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'''Codependence''' (or '''codependency''') is a [[popular psychology]] concept popularized by [[Twelve-Step program]] advocates. A "codependent" is loosely defined as someone who exhibits too much, and often inappropriate, caring for persons who depend on him or her. A "codependent" is one side of a relationship between mutually needy people. The dependent, or obviously needy party(s) may have emotional, physical, financial difficulties, or addictions they seemingly are unable to surmount. The "codependent" party exhibits behaviour which controls, makes excuses for, pities, and takes other actions to perpetuate the obviously needy party's condition, because of their desire to be needed and fear of doing anything that would change the relationship.
   
'''Codependence''' (or '''codependency''') is a [[psychological|psychological]] condition in which someone exhibits too much, and often inappropriate, caring for other people's struggles.
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==Symptoms==
   
Codependents may try to change, or feel shame about their most private thoughts and feelings if they conflict with this person's struggle. A classic example would be a wife making excuses for a husband's excessive drinking and perhaps running interference for him by doing things such as calling in sick for him when he is hung over. Such behaviors, which may well lessen conflict and ease tension within the family in the short term, are counterproductive in the long term, since, in this case, the wife is actually supporting ("enabling") the husband's drinking behavior.
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Symptoms of codependence are controlling behavior, [[distrust]], [[Perfectionism (psychology)|perfectionism]], avoidance of [[feeling]]s, problems with [[intimacy]], excessive caretaking, [[hypervigilance]] or physical [[illness]] related to [[stress (medicine)|stress]]. Codependence is often accompanied by [[clinical depression]], as the codependent person succumbs to feelings of [[frustration]] or sadness over an inability to improve the situation.
   
Codependence can also be a set of maladaptive, compulsive behaviors learned by family members in order to survive in a family which is experiencing great emotional pain and stress caused, for example, by a family member's alcoholism or other addiction, sexual or other abuse within the family, a family members' chronic illness, or forces external to the family, such as poverty.
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Codependence can also be a set of maladaptive, compulsive behaviors learned by family members in order to survive in a [[family]] which is experiencing great [[emotion]]al [[suffering|pain]] and stress caused, for example, by a family member's [[alcoholism]] or other [[addiction]], sexual or other [[abuse]] within the family, a family member's chronic illness, or forces external to the family, such as [[poverty]].
   
As adults, codependent people have a greater tendency to get involved in [[interpersonal_relationship|relationships]] with people who are perhaps unreliable, emotionally unavailable, or needy. The codependent person tries to provide and control everything within the relationship without addressing their own needs or desires, they set themselves up for continued unfulfillment.
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Codependency advocates claim that a codependent may feel [[shame]] about, or try to change, private thoughts and feelings if they conflict with those of another person. An example would be a [[wife]] making excuses for her [[husband]]'s excessive drinking and perhaps running interference for him by calling in sick for him when he is [[Hangover|hung over]]. Such behaviors, which may well lessen conflict and ease tension within the family in the short term, are counterproductive in the long term, since, in this case, the wife is actually supporting ("enabling") the husband's drinking behavior. So, sometimes, the codependent is referred to as an "enabler." It is also worth noting that since the wife in this case is dependent on the husband's alcoholic behavior, she may actually feel disturbed, disoriented or threatened if she sees clearly that he is emerging from his dependence; the threat to her position as a confidante and needed loved one might lead her [[unconscious]]ly to resist the husband's steps towards [[recovery]]. Similarly, a codependent [[parent]] might resist a [[child]]'s steps toward [[independence]]; whether early or late in life.
   
Symptoms of codependence are: controlling behavior, distrust, [[Perfectionism (psychology)|perfectionism]], avoidance of feelings, intimacy problems, caretaking behavior, [[hypervigilance]] or physical illness related to [[stress (medicine)|stress]]. Codependence is often accompanied by depression, as the codependent person succumbs to feelings of extreme frustration or sadness over his or her inability to make changes in the other person's (or persons') life.
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Codependent people have a greater tendency to enter into [[relationship]]s with people who are emotionally unavailable or needy. The codependent tries to control a relationship without directly identifying and addressing their own needs and desires. This invariably means that codependents set themselves up for continued unfulfillment. Codependents always feel that they are acting in another person's best interest, making it difficult for them to see the controlling nature of their own behavior.
   
