • Magara, K. (1986). Effects of teaching a rule with exceptions on arousing interest in learners: Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 34(2) Jun 1986, 139-147.
  • Magara, K. (1991). Effects of examples occurring in daily life upon rule learning: Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 39(3) Sep 1991, 261-269.
  • Magara, K. (1994). Effects of "corroboration" in rule learning--Criticism on inductive and deductive method: Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 42(3) Sep 1994, 244-252.
  • Magara, K. (2006). Influence Upon Rule Learning of Learners' Notion that Rules have Exceptions: How to Encourage Learners to Apply Rules: Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 54(2) Jun 2006, 151-161.
  • Magliaro, S. G. (1989). Expertise in problem identification: A descriptive analysis of the cue selection and hypothesis generation of reading diagnosticians: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Magnan, A. (1989). Acquisition of a rule during the solving of a representation task for rotated figures: Archives de Psychologie Vol 57(223) Dec 1989, 303-322.
  • Malkova, L., Bachevalier, J., Webster, M., & Mishkin, M. (2001). Effects of neonatal inferior prefrontal and medial temporal lesions on learning the rule for delayed nonmatching-to-sample: Developmental Neuropsychology Vol 18(3) 2001, 399-421.
  • Maloney, T. J. (1981). The relation between field-independence and rule-transfer: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Malott, R. W. (1989). The achievement of evasive goals: Control by rules describing contingencies that are not direct acting. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Mancini, F., & Gangemi, A. (2004). The influence of responsibility and guilt on naive hypothesis-testing: Thinking & Reasoning Vol 10(3) Aug 2004, 289-320.
  • Mancini, F., & Gangemi, A. (2006). The role of responsibility and fear of guilt in hypothesis-testing: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 37(4) Dec 2006, 333-346.
  • Manktelow, K. I., Fairley, N., Kilpatrick, S. G., & Over, D. E. (2000). Pragmatics and strategies for practical reasoning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Manly, C. F., & Spoehr, K. T. (1999). Mental multiplication: Nothing but the facts? : Memory & Cognition Vol 27(6) Nov 1999, 1087-1096.
  • Mann, T. S. (1983). Delayed reaction behavior of preschool children as a function of verbal pretraining and conservation ability: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Marcus, G. F. (1999). Connectionism: With or without rules? Response to J.L. McClelland and D.C. Plaut (1999): Trends in Cognitive Sciences Vol 3(5) May 1999, 168-170.
  • Marcus, G. F. (1999). Reply to Christiansen and Curtin: Trends in Cognitive Sciences Vol 3(8) Aug 1999, 290-291.
  • Marcus, G. F. (1999). "Reply to Christiansen and Curtin": Corrigendum: Trends in Cognitive Sciences Vol 3(9) Sep 1999, 322.
  • Marcus, G. F. (1999). Reply to Seidenberg and Elman: Trends in Cognitive Sciences Vol 3(8) Aug 1999, 289.
  • Marcus, G. F., Fernandes, K. J., & Johnson, S. P. (2007). Infant rule learning facilitated by speech: Psychological Science Vol 18(5) May 2007, 387-391.
  • Marcus, G. F., Vijayan, S., Rao, S. B., & Vishton, P. M. (1999). Rule learning by seven-month-old infants: Science Vol 283(5398) Jan 1999, 77-80.
  • Marcus, G. F., Vijayan, S., Rao, S. B., & Vishton, P. M. (2004). Rule Learning by 7-Month-Old Infants. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
  • Marek-Lovejoy, J. P. (1999). The effect of reducing cognitive complexity on a hypothetico-deductive reasoning task. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Martin, M., & Jones, G. V. (1995). Integral bias in the cognitive processing of emotionally linked pictures: British Journal of Psychology Vol 86(3) Aug 1995, 419-435.
  • Maruszewski, T. (1983). An analysis of the cognitive processes of an individual in the light of the idealizational theory of science: Uniwersytet Im Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu: Seria Psychologia i Pedagogika No 57 1983, 238.
  • Masson, M. E. J., & Hicks, C. L. (1999). The influence of selection for response on repetition priming of word identification: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie experimentale Vol 53(4) Dec 1999, 381-393.
  • Mathews, R. C., Stanley, W. B., Buss, R. R., & Chinn, R. (1984). Concept learning: What happens when hypothesis testing fails? : Journal of Experimental Education Vol 53(2) Win 1984-1985, 91-96.
  • Mawer, R. F., & Sweller, J. (1982). Effects of subgoal density and location on learning during problem solving: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol 8(3) May 1982, 252-259.
  • Mayor, J. S. (1979). The verification of premises as a base of syllogistic reasoning: Revista de Psicologia General y Aplicada Vol 34(158) May-Jun 1979, 415-472.
  • McClelland, J. L., & Plaut, D. C. (1999). Does generalization in infant learning implicate abstract algebra-like rules? : Trends in Cognitive Sciences Vol 3(5) May 1999, 166-168.
  • McDonald, J. (1990). Some situational determinants of hypothesis-testing strategies: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Vol 26(3) May 1990, 255-274.
  • McDonald, J. (1995). The relative effectiveness of diagnostic and positive test strategies is logically indeterminable: Psychological Record Vol 45(3) Sum 1995, 373-388.
  • McDonald, J., Frank, D. M., Samuels, M., & Castillo, J. (2003). Categorical induction as hypothesis assessment: Psychological Record Vol 53(1) Win 2003, 121-142.
