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Clinical supervision is a form of professional supervision used in clinical psychology,counsellingand psychotherapy and other mental health disciplines. It consists of the practitioner meeting regularly with another professional, not necessarily more senior, but normally with training in the skills of supervision, to discuss casework and other professional issues in a structured way. This is often known as clinical or counselling supervision or consultation. The purpose is to assist the practitioner to learn from his or her experience and progress in expertise, as well as to ensure good service to the client or patient.
Clinical supervision is used by many other professions in health services and all therapists are now expected to have regular clinical supervision. C. Waskett (2006) has written on the application of solution focused supervision skills to either counselling or clinical supervision work.
Practising members of the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy are bound to have supervision for at least 1.5 hours a month. Students and trainees must have it at a rate of one hour for every eight hours of client *contact.
Benefits of supervision
- Main article: Benefits of clinical supervision
The effectiveness of clinical supervision
- Main article: Effectiveness of clinical supervision
Supervision by speciality
- Supervision in child psychology
- Supervision in older adult work
- Supervision in physical health psychology
- Supervision in substance abuse counseling
Modes of supervision
Supervision sessions can be conducted in a number of different ways eg in individual or group setting
- Main article: Modes of clinical supervision
Models or approaches to supervision
There are many different ways of developing supervision skills which can be helpful to the clinician or practitioner in their work. Specific models or approaches to both counselling supervision and clinical supervision come from different historical strands of thinking and beliefs about relationships between people.
- Main article: Models of clinical supervision
Clinical supervision by therapeutic approach
- Counselling supervision
- Supervision in Cognitive Behavior Therapy
- Supervision in Dialectical Behavior Therapy
- Supervision in Gestalt therapy
- Supervision in psychoanalysis
- Supervision in psychodynamic psychotherapy
- Supervision in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
Aspects of clinical supervision
- Supervisor varaiables in supervision
- Supervisee variables in clinical supervision
- Interaction between supervisor and supervisee variables in clinical supervision
Ethical guidelines for supervisors
Because of the special nature of the supervisory relationship it is important that all supervisors are aware of and follow the ethical guidelines of their professional bodies
- Main article: Ethical guidelines for supervisors
Professional issues for supervisors
- Professional and personal boundary issues fo clinical supervisors
- Confidentiality for clinical supervisors
- Gender as an issue for clinical supervisors
- Legal issues for clinical supervisors
- Power issues in clinical supervision
Professional issues for supervisees
- Confidentiality for clinical supervisees
- Cultural issues for clinical supervisees
- Professional and personal boundary issues fo clinical supervisees
- Gender as an issue for clinical supervisees
Training of clinical supervisors
Supervision has become an area of growing importance for clinical training programmes
- Main article: Training of clinical supervisors
Key texts – Books
- Bernard, J. M. and R. K. Goodyear (1998). Fundamentals of clinical supervision (2nd
Ed.). Boston, MA USA: Allyn & Bacon Inc. A classic text that provides a comprehensive account of supervision from an American perspective.
- Bramley, W Supervisory Couple in Broad Spectrum Psychotherapy.Free Association Books. ISBN 1853433535
- Carroll, M. and Tholstrup, M. (2001) (eds).Integrative Approaches to Supervision.Jessica Kingsley Publishers ISBN 1853029661
- Carroll, M (1996) Counselling supervision: Theory, skills and practice. London: Cassell.
- Carroll, .M. & Gilbert, ,M. (2005)). On being a supervisee: Creating learning partnerships. London: Vukani Publications.
- Carroll, M., & Holloway, E (1999). Training Counselling Supervisors. London, Sage.
Discusses many aspects of training supervisors that will aid with the creation of new supervision courses
- Copeland, S. (2006). Supervision in Organisations. London, Routledge. An aspect of
supervision that is often ignored is the context in which it takes place. This book provides an overview of the complexities of the organizational influences on therapy and supervision. Cutcliffe, J. R., Butterworth, T. & Proctor, B. (2001). Fundamental Themes in Clinical Supervision. London, Routledge. An edited British book that examines a range of themes that would be relevant to the IAPT programme.