Individuals who are suffering from codependence may seek assistance through various verbal therapies, sometimes accompanied by chemical therapy for accompanying depression. In addition, there exist support groups for codependency; some of these are [[Co-Dependents Anonymous]] (CoDA) and [[Al-Anon/Alateen]], both of which are based on the [[12_Step_Programs|12-Step]] model created by [[Alcoholics Anonymous]].
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==Treatment==
   
Many books have been written on the subject of codependence, including the work of [[Melody Beattie]], who has become one of the standard-bearers for the codependence self-help industry. She is also the author of ''Codependent No More'' among many other volumes. It should, however, be noted that not all mental health professionals are of the same mind about codependency or its standard methods of treatment. Katz & Liu, in "The Codependency Conspiracy: How to Break the Recovery Habit and Take Charge of Your Life" state that codependence is over-diagnosed, and that many people who could be helped with shorter-term treatments instead become dependent on long-term self-help programs.
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Individuals who are suffering from codependence may seek assistance through various therapies, sometimes accompanied by chemical therapy for accompanying depression.
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In addition, there exist support groups for codependency; some of these are [[Co-Dependents Anonymous]] (CoDA) and [[Al-Anon/Alateen]], Celebrate Recovery, and [[Adult Children of Alcoholics]] (ACoA), which are based on the [[12 Step Programs|12-Step]] model of [[Alcoholics Anonymous]].
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Many books have been written on the subject of codependence. [[Melody Beattie]] was one of the first to describe such behaviors. She is the author of ''Codependent No More'' among many other volumes.
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==Controversy==
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* Caring for an individual with a physical addiction is not synonymous with pathology. To name the caregiver as a co-alcoholic responsible for the endurance of their partner's alcoholism for example, pathologises caring behaviour. The caregiver may only require [[assertiveness]] training skills and the addict accountability in taking responsibility for managing their addiction, or not<ref>Affleck, G., Tennan, H., Croog, S., & Levine, S. (1987) "Causal Attribution, perceived benefits, and morbidity following a heart attack". ''Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology'', 55, 29–35.</ref> <ref>Moos, R.H., Finney, J.W., & Cronkite, R.C. (1990) ''Alcoholism treatment: Process and outcome''. New York: Oxford University Press.</ref>.
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* Not all [[mental health]] professionals agree about codependence or its standard methods of treatment <ref>Gomberg, E.L. (1989). "On terms used and abused: The concept of codependecy". ''Drugs and Society'', 3, 113–132.</ref>. It is not listed in the [[DSM-IV-TR]] diagnostic manual. [[Stan Katz]] & Liu, in "The Codependency Conspiracy: How to Break the Recovery Habit and Take Charge of Your Life," feel that codependence is over-diagnosed, and that many people who could be helped with shorter-term treatments instead become dependent on long-term self-help programs.
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* Some believe that codependency is not a negative trait, and does not need to be treated, as it is more likely a healthy personality trait taken to excess. Codependency in nonclinical populations has some links with favorable characteristics of family functioning <ref>Layne A. Prest, Mark J. Benson, Howard O. Protinsky, "Family of Origin and Current Relationship Influences on Codependency", ''Family Process'' Volume 37, Issue 4 (December 1998), page 513–528.</ref>.
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* The language of symptoms of and treatment for codependence derive from the [[medical model]] suggesting a [[disease]] process underlies the behaviour. There is no evidence that codependence is caused by a disease process, communicable or otherwise.
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* Not everything promoted by recovery agencies is a demonstrable scientific fact, some of it is based on [[fashion]] and [[faith]] alone <ref>Gordon, J.R., Barrett, K.(1993) "The Codependency Movement: Issues of Context and Differentiation". In Baer, J.S, Marlatt, A. & McMahon, R.J. (eds.) ''Addictive Behaviors Across the Life Span''. Newburry Park: Sage.</ref> <ref>Kaminer, W. (1992). ''[[I'm Dysfunctional, You're Dysfunctional|I'm Dysfunctional, You're Dysfunctional: The Recovery Movement and other Self- Help Fashions]]''. New York: Vintage.</ref>.
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* People who have experienced natural disasters, life threatening illness or accident, and personal and community tragedy have been found to perceive a benefit from the ordeal such as positive personality changes, changes in priorities and enhanced family relationships <ref>Affleck, G., Tennen, H. & Rowe, J. (1991) ''Infants in crisis: How parents cope with newborn intensive care and its aftermath''. New York: Springer-Verlag.</ref>. Caring for survivors serves a worthwhile ethic of empowerment—both for the caregiver and the survivors.
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
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*[[Alcohol abuse]]
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*[[Covert incest]]
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*[[Dependency (personality)]]
 
*[[Dependent personality disorder]]
 
*[[Dependent personality disorder]]
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*[[Dysfunctional family]]
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*[[Emotional adjustment]]
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*[[Enabling]]
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*[[Family]]
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*[[Family relations]]
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*[[Karpman Drama Triangle]]
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*[[Interpersonal interaction]]
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*[[Marital relations]]
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*[[Parent child relations]]
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*[[Personality traits]]
   