  • McDonald, J., & Stenger, J. (1993). Effects of hypothesis saliency on the use of positive and diagnostic test strategies: Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes Vol 56(2) Nov 1993, 213-232.
  • McDonald, J. P. (1991). A situation-centered model of inductive inference: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • McFadden, G. T., Dufresne, A., & Kobasigawa, A. (1987). Young children's knowledge of balance scale problems: Journal of Genetic Psychology Vol 148(1) Mar 1987, 79-94.
  • McGee, W. E. (1983). The relationship between learning methods and academic achievement in 10-year-old boys: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • McKenzie, C. R. M. (1997). Underweighting alternatives and overconfidence: Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes Vol 71(2) Aug 1997, 141-160.
  • McKenzie, C. R. M. (2004). Hypothesis testing and evaluation. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
  • McKenzie, C. R. M. (2006). Increased sensitivity to differentially diagnostic answers using familiar materials: Implications for confirmation bias: Memory & Cognition Vol 34(3) Apr 2006, 577-588.
  • McKenzie, C. R. M., & Mikkelsen, L. A. (2000). The psychological side of Hempel's paradox of confirmation: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review Vol 7(2) Jun 2000, 360-366.
  • McNemar, Q. (1958). More on the Wilson Test: Psychological Bulletin Vol 55(5) Sep 1958, 334-335.
  • Meertens, R. W., Koomen, W., Delpeut, A. P., & Hager, G. A. (1984). Effects of hypothesis and assigned task on question selection strategies: European Journal of Social Psychology Vol 14(4) Oct-Dec 1984, 369-378.
  • Meeter, M., Radics, G., Myers, C. E., Gluck, M. A., & Hopkins, R. O. (2008). Probabilistic categorization: How do normal participants and amnesic patients do it? : Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews Vol 32(2) 2008, 237-248.
  • Mehle, T. (1982). Hypothesis generation in an automobile malfunction inference task: Acta Psychologica Vol 52(1-2) Nov 1982, 87-106.
  • Mehle, T., & et al. (1981). The availability explanation of excessive plausibility assessments: Acta Psychologica Vol 49(2) Nov 1981, 127-140.
  • Mendak, P. A. (1983). Reading and the art of guessing: Reading World Vol 22(4) May 1983, 346-351.
  • Michas, I. C., & Berry, D. C. (1994). Implicit and explicit processes in a second-language learning task: European Journal of Cognitive Psychology Vol 6(4) Dec 1994, 357-381.
  • Miller, D. T., & Prentice, D. A. (1999). Some consequences of a belief in group essence: The category divide hypothesis. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
  • Molenaar, P. C. (1986). Issues with a rule-sampling theory of conservation learning from a structuralist point of view: Human Development Vol 29(3) May-Jun 1986, 137-144.
  • Moraes, I. (1996). Use of rule based elaboration of worked examples to promote the acquisition of programming plans. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Mori, H. (1993). Discovery versus expository instruction in rule learning: Reexamination using a revised anagram task: Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 41(4) Dec 1993, 435-443.
  • Morrison, F. J. (1984). Word decoding and rule-learning in normal and disabled readers: RASE: Remedial & Special Education Vol 5(3) May-Jun 1984, 20-27.
  • Moxley, R. A. (2001). Abduction in postmodern research. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
  • Munakata, Y., Morton, J. B., & Yerys, B. E. (2003). Children's perseveration: attentional inertia and alternative accounts: Developmental Science Vol 6(5) Nov 2003, 471-473.
  • Murdock, B. B. (1965). Test of the "limited capacity" hypothesis: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 69(3) Mar 1965, 237-240.
  • Mynatt, C. R., Doherty, M. E., & Dragan, W. (1993). Information relevance, working memory, and the consideration of alternatives: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology Vol 46A(4) Nov 1993, 759-778.
  • Mynatt, C. R., Doherty, M. E., & Sullivan, J. A. (1991). Data selection in a minimal hypothesis testing task: Acta Psychologica Vol 76(3) Jun 1991, 293-305.
  • Nakagawa, E. (1994). Transfer of a matching and non-matching concept between recurring and non-recurring tasks in kindergarten children: Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 42(4) Dec 1994, 383-394.
  • Nakajima, S. (2001). Failure of hierarchical conditional rule learning in the pigeon (Columba livia): Animal Cognition Vol 3(4) 2001, 221-226.
  • Nakashima, N. (1997). The role of counterevidence in rule revision: The effects of instructing metaknowledge concerning non adhocness of theory: Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 45(3) Sep 1997, 263-273.
  • Nelson, L. K., Kamhi, A. G., & Apel, K. (1987). Cognitive strengths and weaknesses in language-impaired children: One more look: Journal of Speech & Hearing Disorders Vol 52(1) Feb 1987, 36-43.
  • Newell, B. R., & Bright, J. E. H. (2002). Well past midnight: Calling time on implicit invariant learning? : European Journal of Cognitive Psychology Vol 14(2) Apr 2002, 185-205.
  • Newstead, S. E., & Griggs, R. A. (1992). Thinking about THOG: Sources of error in a deductive reasoning problem: Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung Vol 54(4) Dec 1992, 299-305.
  • Nomura, E. M., & Reber, P. J. (2008). A review of medial temporal lobe and caudate contributions to visual category learning: Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews Vol 32(2) 2008, 279-291.