- Driver, C. and Martin, E. (Eds) (2002) Supervising Psychotherapy, London: Sage.
A standard text that looks at the issues relating to supervision from a psychodynamic and psychoanalytic perspective and relevant to clinical supervision within all clinical services.
- Driver, C and Martin, E. (Eds) (2005) Supervision and the Analytic Attitude, London:
Whurr Consideration of aspects of supervision such as the 'absent patient, interpretation, reverie etc.
- Falender, C. A. and E. P. Shafranske (2004). What Makes for Good Supervision?
Washington, DC,US, American Psychological Association.An American perspective with a useful summary of supervisor competences
- Fleming, I. & Steen. L. (2004). Supervision and clinical psychology. Hove: Routledge.
- Hawkins,P & Shohet, R (2003). Supervision in the Helping Professions: an organisational, group and organisational approach; Open University Press, Maidenhead, 2nd ed. ISBN 0335201172
- Hess, A.K. (1980). Psychotherapy supervision. New York:Wiley.
- Inskipp,F * Proctor,B. (1993). The Art, craft and tasks of Counselling supervision, Part 1 – making the most of supervision, Cascade Publications ,
- Inskipp,F * Proctor,B. (1995). The Art, craft and tasks of Counselling supervision Part 2 – becoming a supervisor.
- Ladany, N., Friedlander, M. L., & Nelson, M. L. (2005). Critical events in
psychotherapy supervision: An interpersonal approach. Washington, DC:, American Psychological Association. This book brings together research on critical events in supervision and presents guidance on dealing with such events.
- Lane, R., (1990) Psychoanalytic approaches to supervision. Brunner/Mazel. New York, NY.
- Page,S & Wosket,V. (1995) Supervising the Counsellor: a Cyclical Model; Routledge, London & New York,
- Milne, D. (in press). Evidence-based Clinical supervision. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester.
Current review of the literature underpinning supervision, together with practical advice about training and implementation within services.
- Page, S., & Wosket, V. (2001). Supervising the counsellor: A cyclical model (2nd Ed.).
Philadelphia, PA, Brunner-Routledge. A well written book that provides a clear generic model of supervision that could be adopted in many contexts.
- Proctor, B. (2000). Group Supervision: a Guide to Creative Practice. London, Sage.
Invaluable text for anyone using supervision groups.
- IAPT Supervision Guidance December 2008 pdf
- Scaife, J. (2008). Supervision in clinical practice; A practitioner’s guide. 2nd edition.
London, Routledge. A focus of mental health will make this good reading in relation to the IAPT programme.
- Stoltenberg, C. D., & Delworth, U. (1987). Supervising counselors and therapists. San
Francisco, Jossey Bass.A classic text that uses the results of research into the developmental model of supervision to describe how supervisors might modify their approach to supervisees dependant on their stage of professional development.
- Watkins, C. E., Jr., Ed. (1997). Handbook of psychotherapy supervision. New York,
John Wiley & Sons Inc. A book to be used as a reference to find relevant research into supervision and critique of supervision research methodologies.
- Wheeler, S. (2003). Research on supervision of counsellors and psychotherapists: a
systematic scoping search. Rugby, BACP. Provides references to supervision research up until 2002.
- Wheeler, S., & Richards, K. (2007). The impact of clinical supervision on counsellors
and therapists, their practice and their clients: a systematic review of the literature. Lutterworth, BACP. A review that focuses specifically on ways in which supervision impacts on therapists and clients.
Additional material – Books
Key texts – Papers
- Alpher, V. (1991) Interdependence and parallel processes: a case study of structural analysis of social behavior in supervision and short-term dynamic psychotherapy. Psychotherapy. 28 218-231.
- Bahrick, A., Russell, R., & Salmi, S. (1991) The effects of role induction on trainees’ perceptions of supervision. Journal of Counseling and Development. 69 434-438
- Bambling M., & King R., (2000) Supervision and the development of counselor competency. Psychotherapy in Australia. 6 4 58-63
- Bernard, J., & Goodyear, R. (1992) Fundamentals of clinical supervision. Allyn & Bacon: Boston.
