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The cognitive functions, sometimes known as mental functions, are thinking, feeling, sensing and intuition. They were initially conceived of by Carl Jung in his pioneering work "Psychological Types" (1921, ISBN 0691097704). Each one of these mental functions can be either introverted or extraverted (known as attitudes).

Isabel Myers interpreted Jung's writing as saying that the auxiliary, tertiary, and inferior functions are always in the opposite attitude of the dominant. Many, however, have found Jung's writing to be ambiguous, and those who study and follow Jung's theories (Jungians) are typically adamant that Myers is incorrect. Jungians posit that Jung made explicit the point that the tertiary function is actually in the same attitude as the dominant, providing balance. More recently, typologists such as John Beebe and Linda Berens have introduced theoretical systems that include all eight functions, with the latter four known as the "shadow functions," residing largely in the unconscious.

The Center for Applications of Psychological Type, co-founded by Myers, has internal controversy regarding the attitude of the tertiary. "The MBTI Qualifying Program," a binder given out during official training, has the tertiary in the opposite attitude of the dominant on page 13, however, "The Manual," which gives official instructions on how to use the test, has the tertiary in the same attitude on page 31. Dr. Charles Martin [1], ex vice president of research at CAPT, writes the following on page 22 of the binder, "In what attitude is the tertiary? Isabel Myers read Jung to say that the auxiliary, tertiary, and inferior are all in the same attitude and opposite the dominant. Others (Harold Grant) read: tertiary is in the same attitude as the dominant."

The cognitive functions according to Carl JungEdit

Carl Jung developed the theory of the cognitive processes in his work "Psychological Types". He used the terms dominant, auxiliary, and inferior.

 
Extraverted Rational
Extraverted Irrational
Dominant
Extraverted Thinking
Extraverted Feeling
Extraverted Sensation
Extraverted Intuition
Auxiliary
?
?
?
?
Inferior
?
?
?
?
 
Introverted Rational
Introverted Irrational
Dominant
Introverted Thinking
Introverted Feeling
Introverted Sensation
Introverted Intuition
Auxiliary
?
?
?
?
Inferior
?
?
?
?

The cognitive functions according to Isabel Myers:Edit

Isabel Myers created the original type table. To find the opposite type of the one you are looking at, jump over one diagonally.

Type
ISITEJ
ISIFEJ
INIFEJ
INITEJ
Dominant or first Introverted_Sensing Introverted_Sensing Introverted_Intuition Introverted_Intuition
Auxiliary or second Extraverted_Thinking Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Feeling Extraverted_Thinking
Tertiary or third Introverted Feeling Introverted_Thinking Introverted_Thinking Introverted Feeling
Inferior or fourth Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing
Type
ISETIP
ISEFIP
INEFIP
INETIP
Dominant or first Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling Introverted Feeling Introverted Thinking
Auxiliary or second Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition
Tertiary or third Introverted Intuition Introverted Intuition Introverted Sensing Introverted Sensing
Inferior or fourth Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Feeling
Type
ESETIP
ESEFIP
ENEFIP
ENETIP
Dominant or first Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition
Auxiliary or second Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling Introverted Feeling Introverted Thinking
Tertiary or third Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Feeling
Inferior or fourth Introverted Intuition Introverted Intuition Introverted Sensing Introverted Sensing
Type
ESITEJ
ESIFEJ
ENIFEJ
ENITEJ
Dominant or first Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Thinking
Auxiliary or second Introverted Sensing Introverted Sensing Introverted Intuition Introverted Intuition
Tertiary or third Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing
Inferior or fourth Introverted Feeling Introverted Thinking Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling

The cognitive functions according to John Beebe:Edit

Though John Beebe has not published a type table, the format that Isabel Myers used works well for his theory. Just as in Myers's table, jump over one diagonally to find the type whose first four functions are opposite. This does not work with the last four, however.