  • Norman, G. R., Brooks, L. R., Colle, C. L., & Hatala, R. M. (1999). The benefit of diagnostic hypotheses in clinical reasoning: Experimental study of an instructional intervention for forward and backward reasoning: Cognition and Instruction Vol 17(4) 1999, 433-448.
  • Nosofsky, R. M., Palmeri, T. J., & McKinley, S. C. (1994). Rule-plus-exception model of classification learning: Psychological Review Vol 101(1) Jan 1994, 53-79.
  • Novak, M., & Offenbach, S. I. (1985). Response training in young children's discrimination shift learning: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 23(1) Jan 1985, 35-38.
  • Oaksford, M., & Chater, N. (1994). Another look at eliminative and enumerative behavior in a conceptual task: European Journal of Cognitive Psychology Vol 6(2) Jun 1994, 149-169.
  • Oberauer, K., & Wilhelm, O. (2000). Effects of directionality in deductive reasoning: I. The comprehension of single relational premises: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol 26(6) Nov 2000, 1702-1712.
  • O'Brien, D. P. (1999). If is neither and nor material implication. (Commentary on "Understanding conditional rules in childhood and adolescence: A mental models approach": Comment.): Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive/Current Psychology of Cognition Vol 18(3) Jun 1999, 397-406.
  • O'Brien, D. P., & Davidson, G. M. (1989). Evaluation of evidence for sufficiency, for necessity, and for necessity-and-sufficiency: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology Vol 41(3-A) Aug 1989, 531-551.
  • O'Donohue, W., & Szymanski, J. (1993). Change mechanisms in cognitive therapy of a simple phobia: Logical analysis and empirical hypothesis testing: Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy Vol 11(4) Win 1993, 207-222.
  • Offenbach, S. I., Gruen, G. E., & Caskey, B. J. (1984). Development of proportional response strategies: Child Development Vol 55(3) Jun 1984, 963-972.
  • Ofir, C. (1988). Pseudodiagnosticity in judgment under uncertainty: Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes Vol 42(3) Dec 1988, 343-363.
  • Ormerod, T. C., Manktelow, K. I., & Jones, G. V. (1993). Reasoning with three types of conditional: Biases and mental models: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology Vol 46A(4) Nov 1993, 653-677.
  • Osman, M., & Laming, D. (2001). Misinterpretation of conditional statements in Wason's selection task: Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung Vol 65(2) May 2001, 128-144.
  • Otterbach, R. (2001). Hypothetico-deductive thinking as a metacognitive knowledge acquisition strategy in inquiry-based learning environments. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Paap, K. R., Chun, E., & Vonnahme, P. (1999). Discrete threshold versus continuous strength models of perceptual recognition: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie experimentale Vol 53(4) Dec 1999, 277-293.
  • Palmeri, T. J., & Nosofsky, R. M. (1995). Recognition memory for exceptions to the category rule: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol 21(3) May 1995, 548-568.
  • Pandelaere, M., Hoorens, V., & Peeters, G. (2003). Why Ask About Peter? Do You Think He Caused It? How the Description of Causal Events Guides the Selection of Questions About Them: Basic and Applied Social Psychology Vol 25(4) Dec 2003, 291-297.
  • Papo, D., Baudonniere, P.-M., Hugueville, L., & Caverni, J.-P. (2003). Feedback in hypothesis testing: An ERP study: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience Vol 15(4) May 2003, 508-522.
  • Parks, J. M., Conlon, D. E., Ang, S., & Bontempo, R. (1999). The manager giveth, the manager taketh away: Variation in distribution/recovery rules due to resource type and cultural orientation: Journal of Management Vol 25(5) 1999, 723-757.
  • Patterson, D. R. (1983). Social-cognitive biases in clinical judgment: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Pemberton, E. (1987). The drawing rules of children: Sequence and direction: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 25(5) Sep 1987, 383-386.
  • Penner, D. E., & Klahr, D. (1996). When to trust the data: Further investigations of system error in a scientific reasoning task: Memory & Cognition Vol 24(5) Sep 1996, 655-668.
  • Perales, J. C., & Shanks, D. R. (2003). Normative and descriptive accounts of the influence of power and contingency on causal judgement: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology Vol 56A(6) Aug 2003, 977-1007.
  • Perry, C., & Zhuang, J. (2005). Prosody and lemma selection: Memory & Cognition Vol 33(5) Jul 2005, 862-870.
  • Pesenti, M., Depoorter, N., & Seron, X. (2000). Noncommutability of the N+0 arithmetical rule: A case study of dissociated impairment: Cortex Vol 36(3) Jun 2000, 445-454.
  • Peterson, D. K. (1982). Hypothesis testing in a multiple-cue probability task: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Peterson, M. E. (1981). The repeated acquisition procedure as a means of analyzing rule-governed behavior: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Pfeiffer, A. M., Whelan, J. P., & Martin, J. M. (2000). Decision-making bias in psychotherapy: Effects of hypothesis source and accountability: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 47(4) Oct 2000, 429-436.
  • Pinker, S. (1999). Out of the minds of babes: Science Vol 283(5398) Jan 1999, 40-41.
  • Pitas, I., Milios, E. E., & Venetsanopoulos, A. N. (1992). A minimum entropy approach to rule learning from examples: IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, & Cybernetics Vol 22(4) Jul-Aug 1992, 621-635.