- Bernstein, B., & Lecomte, C. (1979) Supervisory type feedback effects: feedback discrepancy level, trainee psychological differentiation, and immediate responses. Journal of Counselling Psychology. 26 295-303.
- Binder, J., & Strupp, H. (1997) Supervision of psychodynamic psychotherapies. In Watkins (ed) Handbook of Psychotherapy supervision. New York: Wiley & Sons. Ch 4.
- Bordin, E. S. (1983) A working alliance based model of supervision. The Counseling Psychologist. 11 1 35-42.
- British Psychological Society (2002) Criteria for the accreditation of postgraduate training courses in clinical psychology: Guidelines on Clinical supervision. Leicester: British Psychological Society.
- Burke, W., Goodyear, R., & Guzzard, C. (1998) Weakening and repairs in the supervisory alliance: a multiple case study. American Journal of Psychotherapy. 52 450-462.
- Carey, J., Williams, K., & Wells, M. (1988) Relationships between dimensions of supervisors influence and counsellor trainees performance. Counsellor Education and Supervision. 28 130-139.
- Carroll, M (2007) Clinical psychology supervision. Clinical Psychology Forum, 174,35-37
- Division of Clinical Psychology (2003) Policy guidelines on supervision in the practice of clinical psychology. Leicester: British Psychological Society.
- Casement, P., (1993) Towards autonomy: some thoughts on psychoanalytic supervision. Journal of Clinical Psychoanalysis. 2 389 - 403.
- Cook, D., & Helms, J. (1988) Visible racial/ethnic group supervisees satisfaction with cross-cultural supervision as predicted by relationship characteristics. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 35 268-274.
- Dodenhoff, J. (1981) Interpersonal attraction and direct-indirect supervisor influence as predictors of counselor trainee effectiveness. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 28 47-52.
- Doehrman, J. (1976). Parallel processes in supervision and psychotherapy. Bulletin of the Menniger Clinic. 40 1-104.
- Efstation, J., Patton, M., & Kardash, C. (1990) Measuring the working alliance in counsellor supervision. Journal of Counselling Psychology. 37 322-329.
- Ellis, M., Dell,D., & Good, G. (1988) Counselor trainees’ perceptions of supervisor roles: two studies testing the dimensionality of supervision. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 35 315-334.
- Ellis, M., & Landany, N. (1997) Inferences concerning supervisees and clients in clinical supervision: an integrative review. In C.E. Watkins, Jr. (Ed.), Handbook of psychotherapy supervision. 447-507.
- Ellis, M., Landany,N., Krengel, M., & Schult, D. (1996) Clinical supervision research from 1981 to 1993: a methodological critique. Journal of Counselling Psychology. 43 35-50.
- Finn, R. (1970) A note on estimating the reliability of categorical data. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 30 71 – 76.
- Foreman, S., & Marmar, R. C. (1985) Therapist actions that address initially poor therapeutic alliances in psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychiatry 4 922-926.
- Fortune, A., & Abramson, J. (1993) Predictor of satisfaction with field practicum among social work students, The Clinical Supervisor. 11 1 95-110.
- Friedlander, M., Keller, K., Peca-Baker, T. & Olk, M. (1986) Effects of role conflict on counsellor trainees self - statements, anxiety level and performance. Journal of Counselling Psychology. 33 1-5.
- Friedlander, M., Siegel, S. & Brenock, K. (1989) Parallel process in counselling and supervision: a case study. Journal of Counselling Psychology. 36 149-157.
- Friedlander, M., & Synder, J. (1983) Trainees expectations for the supervisory process. Counselor Education and Supervision. 23 342-348.
- Friedlander, M., & Ward, G. (1984). Development and validation of the supervisor styles inventory. Journal of Counselling Psychology. 31 541-557.
- Gandolfo, R., & Brown, R. (1987) Psychology interns ratings of actual and ideal supervision of psychotherapy. The Journal of Training and Practice in Professional Psychology. 1 1 15-28.