Type
ISITEJ
ISIFEJ
INIFEJ
INITEJ
1st - Hero/Heroine Introverted_Sensing Introverted_Sensing Introverted_Intuition Introverted_Intuition
2nd - Good Parent Extraverted_Thinking Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Feeling Extraverted_Thinking
3rd - Puer/Puella Introverted Feeling Introverted_Thinking Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling
4th - Anima/Animus Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing
5th - Opposing Personality Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition
6th - Senex/Witch Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling Introverted Feeling Introverted Thinking
7th - Trickster Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Feeling
8th - Daemon Introverted Intuition Introverted Intuition Introverted Sensing Introverted Sensing
Type
ISETIP
ISEFIP
INEFIP
INETIP
1st - Hero/Heroine Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling Introverted Feeling Introverted Thinking
2nd - Good Parent Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition
3rd - Puer/Puella Introverted Intuition Introverted Intuition Introverted Sensing Introverted Sensing
4th - Anima/Animus Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Feeling
5th - Opposing Personality Extraverted_Thinking Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Thinking
6th - Senex/Witch Introverted Sensing Introverted Sensing Introverted Intuition Introverted Intuition
7th - Trickster Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing
8th - Daemon Introverted Feeling Introverted Thinking Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling
Type
ESETIP
ESEFIP
ENEFIP
ENETIP
1st - Hero/Heroine Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition
2nd - Good Parent Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling Introverted Feeling Introverted Thinking
3rd - Puer/Puella Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Feeling
4th - Anima/Animus Introverted Intuition Introverted Intuition Introverted Sensing Introverted Sensing
5th - Opposing Personality Introverted Sensing Introverted Sensing Introverted Intuition Introverted Intuition
6th - Senex/Witch Extraverted Thinking Extravertd Feeling Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Thinking
7th - Trickster Introverted Feeling Introverted Thinking Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling
8th - Daemon Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing
Type
ESITEJ
ESIFEJ
ENIFEJ
ENITEJ
1st - Hero/Heroine Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Thinking
2nd - Good Parent Introverted Sensing Introverted Sensing Introverted Intuition Introverted Intuition
3rd - Puer/Puella Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing
4th - Anima/Animus Introverted Feeling Introverted Thinking Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling
5th - Opposing Personality Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling Introverted Feeling Introverted Thinking
6th - Senex/Witch Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition
7th - Trickster Introverted Intuition Introverted Intuition INtroverted Sensing Introverted Sensing
8th - Daemon Extraverted Feelings Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Feeling

The cognitive functions according to Linda V. Berens:Edit

The layout of Berens' type table is unique, however, the ordering of her cognitive processes is the same as John Beebe's. They also use different terminology.

    Guide Mediator Monitor Conservator
Envisioner

Mentor
ENFJ

Foreseer

Devevloper
INFJ

Discoverer

Advocate
ENFP

Harmonizer

Clarifier
INFP

Implementor

Supervisor
ESTJ

Planner

Inspector
ISTJ

Facilitator

Caretaker
ESFJ

Protector
Supporter

ISFJ

Leading
Dominant
1st Fe Ni Ne Fi Te Si Fe Si
Supporting
Overprotective
2nd Ni Fe Fi Ne Si Te Si Fe
Relief
Unsettling
3rd Se Ti Te Si Ne Fi Ne Ti
Aspirational
Projective
4th Ti Se Si Te Fi Ne Ti Ne
Opposing
Backup
5th Fi Ne Ni Fe Ti Se Fi Se
Critical
Discovery
6th Ne Fi Fe Ni Se Ti Se Fi
Deceiving
Comedic
7th Si Te Ti Se Ni Fe Ni Te
Devilish
Transformative
8th Te Si Se Ti Fe Ni Te Ni
  Coordinator Engineer Expeditor Improvisor
  Strategist

Mobilizer
ENTJ

Conceptualizer

Director
INTJ

Explorer

Inventor
ENTP

Designer

Theorizer
INTP

Promoter

Executor
ESTP

Analyzer

Operator
ISTP

Motivator

Presenter
ESTP

Composer

Producer
ISFP

Leading
Dominant
1st Te Ni Ne Ti Se Ti Se Fi
Supporting
Overprotective
2nd Ni Te Ti Ne Ti Se Fi Se
Relief
Unsettling
3rd Se Fi Fe Si Fe Ni Te Ni
Aspirational
Projective
4th Fi Se Se Fe Ni Fe Ni Te
Opposing
Backup
5th Ti Ne Ni Te Si Te Se Fe
Critical
Discovery
6th Ne Ti Te Ni Te Si Fe Si
Deceiving
Comedic
7th Si Fe Fi Se Fi Ne Ti Ne
Devilish
Transformative
8th Fe Si Se Fi Ne Fi Ne Ti
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