  • Plunkett, E. J. (1992). A descriptive study of the development of cognitive diagnostic reasoning skills in undergraduate nursing students across a four semester time period: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Poletiek, F. H. (1995). Testing in a rule discovery task: Strategies of test choice and test result interpretation. Amsterdam, Netherlands: North-Holland/Elsevier Science Publishers.
  • Poletiek, F. H. (2002). Implicit learning of a recursive rule in an artificial grammar: Acta Psychologica Vol 111(3) Nov 2002, 323-335.
  • Polonyi, T. E. (2000). A transfer appropriate approach to multilingual memory: Magyar Pszichologiai Szemle Vol 55(1) 2000, 19-44.
  • Powel, J. E. (1981). Factors facilitating hypothesis testing in young children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Pryor, J. B., Reeder, G. D., Yeadon, C., & Hesson-Mclnnis, M. (2004). A Dual-Process Model of Reactions to Perceived Stigma: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 87(4) Oct 2004, 436-452.
  • Qu, L., & Zelazo, P. D. (2007). The facilitative effect of positive stimuli on 3-year-olds' flexible rule use: Cognitive Development Vol 22(4) Oct 2007, 456-473.
  • Quereshi, M. Y., & Seitz, R. (1993). Identical rules do not make letter and number series equivalent: Intelligence Vol 17(3) Jul-Sep 1993, 399-405.
  • Quesada, S. (1983). The effects of two alternate sets of conditions of learning of state-anxiety and rule-learning: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Quinn, P. C. (1989). Effects of self generated instructions and rules on the acquisition of sequential ordering behavior: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Raaijmakers, J. G. (1981). A general framework for the analysis of concept identification tasks: Acta Psychologica Vol 49(3) Dec 1981, 233-261.
  • Rabinowitz, F. M., Dunlap, W. P., Grant, M. J., & Campione, J. C. (1989). The rules used by children and adults in attempting to generate random numbers: Journal of Mathematical Psychology Vol 33(3) Sep 1989, 227-287.
  • Racine, C. A., Barch, D. M., Braver, T. S., & Noelle, D. C. (2006). The Effect of Age on Rule-Based Category Learning: Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition Vol 13(3-4) Sep-Dec 2006, 411-434.
  • Rakowitz, L. W. (1981). Rule utilization and rule shift: A developmental study: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Rao, S. M., & Hammeke, T. A. (1984). Hypothesis testing in patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis: Brain and Cognition Vol 3(1) Jan 1984, 94-104.
  • Reese, H. W. (1989). Rules and rule-governance: Cognitive and behavioristic views. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Reid, D. A. (2002). Conjectures and refutations in Grade 5 mathematics: Journal for Research in Mathematics Education Vol 33(1) Jan 2002, 5-29.
  • Reimann, P. (1991). Detecting functional relations in a computerized discovery environment: Learning and Instruction Vol 1(1) 1991, 45-65.
  • Reiser, B., Tabak, I., Sandoval, W. A., Smith, B. K., Steinmuller, F., & Leone, A. J. (2001). BGuILE: Strategic and conceptual scaffolds for scientific inquiry in biology classrooms. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Roberts, P. L., & MacLeod, C. (1995). Representational consequences of two modes of learning: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology Vol 48A(2) May 1995, 296-319.
  • Robinson, D. M. (1981). The impact on clinicians of parents' reports of their children's problems: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Robinson, L. B., & Hastie, R. (1985). Revision of beliefs when a hypothesis is eliminated from consideration: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance Vol 11(4) Aug 1985, 443-456.
  • Roch, S. G., Lane, J. A. S., Samuelson, C. D., Allison, S. T., & Dent, J. L. (2000). Cognitive load and the equality heuristic: A two-stage model of resource overconsumption in small groups: Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes Vol 83(2) Nov 2000, 185-212.
  • Rohlman, D. S. (1993). The role of problem representation and expertise in hypothesis testing: A software testing analogue: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Rosario, M., Mahler, K., Hunter, J., & Gwadz, M. (1999). Understanding the unprotected sexual behaviors of gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths: An empirical test of the cognitive-environmental model: Health Psychology Vol 18(3) May 1999, 272-280.
  • Rose, W. J. (1994). Computational adaptation, real-time organization and language learning. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Roth, W.-M. (1991). The development of reasoning on the balance beam: Journal of Research in Science Teaching Vol 28(7) Sep 1991, 631-645.
  • Rothkopf, E. Z., & Dashen, M. L. (1995). Particularization: Inductive speeding of rule-governed decisions by narrow application experience: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol 21(2) Mar 1995, 469-482.
  • Rottenstreich, Y., Brenner, L., & Sood, S. (1999). Similarity between hypotheses and evidence: Cognitive Psychology Vol 38(1) Feb 1999, 110-128.
  • Rubenstein, M. S. (1986). The effect of commitment to a point of view on social hypothesis testing: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ruffman, T., Perner, J., Olson, D. R., & Doherty, M. (1993). Reflecting on scientific thinking: Children's understanding of the hypothesisEuro vidence relation: Child Development Vol 64(6) Dec 1993, 1617-1636.
  • Russell, J., Jarrold, C., & Hood, B. (1999). Two intact executive capacities in children with autism: Implications for the core executive dysfunctions in the disorder: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders Vol 29(2) Apr 1999, 103-112.
  • Saffran, J. R., Pollak, S. D., Seibel, R. L., & Shkolnik, A. (2007). Dog is a dog is a dog: Infant rule learning is not specific to language: Cognition Vol 105(3) Dec 2007, 669-680.