- Garfield, S., & Kurtz, R. (1976) Clinical psychologists in the 1970s. American Psychologist. 31 1-9.
- Gillespie, K., Duffy, M., Hackman, A., & Clark, D.M. (2002). "Community-based
Cognitive therapy in the treatment of post traumatic stress disorder following the Omagh bomb." Behavior Research and Therapy 40: 345-357. Reports that the outcome of therapy is greater for clients of therapists who have supervision than of therapists who do not have supervision.
- Goodyear, R., & Guzzardo, C. (2000) Psychotherapy supervision and training. Handbook of Counseling Psychology (3rd ed.); Brown, D. (Ed). New York; Wiley & Sons. 83-108.
- Handley, P. (1982) Relationship between supervisors’ and trainees’ cognitive styles and the supervision process. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 29 508-515.
- Harkness, D., & Hensley, H. (1991) Changing the focus of social work supervision: effects on client satisfaction and generalized contentment. Social Work. 36 506-512.
- Heppner, P., & Handley, P. (1982) The relationship between supervisory expertness, attractiveness, or trustworthiness. Counsellor Education and Supervision. 22 23-31.
- Heppner, P., & Roehlke, J. (1984) Differences among supervisees at different levels of training: implications for a developmental model of supervision. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 31 76-90.
- Hess, A. (1987) Psychotherapy supervision: stages and a theory of relationship. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 18 251-259.
- Hilton, D., Russell, R., & Salmi, S. (1995) The effects of supervisor’s race and level of support on perceptions of supervision. Journal of Counseling and Development. 7 3 559-563.
- Holloway, E., (1996) Supervision: its contributions to treatment efficacy. In Talbott, J. (Ed) Yearbook of psychiatry & applied mental health. 4 134-135.
- Holloway, E., (1992) Supervision: a way of teaching and learning. In Brown, S., & Lent, R. (Eds) Handbook of counselling psychology. John Wiley & Sons. Ch 6.
- Holloway, E., & Hosford, R. (1983) Towards a prescriptive technology of counselor supervision. The Counseling Psychologist. 11 (1) 73-77.
- Holloway, E., & Neufeldt, S. (1995) Supervision: its contribution to treatment efficacy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 63 207-213. 180
- Hutt, C., Scott, J., & King, M. (1983) A phenomenological study of supervisees’ positive and negative experiences in supervision. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice. 20 118-123.
- Kavanagh, D., Bennett-Levy E., & Crow, N. (2002) A cognitive-behavioral approach to supervision. In McMahon & Patton (Eds.) Supervision in the Helping Professions: a Practical Approach, Pearson Education Australia. 131-141.
- Kennard, B., Stewart, S., & Gluck, M., (1987) The supervision relationship: variables contributing to positive versus negative experiences. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 18 172-175.
- Kivlighan, D., Angelone, E., & Swafford, K. (1991) Live supervision in individual psychotherapy: effects on therapists’ intention use and client’s evaluation of session effect and working alliance. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 22 6 489-495.
- Landany, N, Brittan-Powell, C.S., & Pannu, R.K. (1997) The influence of supervisory racial identity interaction and racial matching on the supervisory working alliance and supervisee multicultural competence. Counselor Education and Supervision, 36 305-317. 183
- Ladany, N. (2004). "Psychotherapy supervision: what lies beneath?" Psychotherapy Research 14(1): 1-19. A good summary of what we know about supervision through research.
- Ladany, N. (1996). "Nature, Extent, and Importance of What Psychotherapy Trainees
Do Not Disclose to Their Supervisors." Journal of Counseling Psychology 43(1): 10-24. Article explores non disclosure in supervision. Negative reactions to the supervisor were the most frequent type of nondisclosure. Other reasons for nondisclosures were perceived unimportance, that the nondisclosure was too personal, negative feelings, and a poor alliance.
- Ladany, N., & Friedlander, M. (1995) The relationship between the supervisory working alliance and trainees’ experience of role conflict and role ambiguity. Counselor Education and Supervision. 34 220-231.