*[[ Karpman's Drama Triangle]]
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==References==
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<references/>
*[http://www.joy2meu.com/ Joy2MeU - Robert Burney Homepage for co-dependants]
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* "A Brief History of Codependence and a Look at the Psychological Literature", in: P. Mellody e.a., ''Facing Codependence'', New York etc.: HarperSanFrancisco, 1989, ISBN 0-06-250589-0, 207–217 (= Appendix).
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* "Cluster C Personality Disorders", in: ''Diagnostical and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV'', Washington: American Psychiatric Association, 4th ed. 1994, ISBN 0-89042-062-9, 662–673.
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* "Codependence", in: Benjamin J. Sadock & Virginia A. Sadock (eds), ''Kaplan & Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry on CD'', Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 7th ed. 2000, ISBN 0-7817-2141-5, 20703–20707.
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* ''Co-Dependents Anonymous'', Phoenix: Co-Dependents Anonymous, 1st ed. 1999, ISBN 0-9647105-0-1, 3–6.
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* ''Confusing Love with Obsession'', 2006, Moore, J. 3rd ed. Hazelden, ISBN 1592853560
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==Further reading==
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*Aday, J. B., Jr. (1995). An analysis of codependency in adult males: A comparison of adult males from chemically dependent families with adult males from nonchemically dependent families. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
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*Aguilar, M. A., DiNitto, D. M., Franklin, C., & Lopez-Pilkinton, B. (1991). Mexican-American families: A psychoeducational approach for addressing chemical dependency and codependency: Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal Vol 8(4) Aug 1991, 309-326.
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*Allen, W. A. (1994). Recovery from narcissistic collusion: The breaking of the glass. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
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*Allison, S. (2004). Nurse Codependency: Instrument Development and Validation: Journal of Nursing Measurement Vol 12(1) Spr-Sum 2004, 63-75.
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*Allison, S. K. (2002). A path model using codependency and binge eating as mediating variables with selected biographic correlates to explain body mass index in a nursing sample. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
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*Anderson, S. C. (1994). A critical analysis of the concept of codependency: Social Work Vol 39(6) Nov 1994, 677-685.
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*Angelletta, M. (1995). A psychological exploration of rage and immobilization among codependents. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
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*Antze, P. (2002). Review of Codependent Forevermore: The Invention of Self in a Twelve Step Group: Transcultural Psychiatry Vol 39(3) Sep 2002, 399-401.
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*Arkesteyn, D. L. (1995). The relationship between codependency and Kohlberg's stages of moral development. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
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*Arnaldi, J. A. (1993). A discriminant analysis of help-seeking spouses of chemically addicted and non-addicted persons on five measures of codependency: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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*Asher, R., & Brissett, D. (1995). Codependency: A view from women married to alcoholics. Toronto, ON, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
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*Asher, R. M. (1992). Women with alcoholic husbands: Ambivalence and the trap of codependency. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
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*Askew-Kidd, D. (1992). Dysfunctional attachment, co-dependency and wives of alcoholics: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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*Atkinson, S. J. (1995). The mediating and moderating effects of codependency. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
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*Atkinson, S. J., & Fischer, J. L. (1996). Factors affecting codependent's support group attendance: Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly Vol 14(1) 1996, 11-20.
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*Babcock, M. (1995). Critiques of codependency: History and background issues. Toronto, ON, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
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*Babcock, M., & McKay, M. C. (1995). Challenging codependency: Feminist critiques. Toronto, ON, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
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*Bagheri, P. (2005). Predictors of codependency among European American and Mexican American college females. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
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*Bailey, M. A. (1993). The relationship among co-dependency, burnout and work motivation in certified therapeutic recreation specialists: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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*Baker, D. A. (1997). Substance abuse among college students with disabilities: The relationship between adult children of alcoholics and codependency. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
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*Baker, R. L. (1999). A qualitative study of the dysfunctional managerial practices of the codependent supervisor. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
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*Ballou, M. (1997). Collected Codependency Challenges: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 42 (10), Oct, 1997.
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*Barnett, K. H. (1991). The relationship of codependence to career choice: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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*Bayer, G. F. (1992). Working with the black and white of codependency: Pratt Institute Creative Arts Therapy Review Vol 13 1992, 41-45.