  • Saint-Aubin, J., & Poirier, M. (2000). Immediate serial recall of words and nonwords: Tests of the retrieval-based hypothesis: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review Vol 7(2) Jun 2000, 332-340.
  • Santamaria, C., & Espino, O. (2006). Thinking the truth and selecting the false: Psicologica Vol 27(2) 2006, 195-206.
  • Schmitt, D. R. (1998). Effects of consequences of advice on patterns of rule control and rule choice: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 70(1) Jul 1998, 1-21.
  • Schneider, V. I. (1992). The effects of contextual interference on the acquisition and retention of logic rules: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Schrempp, I., & Sodian, B. (1999). Scientific reasoning in elementary school age. The ability to test hypotheses and evaluate evidence about the cause of achievement outcomes: Zeitschrift fur Entwicklungspsychologie und Padagogische Psychologie Vol 31(2) 1999, 67-77.
  • Schroth, M. L. (1984). Disjunctive concept formation: S-R hypothesis versus cognitive theory: Journal of General Psychology Vol 110(1) Jan 1984, 87-92.
  • Schroth, M. L. (1984). Memory for intratrial events in concept formation: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 59(1) Aug 1984, 23-29.
  • Schroth, M. L. (1990). A comparison of concept formation strategies in pattern recognition tasks: Journal of General Psychology Vol 117(3) Jul 1990, 303-309.
  • Schroyens, W., Schaeken, W., & d'Ydewalle, G. (1996). Meta-propositional reasoning with knight-knave problems: The importance of being hypothesized: Psychologica Belgica Vol 36(3) 1996, 145-169.
  • Schroyens, W., Schaeken, W., Fias, W., & d'Ydewalle, G. (2000). Heuristic and analytic processes in propositional reasoning with negatives: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol 26(6) Nov 2000, 1713-1734.
  • Schuepfer, T., & Gholson, B. (1983). From response-set to prediction hypotheses: Rule acquisition among preschoolers and second graders: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology Vol 36(1) Aug 1983, 18-31.
  • Schuepfer, T. A. (1981). The acquisition and consolidation of prediction hypotheses among preschool children and second graders: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Schwartz, B. (1982). Reinforcement-induced behavioral stereotypy: How not to teach people to discover rules: Journal of Experimental Psychology: General Vol 111(1) Mar 1982, 23-59.
  • Schwartz, D. L., & Black, J. B. (1996). Shuttling between depictive models and abstract rules: Induction and fallback: Cognitive Science: A Multidisciplinary Journal Vol 20(4) Oct-Dec 1996, 457-497.
  • Sebby, R. A. (1987). Use of verbal and imaginal mediators in an hypothesis-testing task: Journal of Human Behavior & Learning Vol 4(2) 1987, 54-59.
  • Sedlmeier, P., & Gigerenzer, G. (2001). Teaching Bayesian reasoning in less than two hours: Journal of Experimental Psychology: General Vol 130(3) Sep 2001, 380-400.
  • Seidenberg, M. S., & Elman, J. L. (1999). Networks are not 'hidden rules.' Trends in Cognitive Sciences Vol 3(8) Aug 1999, 288-289.
  • Selart, M. (1996). Structure compatibility and restructuring in judgement and choice: Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes Vol 65(2) Feb 1996, 106-116.
  • Seroussi, D.-E. (1995). Heuristic hypotheses in problem solving: An example of conceptual issues about scientific procedures: Science Education Vol 79(6) Nov 1995, 595-609.
  • Sfard, A. (2007). When the rules of discourse change, but nobody tells you: Making sense of mathematics learning from a commognitive standpoint: Journal of the Learning Sciences Vol 16(4) 2007, 565-613.
  • Shaffer, H. J. (1986). Assessment of addictive disorders: The use of clinical reflection and hypotheses testing: Psychiatric Clinics of North America Vol 9(3) Sep 1986, 385-398.
  • Shaklee, H., & Fischhoff, B. (1982). Strategies of information search in causal analysis: Memory & Cognition Vol 10(6) Nov 1982, 520-530.
  • Shaklee, H., & Mims, M. (1986). Development of rule use in judgments of covariation between events. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Shastri, L. (1999). Infants learning algebraic rules: Science Vol 285(5434) Sep 1999, 1673-1674.
  • Siegler, R. S., & Chen, Z. (1998). Developmental differences in rule learning: A microgenetic analysis: Cognitive Psychology Vol 36(3) Aug 1998, 273-310.
  • Sirois, S., Buckingham, D., & Shultz, T. R. (2000). Artificial grammar learning by infants: An auto-associator perspective: Developmental Science Vol 3(4) Nov 2000, 442-456.
  • Skov, R. B., & Sherman, S. J. (1986). Information-gathering processes: Diagnosticity, hypothesis-confirmatory strategies, and perceived hypothesis confirmation: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Vol 22(2) Mar 1986, 93-121.
  • Slotnick, S. D., Klein, S. A., Dodson, C. S., & Shimamura, A. P. (2000). An analysis of signal detection and threshold models of source memory: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol 26(6) Nov 2000, 1499-1517.
  • Slowiaczek, L. M., Klayman, J., Sherman, S. J., & Skov, R. B. (1992). Information selection and use in hypothesis testing: What is a good question, and what is a good answer? : Memory & Cognition Vol 20(4) Jul 1992, 392-405.