- Ladany, N., Walker, J., & Melincoff, D. (2000) Supervisory style: its relation to the supervisory working alliance and supervisor self-disclosure. Counselor Education and Supervision. 38 215-225.
- Lambert, M. J. and E. J. Hawkins (2001). "Using information about patient progress in
supervision: Are outcomes enhanced?" Australian Psychologist Special Issue: Training in clinical and counselling psychology 36(2): 131-138. The authors present a conceptual framework for the routine assessment of patients and the delivery of feedback regarding patients' progress to therapists.
- Lambert, M., & Ogles, B. (1997) The effectiveness of psychotherapy supervision. In Watkins, C., Jr. (Ed) Handbook of psychotherapy supervision. New York, John Wiley & Sons. Ch 24.
- Liese, B.S. & Alford, B.A. (1998). Recent advance in cognitive therapy supervision.
Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 12, 91 – 94. Review of cognitive therapy supervision.
- Liese, B.S. & Beck, J.S. (1997). Cognitive therapy supervision. In C.E.Watkins (Ed.)
Handbook of Psychotherapy Supervision. Wiley, New York, pp 114 – 133). Overview of supervision for cognitive therapy.
- Linehan, M., (1980) Supervision of behavior therapy. In Hess A, (Ed) Psychotherapy Supervision: Theory, Research and Practice. New York: Wiley. Ch 13.
- Litterll, J., Lee-Borden, N., & Lorenz, J. (1979) A developmental framework for counselling supervision. Counsellor Education and Supervision. 19 13-19.
Loganbill, C., Hardy, E., & Delworth, U. (1982) Supervision: a conceptual model. The Counselling Psychologist. 10 1 3-42.
- Lowe, C., & McLeod, M. (1985) Role of supervision in assuring quality mental health services in university counseling centers. ProfessionalPsychology: Research and Practice. 16 898-901.
- Lucock, M., Leach, C., Iveson, S., Lynch, K., Horsefield, C., & Hall, P. (2003). A
systematic approach to practice-based evidence in a psychological therapies service. Clinical psychology and psychotherapy, 10, 389 – 399. Describes how routine outcome measures can be employed throughout the service to inform practice and service improvement.
- Lucock, M. & Lutz, W. (in press). Methods for constructing and disseminating service
level results in a meaningful way. In A Core Approach to Delivering Practice-Based Evidence. Eds. M. Barkham & G.E.Hardy, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester. Describes how routine outcome measures can be employed throughout the service to inform practice and service improvement.
- Martin, J., Goodyear, R., & Newton, F. (1987) Clinical supervisions: an intensive case study. Professional Psychology: Rresearch and Practice. 18 225-235.
- Mannix, K. A., Blackburn, I.V., Garland, A., Gracie, J., Moorey, S., Reid, B.,
Standart, S. & Scott, J. (2006). Effectiveness of brief training in cognitive behaviour therapy techniques for palliative care practitioners. Palliative medicine, 20, 579 – 584. Describes training palliative care staff in simple CBT skills, with ongoing supervision and support.
- McNeill, B., Stoltenberg, C., & Romans, J. (1992) The integrated developmental model of supervision: scale development and validation procedures. Professional psychology: Research and Practice. 23 504-508.
- McNeill, B., Stoltenberg, C., & Pierce, R. (1985) Supervisees’ perceptions of their development: a test of the counselor complexity model. Journal of Counselling Psychology. 32 630-633.
- McRoy, R., Freeman, E., Logan, S., & Blackmon, B. (1986) Cross-cultural field supervision: implications for social work education. Journal of Social Work Education. 22 50-56.
- Miller, S., Duncan, B., Brown, J., Sorrell, R., & Chalk, M. (2007). Using formal client
feedback to improve retention and outcome. Journal of Brief Therapy, 5, 19 – 28. Use of regular session feedback on clinical outcomes.