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*Bell, J. (1995). "Co-dependency: A critical review": Comment: Drug and Alcohol Review Vol 14(2) 1995, 240-241.
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*Benenson, A. K. (1993). Healing codependency through hypnoanalysis: Medical Hypnoanalysis Journal Vol 8(3) Sep 1993, 93-105.
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*Bensch, M. C. (1997). Spouses of alcoholics in treatment: Predictors of codependence. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
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*Bergeron, J. S. (1993). Codependency issues in selected contemporary American plays: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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*Biddy, K. D. (1994). A comparative study of the aspects of adjustment among adult children of alcoholics and adult children of nonalcoholics in the form of personality characteristics and its relationship to the description of codependent behavior. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
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*Bird, H. P. (1996). The relationship between co-dependence and Borderline Personality Disorder. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
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*Blanchard, K. A. (1999). A moderational model of alcohol treatment outcome: The relationship between motivation and cognitive deficits. (substance abuse). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
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*Boorhem, H. (1994). The development of a definition, diagnostic criteria, and treatment guidelines for co-dependence: A delphi study. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
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*Bornstein, R. F. (2006). The Complex Relationship Between Dependency and Domestic Violence: Converging Psychological Factors and Social Forces: American Psychologist Vol 61(6) Sep 2006, 595-606.
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*Bornstein, R. F. (2007). On integrating variables and separating facts in the complex relationship between dependency and domestic violence: American Psychologist Vol 62(7) Oct 2007, 709-711.
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*Borovoy, A. (2000). Recovering from codependence in Japan: American Ethnologist Vol 28(1) Feb 2000, 94-118.
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*Borovoy, A. (2001). Recovering from codependence in Japan: American Ethnologist Vol 28(1) Feb 2001, 94-118.
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*Brewer, L. G., Zawadski, M. L., & Lincoln, R. (1990). Characteristics of alcoholics and codependents who did and did not complete treatment: International Journal of the Addictions Vol 25(6) Jun 1990, 653-663.
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*Brewster, L. S. (1991). Sibling chemical codependence: The struggle for self: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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*Brinsley, J. R. (1992). Designing educational, preventative and recovery programmes for alcoholics and codependents through the local church: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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*Brown, H. M., Jr. (1996). God ain't com'n this time: A model of care for the Christian co-dependent. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
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*Browning, S. W., & Rubin, J. E. (1991). Treatment options with co-dependent clients. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press/Professional Resource Exchange.
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*Bruss, K. V., & Glickauf-Hughes, C. (1997). Co-dependency issues in the termination of lesbian relationships: Family Therapy Vol 24(1) 1997, 9-18.
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*Burris, C. T. (1999). Stand by your (exploitive) man: Codependency and responses to performance feedback: Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology Vol 18(3) Fal 1999, 277-298.
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*Byrne, M., Edmundson, R., & Rankin, E. D. (2005). Symptom Reduction and Enhancement of Psychosocial Functioning Utilizing a Relational Group Treatment Program for Dependent/Codependent Population: Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly Vol 23(4) 2005, 69-84.
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*Calleros, R. (1990). Assessment of factors of codependence in women: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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*Carson, A. T. (1991). Women and codependency: A study of object relations, depression, and childhood experience: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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*Carson, A. T., & Baker, R. C. (1994). Psychological correlates of codependency in women: International Journal of the Addictions Vol 29(3) Feb 1994, 395-407.
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*Cermak, T. L. (1986). Diagnosing and treating co-dependence: A guide for professionals who work with chemical dependents, their spouses and children. Minneapolis, MN: Johnson Institute Books.
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*Cermak, T. L. (1991). Co-addiction as a disease: Psychiatric Annals Vol 21(5) May 1991, 266-272.
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*Charder, F. B. (1996). Evaluating the codependency construct: Applying the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II and the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale to individuals in group treatment self-identified as codependent. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
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*Chatel, D. K. C. (1995). The use and misuse of labels: Codependency as a self-handicapping strategy. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
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*Chronister, K. M. (2007). Contextualizing women domestic violence survivors' economic and emotional dependencies: American Psychologist Vol 62(7) Oct 2007, 706-708.
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*Clark, J., & Stoffel, V. C. (1992). Assessment of codependency behavior in two health student groups: American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 46(9) Sep 1992, 821-828.
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*Collins, B. G. (1993). Reconstruing codependency using self-in-relation theory: A feminist perspective: Social Work Vol 38(4) Jul 1993, 470-476.