  • Smith, C. A. (1989). Reasoning about hypotheses: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Smith, E. E., Langston, C., & Nisbett, R. E. (1992). The case for rules in reasoning: Cognitive Science: A Multidisciplinary Journal Vol 16(1) Jan-Mar 1992, 1-40.
  • Smith, E. E., & Sloman, S. A. (1994). Similarity- versus rule-based categorization: Memory & Cognition Vol 22(4) Jul 1994, 377-386.
  • Snyder, M., & White, P. (1981). Testing hypotheses about other people: Strategies of verification and falsification: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Vol 7(1) Mar 1981, 39-43.
  • Sodian, B., Zaitchik, D., & Carey, S. (1991). Young children's differentiation of hypothetical beliefs from evidence: Child Development Vol 62(4) Aug 1991, 753-766.
  • Sofroniou, N. (1993). The development of rule-governed behaviour: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Spellman, B. A. (1994). The construction of causal explanations for temporally related events. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Spellman, B. A., Lopez, A., & Smith, E. E. (1999). Hypothesis testing: Strategy selection for generalising versus limiting hypotheses: Thinking & Reasoning Vol 5(1) Feb 1999, 67-91.
  • Spetch, M. L., Rust, T. B., Kamil, A. C., & Jones, J. E. (2003). Searching by rules: Pigeons' (Columba livia) landmark-based search according to constant bearing or constant distance: Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 117(2) Jun 2003, 123-132.
  • Springer, K. (1990). In defense of theories: Cognition Vol 35(3) Jun 1990, 293-298.
  • Stanley, L. (1995). A comparison of three methods of training four-year-old children in number and length conservation: Possible sex effects: Irish Journal of Psychology Vol 16(4) 1995, 426-435.
  • Stasson, M. F., Ono, K., Zimmerman, S. K., & Davis, J. H. (1988). Group consensus processes on cognitive bias tasks: A social decision scheme approach: Japanese Psychological Research Vol 30(2) 1988, 68-77.
  • Steele, D. L., Hayes, S. C., & Brownstein, A. J. (1990). Reinforcement, stereotypy, and rule discovery: Analysis of Verbal Behavior Vol 8 1990, 57-66.
  • Stefani, M. R., & Moghaddam, B. (2005). Systemic and Prefrontal Cortical NMDA Receptor Blockade Differentially Affect Discrimination Learning and Set-Shift Ability in Rats: Behavioral Neuroscience Vol 119(2) Apr 2005, 420-428.
  • Stevens, G. (2004). Using Census Data to Test the Critical-Period Hypothesis for Second-Language Acquisition: Psychological Science Vol 15(3) May 2004, 215-216.
  • Stewart, J., Passmore, C., Cartier, J., Rudolph, J., & Donovan, S. (2005). Modeling for Understanding in Science Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Strange, B. A., Henson, R. N. A., Friston, K. J., & Dolan, R. J. (2001). Anterior prefontal cortex mediates rule learning in humans: Cerebral Cortex Vol 11(11) Nov 2001, 1040-1046.
  • Strohmer, D. C., Biggs, D. A., Haase, R. F., & Keller, K. E. (1983). Hypothesis formation and testing in clinical judgment: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 30(4) Oct 1983, 607-610.
  • Strohmer, D. C., Moilanen, D. L., & Barry, L. J. (1988). Personal hypothesis testing: The role of consistency and self-schema: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 35(1) Jan 1988, 56-65.
  • Strohmer, D. C., & Newman, L. J. (1983). Counselor hypothesis-testing strategies: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 30(4) Oct 1983, 557-565.
  • Strohmer, D. C., & Newman, L. J. (1984). Correction to Strohmer and Newman: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 31(2) Apr 1984, 138.
  • Sun, R., Zhang, X., Slusarz, P., & Mathews, R. (2007). The interaction of implicit learning, explicit hypothesis testing learning and implicit-to-explicit knowledge extraction: Neural Networks Vol 20(1) Jan 2007, 34-47.
  • Sweller, J., Mawer, R. F., & Howe, W. (1982). Consequences of history-cued and means-end strategies in problem solving: American Journal of Psychology Vol 95(3) Fal 1982, 455-483.
  • Tanaka, T. (1984). A comparison of information-searching activities before and after hypothesis formation: Japanese Psychological Research Vol 26(1) 1984, 50-55.
  • Tolman, E. C., & Krechevsky, I. (1933). Means-end-readiness and hypothesis--A contribution to comparative psychology: Psychological Review Vol 40(1) Jan 1933, 60-70.
  • Towell, G. G., & Shavlik, J. W. (1993). Extracting refined rules from knowledge-based neural networks: Machine Learning Vol 13(1-3) Oct-Dec 1993, 71-101.
  • Tracy, J. I., Mohamed, F., Faro, S., Pinus, A., Tiver, R., Harvan, J., et al. (2003). Differential brain responses when applying criterion attribute versus family resemblance rule learning: Brain and Cognition Vol 51(3) Apr 2003, 276-286.
  • Trope, Y., & Bassok, M. (1982). Confirmatory and diagnosing strategies in social information gathering: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 43(1) Jul 1982, 22-34.
  • Trope, Y., & Bassok, M. (1983). Information-gathering strategies in hypothesis-testing: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Vol 19(6) Nov 1983, 560-576.
  • Trope, Y., Bassok, M., & Alon, E. (1984). The questions lay interviewers ask: Journal of Personality Vol 52(1) Mar 1984, 90-106.
  • Trowbridge, C. R. (1929). Spelling by rule: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 20(3) Mar 1929, 205-211.