- Milne, D. and I. James (2000). "A systematic review of effective cognitive-behavioural
supervision." British Journal of Clinical Psychology 39(Pt 2): 111-27. A systematic review of studies that have assessed objectively the impact of supervision and consultancy that gauges the effectiveness and methodological rigour of the studies.
- Milne, D. L., & James, I.A. (2002). "The observed impact of training on competence in
clinical supervision." British Journal of Clinical Psychology 41: 55-72. A qualitative study that describes in detail the process and outcome of supervision.
- Milne, D. L., Pilkington, J., Gracie, J., & James, I. (2003). "Transferring skills from
supervision to therapy: A qualitative and quantitative N=1 analysis." Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 31(2): 193-202. The content and outcome evaluation describes and then assesses the effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy supervision, in terms of its observed impacts on a trainee therapist supervisee and her patient.
- Moskowitiz, S., & Rupert, P. (1983) Conflict resolution within the supervisory relationship. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 14 632-641.
- Nelson, M., & Holloway, E. (1990) Relation of gender to power and involvement in supervision. Journal of Counselling Psychology. 37 473-481.
- Olk, M., & Friedlander, M. (1992) Trainees’ experience of role conflict and role ambiguity in supervisory relationships. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 39 389-397.
- Patton, M., & Kivlighan, D. Jr. (1997) Relevance of the supervisory alliance to the counseling alliance and to treatment adherence in counselor training. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 44 149-154.
- Perris, C. (1994). "Supervising cognitive psychotherapy and training supervisors."
Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy 8(2): 83-103. Discusses the supervision of cognitive psychotherapy and the supervision of therapists working with severely disturbed patients. Topics include a conceptualization of the supervisory process, supervision models and modalities, and supervision pitfalls.
- Putney, M., Worthington, E Jr., & McCullough, M. (1992) Effects of supervisor and supervisee theoretical orientation and supervisor- supervisee matching on interns’ perceptions of supervision. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 39 258-264. 190
- Rickards, L. (1984) Verbal interaction and supervisor perception in counselor supervision. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 31 262- 265.
- Roth, A.D., Pilling, S., & Turner, J. (submitted). The therapist training and
supervision in CBT in major trials for depression and anxiety. Reviews the requirements of published research trials for training and supervision of therapists.
- Roth A.D. & Pilling, S. (2008). Using an Evidence-Based Methodloogy to Identify
the Competences required to Deliver Effective Cognitive and behavioural Therapy for Depression and Anxiety Disorders. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36,129 – 148. Describes the development of the CBT competences framework.
- Rotholz, T., & Werk, A. (1984) Student supervision: an educational process. The Clinical Supervison. 2 15-27.
- Sabin-Farrell, R., & Turpin, G. (2003) Vicarious traumatization: Implications for the
mental health of health workers? Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 449 – 480. Reviews the impact of working with clients with trauma on mental healthworkers.
- Safran, J. D. and J. C. Muran (2001). "A relational approach to training and
supervision in cognitive psychotherapy." Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy Special Issue: 15(1): 3-15. Outlines a number of principles and strategies relevant to training and supervision in cognitive psychotherapy from a relational perspective.
- Schacht, J., Howe, E Jr., & Berman, J. (1988) A short form of the barrett-lennard relationship inventory of supervisor relationships. Psychological Reports. 63 699-706.
- Schacht, J., Howe, E Jr., & Berman, J. (1989) Supervisor facilitative conditions and effectiveness as perceived by thinking - and feeling - type supervisees. Psychotherapy. 26 475 - 483.
- Sells, J., Goodyear, R., Lichtenberg, J., & Polkinghorne A. (1997) Relationship of supervisor and trainee gender and client severity to in session verbal behavior, session impact, trainee ratings. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 44 406-412.
- Serlin J., & Lapsley S. (1985) Supervisees and clients. In Watkins (ed) (1997), Handbook of Psychotherapy supervision. New York: Wiley & Sons. Ch 3.
- Shanfield, B., Matthews,L., & Hetherely, V. (1993) What do excellent psychotherapy supervisors do? American Journal of Psychiatry. 150 1081-1084.