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*Cook, R. A., & Goff, J. L. (2002). Coming of age with self-managed teams: Dealing with a problem employee: Journal of Business and Psychology Vol 16(3) Spr 2002, 485-496.
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*Cooper, J. (1992). Codependency: A self-psychological perspective. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Analytic Press, Inc.
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*Cooper, M. (1995). Applying the codependency model to a group for families of obsessive-compulsive people: Health & Social Work Vol 20(4) Nov 1995, 272-278.
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*Cowan, G., Bommersbach, M., & Curtis, S. R. (1995). Codependency, loss of self, and power: Psychology of Women Quarterly Vol 19(2) Jun 1995, 221-236.
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*Cowan, G., & Warren, L. W. (1994). Codependency and gender-stereotyped traits: Sex Roles Vol 30(9-10) May 1994, 631-645.
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*Cretser, G. A., & Lombardo, W. K. (1999). Examining codependency in a college population: College Student Journal Vol 33(4) Dec 1999, 629-637.
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*Crothers, M., & Warren, L. W. (1996). Parental antecedents of adult codependency: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 52(2) Mar 1996, 231-239.
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*Cullen, J., & Carr, A. (1999). Codependency: An empirical study from a systemic perspective: Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal Vol 21(4) Dec 1999, 505-525.
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*Dear, G. E. (2002). The Holyoake Codependency Index: Further evidence of factorial validity: Drug and Alcohol Review Vol 21(1) Mar 2002, 47-52.
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*Dear, G. E. (2004). Test-retest reliability of the Holyoake codependency index with Australian students: Psychological Reports Vol 94(2) Apr 2004, 482-484.
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*Dear, G. E., & Roberts, C. M. (2000). The Holyoake Codependency Index: Investigation of the factor structure and psychometric properties: Psychological Reports Vol 87(3, Pt 1) Dec 2000, 991-1002.
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*Dear, G. E., & Roberts, C. M. (2002). The relationships between codependency and femininity and masculinity: Sex Roles Vol 46(5-6) Mar 2002, 159-165.
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*Dear, G. E., & Roberts, C. M. (2005). Validation of the Holyoake Codependency Index: Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied Vol 139(4) Jul 2005, 293-313.
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*Dear, G. E., Roberts, C. M., & Lange, L. (2005). Defining codependency: A thematic analysis of published definitions. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
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*deBrown, J. H. (1991). Operationalizing codependence: Development and validation of the Codependent Relationship Inventory: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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*Delgado, D. D., & Gomez, A. P. (2004). Codependency in families of drug users and non-users: Phase II: Psicothema Vol 16(4) Nov 2004, 632-638.
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*Dias, M. (2003). Deconstructing codependency: The relationship of codependency to femininity and related psychopathological factors. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
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*Douglas, J. J. (1996). Constructing codependency: An exploration of subjective definitions using Q-factor analysis. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
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*Dunion, P. J. (1991). Dyadic trust and self-trust as reflected by subjects from high and low functioning families of origin: A comparative study: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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*DuPont, R. L., & McGovern, J. P. (1996). Co-dependence. New York, NY: Hatherleigh Press.
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*Dutton, D. G. (2007). The complexities of domestic violence: American Psychologist Vol 62(7) Oct 2007, 708-709.
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*Edmundson, R., Byrne, M., & Rankin, E. D. (2000). Preliminary outcome data on a model treatment group for codependence: Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly Vol 18(1) 2000, 93-107.
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*Edwards, R. B. (1992). An investigation of codependent traits within a selected population of students at New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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*Eggebeen, D. J. (2005). Cohabitation and Exchanges of Support: Social Forces Vol 83(3) Mar 2005, 1097-1110.
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*Egnoto, J. O. (1995). Codependency and breast cancer. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
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*El-Guebaly, N., Hodgins, D. C., & Dudar, C. (1992). Personal variables and the attitudes of medical students toward substance abuse: The American Journal on Addictions Vol 1(1) Win 1992, 61-66.
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*Ellinger-Dixon, P. S. (1990). An experimental study to determine the effects of structured group counseling on codependency in women: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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*Emett, W. K. (1995). The prevalence of codependence in high school students. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
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*Fagan-Pryor, E. C., & Haber, L. C. (1992). Codependency: Another name for Bowen's undifferentiated self: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care Vol 28(4) Oct-Dec 1992, 24-28.
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*Farmer, S. A. (1999). Entitlement in codependency: Development and therapeutic considerations: Journal of Addictive Diseases Vol 18(3) 1999, 55-68.
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*Farris, J. R. (1992). Dances of life and dances of death: The addictive process, dualistic spirituality and codependence: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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*Favorini, A. (1995). Concept of codependency: Blaming the victim or pathway to recovery? : Social Work Vol 40(6) Nov 1995, 827-830.