  • Tudge, J. R. (1992). Processes and consequences of peer collaboration: A Vygotskian analysis: Child Development Vol 63(6) Dec 1992, 1364-1379.
  • Tudge, J. R. H. (1999). Processes and consequences of peer collaboration: A Vygotskian analysis. Florence, KY: Taylor & Frances/Routledge.
  • Tukey, D. D. (1984). Inquiry through experimentation: A psychological study of subjects' methods of conducting experiments in a rule-learning task: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Tukey, D. D. (1986). A philosophical and empirical analysis of subjects' modes of inquiry in Wason's 2-4-6 task: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology Vol 38(1-A) Feb 1986, 5-33.
  • Turnbull, W. (1986). Everyday explanation: The pragmatics of puzzle resolution: Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour Vol 16(2) Jul 1986, 141-160.
  • Umilta, C. (1986). The use of rules in automatic and controlled cognitive processes: Rassegna Italiana di Sociologia Vol 27(3) Jul-Sep 1986, 425-433.
  • Valina Garcia, M. D., Seoane Pesqueira, G., Ferraces Otero, M. J., & Rajo, M. M. (1995). Wason's selection task: A study of individual differences: Psicothema Vol 7(3) Nov 1995, 641-653.
  • Vallee-Tourangeau, F., Beynon, D. M., & James, S. A. (2000). The role of alternative hypotheses in the integration of evidence that disconfirms an acquired belief: European Journal of Cognitive Psychology Vol 12(1) Mar 2000, 107-129.
  • Vallee-Tourangeau, F., & Penney, A. K. (2005). The impact of external representation in a rule discovery task: European Journal of Cognitive Psychology Vol 17(6) Nov 2005, 820-834.
  • Van Avermaet, E. (1988). Testing hypothesis about other people: Confirmatory and diagnostic strategies: Communication & Cognition Vol 21(2) 1988, 179-189.
  • Van Houten, R. (1993). Rote vs. rules: A comparison of two teaching and correction strategies for teaching basic subtraction facts: Education & Treatment of Children Vol 16(2) May 1993, 147-159.
  • Van Joolingen, W. R., & de Jong, T. (1991). Supporting hypothesis generation by learners exploring an interactive computer simulation: Instructional Science Vol 20(5-6) 1991-1992, 389-404.
  • Van Wallendael, L. R. (1989). The quest for limits on noncomplementarity in opinion revision: Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes Vol 43(3) Jun 1989, 385-405.
  • Van Wallendael, L. R., & Hastie, R. (1990). Tracing the footsteps of Sherlock Holmes: Cognitive representations of hypothesis testing: Memory & Cognition Vol 18(3) May 1990, 240-250.
  • Varley, R. (2002). Science without grammar: Scientific reasoning in severe agrammatic aphasia. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Varouxaki, A., Freeman, N. H., Peters, D., & Lewis, C. (1999). Inference neglect and ignorance denial: British Journal of Developmental Psychology Vol 17(4) Nov 1999, 483-499.
  • Vartanian, O., Martindale, C., & Kwiatkowski, J. (2003). Creativity and inductive reasoning: The relationship betweem divergent thinking and performance on Wason's 2-4-6 task: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology Vol 56A(4) May 2003, 641-655.
  • Vaughan, M. (1989). Rule-governed behavior in behavior analysis: A theoretical and experimental history. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Verguts, T., & de Boeck, P. (2002). The induction of solution rules in Raven's Progressive Matrices Test: European Journal of Cognitive Psychology Vol 14(4) Oct 2002, 521-547.
  • Vickrey, C., & Neuringer, A. (2000). Pigeon reaction time, Hick's law, and intelligence: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review Vol 7(2) Jun 2000, 284-291.
  • Vollmeyer, R., Burns, B. D., & Holyoak, K. J. (1996). The impact of goal specificity on strategy use and the acquisition of problem structure: Cognitive Science: A Multidisciplinary Journal Vol 20(1) Jan-Mar 1996, 75-100.
  • Vyse, S. A. (1991). Behavioral variability and rule generation: General, restricted, and superstitious contingency statements: Psychological Record Vol 41(4) Fal 1991, 487-506.
  • Waldron, E. M., & Ashby, F. G. (2001). The effects of concurrent task interference on category learning: Evidence for multiple category learning systems: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review Vol 8(1) Mar 2001, 168-176.
  • Walker, B. J. (1988). A comparison of the psychological effects of the possibility of error and actual error on hypothesis testing: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Walsh, K. W. (1995). A hypothesis-testing approach to assessment. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Wantz, D. W., & Morran, D. K. (1994). Teaching counselor trainees a divergent versus a convergent hypothesis-formation strategy: Journal of Counseling & Development Vol 73(1) Sep-Oct 1994, 69-73.
  • Ward, G., & Churchill, E. F. (1998). Two tests of instance-based and abstract rule-based accounts of invariant learning: Acta Psychologica Vol 99(3) Sep 1998, 235-253.
  • Wayman, D. V. (1999). Comparing hypothesis formulation among trained peer helpers, inexpereinced counselors, and experienced counselors. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Weinert, S. (1992). Deficits in acquiring language structure: The importance of using prosodic cues: Applied Cognitive Psychology Vol 6(6) Nov 1992, 545-571.
  • Weismer, S. E. (1991). Hypothesis-testing abilities of language-impaired children: Journal of Speech & Hearing Research Vol 34(6) Dec 1991, 1329-1338.