- Steven, D., Goodyear, R., & Robertson, P. (1998) Supervisor development: an exploratory study in changes in stance and emphasis. Clinical supervisor. 16 2 73-88.
- Stoltenberg, C. (1997) The integrated developmental model of supervision: supervision across levels. Psychotherapy in Private Practice. 16 2 59-69.
- Strozier, A., Kivlighan, D., & Thoreson, R. (1993) Supervisor intentions, supervisee reactions and helpfulness: a case study of the process of supervision. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 1 13-19.
- Talen, M., & Schindler, N. (1993) Goal-directed supervision plans: a model of trainee supervision and evaluation. The Clinical Supervisor. 11 2 77-88.
- Townend, M., Ianetta, L., & Freeston, M. (2002). Clinical supervision in practice: A
survey of UK cognitive behavioural psychotherapists accredited by BABCP. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 30, 485 – 500. survey reporting the variability supervisor practice and training in the UK.
- Townend, M. (in press). Clinical supervision in cognitive behavioural psychotherapy:
development of a model for mental health nursing through grounded theory. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. Qualitative study of attitudes and approaches of CBT course directors to supervision.
- Tracey, T., & Sherry, P. (1993) Complementary interaction over time in successful and less successful supervision. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 24. 304-311.
- Usher, C., & Borders, L. (1993) Practicing counselors’ preferences for supervisory style and supervisory emphasis. Counselor Education and Supervision. 33 66-79.
- Vander Kolk, C. (1974) The relationship of personality, values, and race to anticipation of the supervisory relationship. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin. 18 41-46.
- Wampold, B., & Holloway, E. (1997) Methodology, design, and evaluation in psychotherapy supervision research. Watkins, C. Edward Jr. (Ed). (1997). Handbook of Psychotherapy Supervision. 11-27 651.
- Wampold, B.E. and Brown, G.S. (2005). Estimating the variability in outcomes
attributable too therapists: A naturalistic study of outcomes of managed care. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 914 – 923. Examines the contribution of therapist variability to clinical outcomes.
- Warner, K. (1999) The role of perceived gender related personality traits in initial supervisory relationships. Dissertation abstracts international. 60 4-B 1904
- Watkins, E. (1998) Psychotherapy supervision in the 21st century; some pressing needs and impressing possibilities. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research. 7 2 28-44.
- Weaks, D. (2002). "Unlocking the secrets of 'good supervision': a phenomenological
exploration of experienced counsellor's perceptions of good supervision." Counselling and Psychotherapy Research 2(1): 33-39. This paper reflects the findings of a qualitative study carried out to identify the elements of good supervision.
- Wheeler, S. (2007). "What shall we do with the wounded healer? The supervisor's
dilemma." Psychodynamic Practice 12(3): 245-256. Discusses ways of managing supervisees who are themselves distressed by their life or their work.
- Williams, E., Judge, A., Hill, C., & Hoffman, M. (1997) Experiences of novice therapists in prepracticum: trainees’, clients’, and supervisors’ perceptions of therapists’ personal reactions and management strategies. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 44 390-399.
- Winter, M., & Holloway, E. (1992) Relation of trainee experience, conceptual level and supervisior approach to selection of audiotaped counseling passages. The Clinical Supervisor. 9 2 87-103.
- Worthern, V. & Lambert, M.J. (2007). Outcome orientated supervision: advantages
of adding systematic client tracking to support consultations. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 7, 48 – 53. Examines the impact of outcomes tracking on clinical outcomes.
- Worthington, E. (1987) Changes in supervision as counsellors and supervisors gain experience: A review. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 18 189-209.
- Worthington, E Jr., & Stern, A. (1985) Effects of supervisor and supervisee degree level and gender on the supervisory relationship. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 32 252-262.
Additional material - Papers
- Waskett, C The pluses of solution-focused supervision. , Vol 6, No 1.
- Waskett, C (2006) The SF Journey, in Therapy Today, March , Vol 17, No 2, pp 40-42
- NB Annotated references were prepared by Professors Graham Turpin and Sue Wheeler for the IAPT Programme December 2008 
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