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*Fischer, J. L., & Crawford, D. W. (1992). Codependency and parenting styles: Journal of Adolescent Research Vol 7(3) Jul 1992, 352-363.
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*Fischer, J. L., Spann, L., & Crawford, D. W. (1991). Measuring codependency: Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly Vol 8(1) 1991, 87-100.
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*Fischer, J. L., Wampler, R., Lyness, K., & Thomas, E. M. (1992). Offspring codependency: Blocking the impact of the family of origin: Family Dynamics of Addiction Quarterly Vol 2(1) Jul 1992, 20-32.
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*Frank, L., & Bland, C. (1992). What's in a name? Considering the co-dependent label: Journal of Strategic & Systemic Therapies Vol 11(2) Sum 1992, 1-14.
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*Frank, P. B., & Golden, G. K. (1992). Blaming by naming: Battered women and the epidemic of codependence: Social Work Vol 37(1) Jan 1992, 5-6.
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*Galliker, M., Grivel, M., Klein, M., & Schendera, C. (2004). Are wives of men with alcohol problems particularly partner-centred? : Sucht: Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaft und Praxis Vol 50(2) Apr 2004, 113-120.
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*Gardner, A. M. (1990). A neuro-linguistic programming perspective on codependency. Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Press.
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*Gayol, G. N. (2004). Codependence: A Transgenerational Script: Transactional Analysis Journal Vol 34(4) Oct 2004, 312-322.
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*Gayol, G. N., & Lira, L. R. (2002). Construction and validity of the codependency instrument (ICOD) for Mexican women: Salud Mental Vol 25(2) Apr 2002, 38-48.
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*Gemin, J. (1997). Dangerous liasions: On the systematic: Journal of Applied Communication Research Vol 25(2) May 1997, 132-149.
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*George, W. H., La Marr, J., Barrett, K., & McKinnon, T. (1999). Alcoholic parentage, self-labeling, and endorsement of ACOA-codependent traits: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors Vol 13(1) Mar 1999, 39-48.
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*Gibson, J. M., & Donigian, J. (1993). Use of Bowen theory: Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling Vol 14(1) Oct 1993, 25-35.
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*Gomez, A. P., & Delgado, D. D. (2003). Codependency in families of drug users and non-users: Psicothema Vol 15(3) Aug 2003, 381-387.
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*Wells, M., Glickauf-Hughes, C., & Bruss, K. (1998). The relationship of co-dependency to enduring personality characteristics: Journal of College Student Psychotherapy Vol 12(3) 1998, 25-38.
  +
*Wells, M., Glickauf-Hughes, C., & Jones, R. (1999). Codependency: A grass roots construct's relationship to shame-proneness, low self-esteem, and childhood parentification: American Journal of Family Therapy Vol 27(1) Jan-Mar 1999, 63-71.
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*Wells, M. C., Hill, M. B., Brack, G., Brack, C. J., & Firestone, E. E. (2006). Codependency's relationship to defining characteristics in college students: Journal of College Student Psychotherapy Vol 20(4) 2006, 71-84.
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*West-Willette, C. (1991). A study of the internal consistency of the Friel Co-Dependency Assessment Inventory: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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*Whitney, S. (1982). The ties that bind: Strategies for counseling the gay male co-alcoholic: Journal of Homosexuality Vol 7(4) Sum 1982, 37-41.
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*Williams, E., Bissell, L., & Sullivan, E. (1991). The effects of co-dependence on physicians and nurses: British Journal of Addiction Vol 86(1) Jan 1991, 37-42.
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*Wilson, K., & Goldman, E. E. (1991). Doorway to the past: Use of action techniques with adult children of alcoholics and co-dependants. New York, NY: Tavistock/Routledge.
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*Winbush, V. R. (2006). Review of One nation under therapy: How the helping culture is eroding self-reliance: Psychiatric Services Vol 57(1) Jan 2006, 150-151.
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*Worth, M. J. (1997). Codependency and psychopathology. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
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*Wright, P. H., & Wright, K. D. (1990). Measuring codependents' close relationships: A preliminary study: Journal of Substance Abuse Vol 2(3) 1990, 335-344.
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*Wright, P. H., & Wright, K. D. (1991). Codependency: Addictive love, adjustive relating, or both? : Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal Vol 13(5) Oct 1991, 435-454.
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*Wright, P. H., & Wright, K. D. (1995). Codependency: Personality syndrome or relational process? Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
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*Wright, P. H., & Wright, K. D. (1999). The two faces of codependent relating: A research-based perspective: Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal Vol 21(4) Dec 1999, 527-543.
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*Wright, S. S. (1993). Codependency: An exploratory study examining the impact of family dynamics experienced during childhood on behavior in adulthood: Dissertation Abstracts International.
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*Yearing, B. (2003). Codependency: Its relationship to alcohol and family-of-origin dynamics. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
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*Zelvin, E. (1993). Treating the partners of substance abusers. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
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*Zelvin, E. (2004). Treating the partners of substance abusers. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
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*Zetterlind, U., & Berglund, M. (1999). The rate of co-dependence in spouses and relatives of alcoholics on the basis of the Cermak co-dependence scale: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry Vol 53(2) 1999, 147-151.
   
*[http://www.recoveryresources.org/codependency.html - Characteristics of Co-Dependency]
 
   
== Literature ==
+
==External links==
*'A Brief History of Codependence and a Look at the Psychological Literature', in: P. Mellody e.a., ''Facing Codependence'', New York etc.: HarperSanFrancisco, 1989, ISBN 0062505890, 207-217 (= Appendix).
+
* [http://www.coda.org/patterns.php Patterns and Characteristics of Codependence] from CoDA.org
*'Cluster C Personality Disorders', in: ''Diagnostical and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV'', Washington: American Psychiatric Association, 4th ed. 1994, ISBN 0890420629, 662-673.
 
*'Codependence', in: Benjamin J. Sadock & Virginia A. Sadock (eds), ''Kaplan & Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry on CD'', Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 7th ed. 2000, ISBN 0781721415, 20703-20707.
 
*''Co-Dependents Anonymous'', Phoenix: Co-Dependents Anonymous, 1st ed. 1999, ISBN 0964710501, 3-6.
 
   
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Codependence (or codependency) is a popular psychology concept popularized by Twelve-Step program advocates. A "codependent" is loosely defined as someone who exhibits too much, and often inappropriate, caring for persons who depend on him or her. A "codependent" is one side of a relationship between mutually needy people. The dependent, or obviously needy party(s) may have emotional, physical, financial difficulties, or addictions they seemingly are unable to surmount. The "codependent" party exhibits behaviour which controls, makes excuses for, pities, and takes other actions to perpetuate the obviously needy party's condition, because of their desire to be needed and fear of doing anything that would change the relationship.

SymptomsEdit

Symptoms of codependence are controlling behavior, distrust, perfectionism, avoidance of feelings, problems with intimacy, excessive caretaking, hypervigilance or physical illness related to stress. Codependence is often accompanied by clinical depression, as the codependent person succumbs to feelings of frustration or sadness over an inability to improve the situation.

Codependence can also be a set of maladaptive, compulsive behaviors learned by family members in order to survive in a family which is experiencing great emotional pain and stress caused, for example, by a family member's alcoholism or other addiction, sexual or other abuse within the family, a family member's chronic illness, or forces external to the family, such as poverty.

Codependency advocates claim that a codependent may feel shame about, or try to change, private thoughts and feelings if they conflict with those of another person. An example would be a wife making excuses for her husband's excessive drinking and perhaps running interference for him by calling in sick for him when he is hung over. Such behaviors, which may well lessen conflict and ease tension within the family in the short term, are counterproductive in the long term, since, in this case, the wife is actually supporting ("enabling") the husband's drinking behavior. So, sometimes, the codependent is referred to as an "enabler." It is also worth noting that since the wife in this case is dependent on the husband's alcoholic behavior, she may actually feel disturbed, disoriented or threatened if she sees clearly that he is emerging from his dependence; the threat to her position as a confidante and needed loved one might lead her unconsciously to resist the husband's steps towards recovery. Similarly, a codependent parent might resist a child's steps toward independence; whether early or late in life.

Codependent people have a greater tendency to enter into relationships with people who are emotionally unavailable or needy. The codependent tries to control a relationship without directly identifying and addressing their own needs and desires. This invariably means that codependents set themselves up for continued unfulfillment. Codependents always feel that they are acting in another person's best interest, making it difficult for them to see the controlling nature of their own behavior.

TreatmentEdit

Individuals who are suffering from codependence may seek assistance through various therapies, sometimes accompanied by chemical therapy for accompanying depression.

In addition, there exist support groups for codependency; some of these are Co-Dependents Anonymous (CoDA) and Al-Anon/Alateen, Celebrate Recovery, and Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACoA), which are based on the 12-Step model of Alcoholics Anonymous.

Many books have been written on the subject of codependence. Melody Beattie was one of the first to describe such behaviors. She is the author of Codependent No More among many other volumes.

ControversyEdit

  • Caring for an individual with a physical addiction is not synonymous with pathology. To name the caregiver as a co-alcoholic responsible for the endurance of their partner's alcoholism for example, pathologises caring behaviour. The caregiver may only require assertiveness training skills and the addict accountability in taking responsibility for managing their addiction, or not[1] [2].
  • Not all mental health professionals agree about codependence or its standard methods of treatment [3]. It is not listed in the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic manual. Stan Katz & Liu, in "The Codependency Conspiracy: How to Break the Recovery Habit and Take Charge of Your Life," feel that codependence is over-diagnosed, and that many people who could be helped with shorter-term treatments instead become dependent on long-term self-help programs.
  • Some believe that codependency is not a negative trait, and does not need to be treated, as it is more likely a healthy personality trait taken to excess. Codependency in nonclinical populations has some links with favorable characteristics of family functioning [4].
  • The language of symptoms of and treatment for codependence derive from the medical model suggesting a disease process underlies the behaviour. There is no evidence that codependence is caused by a disease process, communicable or otherwise.
  • Not everything promoted by recovery agencies is a demonstrable scientific fact, some of it is based on fashion and faith alone [5] [6].
  • People who have experienced natural disasters, life threatening illness or accident, and personal and community tragedy have been found to perceive a benefit from the ordeal such as positive personality changes, changes in priorities and enhanced family relationships [7]. Caring for survivors serves a worthwhile ethic of empowerment—both for the caregiver and the survivors.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Affleck, G., Tennan, H., Croog, S., & Levine, S. (1987) "Causal Attribution, perceived benefits, and morbidity following a heart attack". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 29–35.
  2. Moos, R.H., Finney, J.W., & Cronkite, R.C. (1990) Alcoholism treatment: Process and outcome. New York: Oxford University Press.
  3. Gomberg, E.L. (1989). "On terms used and abused: The concept of codependecy". Drugs and Society, 3, 113–132.
  4. Layne A. Prest, Mark J. Benson, Howard O. Protinsky, "Family of Origin and Current Relationship Influences on Codependency", Family Process Volume 37, Issue 4 (December 1998), page 513–528.
  5. Gordon, J.R., Barrett, K.(1993) "The Codependency Movement: Issues of Context and Differentiation". In Baer, J.S, Marlatt, A. & McMahon, R.J. (eds.) Addictive Behaviors Across the Life Span. Newburry Park: Sage.
  6. Kaminer, W. (1992). I'm Dysfunctional, You're Dysfunctional: The Recovery Movement and other Self- Help Fashions. New York: Vintage.
  7. Affleck, G., Tennen, H. & Rowe, J. (1991) Infants in crisis: How parents cope with newborn intensive care and its aftermath. New York: Springer-Verlag.
  • "A Brief History of Codependence and a Look at the Psychological Literature", in: P. Mellody e.a., Facing Codependence, New York etc.: HarperSanFrancisco, 1989, ISBN 0-06-250589-0, 207–217 (= Appendix).
  • "Cluster C Personality Disorders", in: Diagnostical and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV, Washington: American Psychiatric Association, 4th ed. 1994, ISBN 0-89042-062-9, 662–673.
  • "Codependence", in: Benjamin J. Sadock & Virginia A. Sadock (eds), Kaplan & Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry on CD, Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 7th ed. 2000, ISBN 0-7817-2141-5, 20703–20707.
  • Co-Dependents Anonymous, Phoenix: Co-Dependents Anonymous, 1st ed. 1999, ISBN 0-9647105-0-1, 3–6.
  • Confusing Love with Obsession, 2006, Moore, J. 3rd ed. Hazelden, ISBN 1592853560

Further readingEdit

  • Aday, J. B., Jr. (1995). An analysis of codependency in adult males: A comparison of adult males from chemically dependent families with adult males from nonchemically dependent families. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Aguilar, M. A., DiNitto, D. M., Franklin, C., & Lopez-Pilkinton, B. (1991). Mexican-American families: A psychoeducational approach for addressing chemical dependency and codependency: Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal Vol 8(4) Aug 1991, 309-326.
  • Allen, W. A. (1994). Recovery from narcissistic collusion: The breaking of the glass. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Allison, S. (2004). Nurse Codependency: Instrument Development and Validation: Journal of Nursing Measurement Vol 12(1) Spr-Sum 2004, 63-75.
  • Allison, S. K. (2002). A path model using codependency and binge eating as mediating variables with selected biographic correlates to explain body mass index in a nursing sample. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Anderson, S. C. (1994). A critical analysis of the concept of codependency: Social Work Vol 39(6) Nov 1994, 677-685.
  • Angelletta, M. (1995). A psychological exploration of rage and immobilization among codependents. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Antze, P. (2002). Review of Codependent Forevermore: The Invention of Self in a Twelve Step Group: Transcultural Psychiatry Vol 39(3) Sep 2002, 399-401.
  • Arkesteyn, D. L. (1995). The relationship between codependency and Kohlberg's stages of moral development. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Arnaldi, J. A. (1993). A discriminant analysis of help-seeking spouses of chemically addicted and non-addicted persons on five measures of codependency: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Asher, R., & Brissett, D. (1995). Codependency: A view from women married to alcoholics. Toronto, ON, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
  • Asher, R. M. (1992). Women with alcoholic husbands: Ambivalence and the trap of codependency. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
  • Askew-Kidd, D. (1992). Dysfunctional attachment, co-dependency and wives of alcoholics: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Atkinson, S. J. (1995). The mediating and moderating effects of codependency. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Atkinson, S. J., & Fischer, J. L. (1996). Factors affecting codependent's support group attendance: Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly Vol 14(1) 1996, 11-20.
  • Babcock, M. (1995). Critiques of codependency: History and background issues. Toronto, ON, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
  • Babcock, M., & McKay, M. C. (1995). Challenging codependency: Feminist critiques. Toronto, ON, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
  • Bagheri, P. (2005). Predictors of codependency among European American and Mexican American college females. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Bailey, M. A. (1993). The relationship among co-dependency, burnout and work motivation in certified therapeutic recreation specialists: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Baker, D. A. (1997). Substance abuse among college students with disabilities: The relationship between adult children of alcoholics and codependency. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Baker, R. L. (1999). A qualitative study of the dysfunctional managerial practices of the codependent supervisor. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Ballou, M. (1997). Collected Codependency Challenges: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 42 (10), Oct, 1997.
  • Barnett, K. H. (1991). The relationship of codependence to career choice: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bayer, G. F. (1992). Working with the black and white of codependency: Pratt Institute Creative Arts Therapy Review Vol 13 1992, 41-45.
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