  • Welsh, J. C. (1987). Interactive effect of content structure, practice item sequence, and process learning using computer-based instruction: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Welsh, M. C. (1991). Rule-guided behavior and self-monitoring on the Tower of Hanoi disk-transfer task: Cognitive Development Vol 6(1) Jan-Mar 1991, 59-76.
  • Wennekers, T., & Ay, N. (2005). Finite State Automata Resulting from Temporal Information Maximization and a Temporal Learning Rule: Neural Computation Vol 17(10) Oct 2005, 2258-2290.
  • Wharton, C. M., Cheng, P. W., & Wickens, T. D. (1993). Hypothesis-testing strategies: Why two goals are better than one: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology Vol 46A(4) Nov 1993, 743-758.
  • White, P. A. (1999). The dissipation effect: A naive model of causal interactions in complex physical systems: American Journal of Psychology Vol 112(3) Fal 1999, 331-364.
  • Whitehouse, A. J. O., Maybery, M. T., & Durkin, K. (2006). Inner speech impairments in autism: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry Vol 47(8) Aug 2006, 857-865.
  • Whiteley, J. H. (1985). Control of children's observing responses by information feedback during visual discrimination learning: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology Vol 39(2) Apr 1985, 265-283.
  • Whyte, J., & Nunan, L. (1991). Hypothesis-testing in dyslexics: Irish Journal of Psychology Vol 12(4) 1991, 418-430.
  • Wilson, D. S. (2004). Review of Nature's Magic: Synergy in Evolution and the Fate of Humankind: Evolutionary Psychology Vol 2 2004, 1-2.
  • Wilson, D. W. (1985). Control-appraising: The problem solving behavior of mathematically gifted children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Wirth, J., & Klieme, E. (2003). Computer-based Assessment of Problem Solving Competence: Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice Vol 10(3) Nov 2003, 329-345.
  • Wood, D., & Beck, R. (1990). Do's and don'ts: Family rules, rooms, and their relationships: Children's Environments Quarterly Vol 7(1) 1990, 2-14.
  • Woodward, A. L. (1992). The role of the whole object assumption in early word learning: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Wright, E. L. (1981). The long-term effect of intensive instruction on the open exploration behavior of ninth grade students: Journal of Research in Science Teaching Vol 18(6) Nov 1981, 557-561.
  • Wright, R. L., & Burton, A. M. (1995). Implicit learning of an invariant: Just say no: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology Vol 48A(3) Aug 1995, 783-796.
  • Yasunaga, S. (1987). Response uncertainty on rule learning by observation: Effects of pre-experience on observational learning: Japanese Journal of Psychology Vol 58(3) Aug 1987, 137-143.
  • Yetim, S. (1996). How to use information without being Bayesian: Facilitating effects of an alternative hypothesis. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Yinqing, G., Hong, L., & Meiling, F. (2005). Effects of Rule Orders and Types on Children's Rule-based Reasoning: Psychological Science (China) Vol 28(6) Nov 2005, 1318-1323.
  • Young, H. F., & Bentall, R. P. (1995). Hypothesis testing in patients with persecutory delusions: Comparison with depressed and normal subjects: British Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 34(3) Sep 1995, 353-369.
  • Young, J. S. (1997). The impact of a supervisor-generated metaphor on the clinical hypothesis formation skills of counselors-in-training. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Yu, J., & Bellezza, F. S. (2000). Process dissociation as source monitoring: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol 26(6) Nov 2000, 1518-1533.
  • Zabielski, S. (1984). Attributes and rules in concept identification: A developmental study: Polish Psychological Bulletin Vol 15(1) 1984, 23-29.
  • Zachos, P. (1991). Scientific discovery on formal operational tasks: A study of the relationship between scientific thinking and the discovery of scientific concepts by high school students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Zanga, A., Tijus, C., & Richard, J.-F. (2001). Implicit learning in a situation of rule discovery and problem solving: Bulletin de Psychologie Vol 54(4)(454) Jul-Aug 2001, 389-399.
  • Zaparniuk, J., Yuille, J. C., & Taylor, S. (1995). Assessing the credibility of true and false statements: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry Vol 18(3) Sum 1995, 343-352.
  • Zelazo, P. D. (1993). Age-related changes in the execution of explicit rules: The roles of logical complexity and executive function: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Zhang, J., & Michalski, R. S. (1995). An integration of rule induction and exemplar-based learning for graded concepts: Machine Learning Vol 21(1-3) Dec 1995, 235-267.
  • Zhang, Q., & Si, J. (1999). A study of hypothesis-testing strategies of disjunctive concepts of university students: Acta Psychologica Sinica Vol 31(4) 1999, 397-404.
  • Zhang, Q., Wang, Y., & Zhang, Z. (1997). Heuristics in hypothesis-testing process: Acta Psychologica Sinica Vol 29(1) 1997, 29-36.
  • Zhang, Q., & Yang, C. (1998). The development of the thinking strategy of hypothesis testing: Psychological Science (China) Vol 21(1) 1998, 13-16.
  • Zhang, S. (2006). Learning of abstract concepts and rules by the honeybee: International Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol 19(3) 2006, 318-341.
  • Zheng, Y., Myerson, J., & Hale, S. (2000). Age and individual differences in visuospatial processing speed: Testing the magnification hypothesis: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review Vol 7(1) Mar 2000, 113-120.

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki