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Claude Steele

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Professional Psychology: Debating Chamber · Psychology Journals · Psychologists


Claude Mason Steele is an American social psychology professor at Stanford University, where he has taught since 1991. He is best known for his work on stereotype threat[1].

He earned a B.A. in psychology from Hiram College in Ohio in 1967. He then studied social psychology, earning an M.A. in 1969 and a Ph.D. in 1971 from the Ohio State University.

According to the Social Psychology Network:

"His research interests are in three areas. Throughout his career he has been interested in processes of self-evaluation, in particular in how people cope with self-image threat. This work has led to a general theory of self-affirmation processes. A second interest, growing out of the first, is a theory of how [group stereotypes] -- by posing an extra self-evaluative and belongingness threat to such groups as African Americans in all academic domains and women in quantitative domains -- can influence intellectual performance and academic identities. Third, he has long been interested in addictive behaviors, particularly alcohol addiction, where his work with several colleagues has led to a theory of "alcohol myopia," a theory in which many of alcohol's social and stress-reducing effects -- effects that may underlie its addictive capacity -- are explained as a consequence of alcohol's narrowing of perceptual and cognitive functioning."

His twin brother is the conservative writer and fellow of the Hoover Institute, Shelby Steele.

Teaching appointmentsEdit

PublicationsEdit

  • Aronson, J. & Steele, C.M. (2005). Stereotypes and the fragility of human competence, motivation, and self-concept. In C. Dweck & E. Elliot (Eds.), Handbook of Competence & Motivation. New York, Guilford.
  • Cohen, G., Steele, C. M., & Ross, L. D. (1999). The mentor's dilemma: Providing critical feedback across the racial divide. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 1302-1318.
  • Josephs, R. A., Larrick, R.P, Steele, C. M., & Nisbett, R. E. (1992). Protecting the self from the negative consequences of risky decisions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62(1), 26-37.
  • Marx, D., Brown, J., & Steele, C. M. (in press). Allport and stereotype threat: On being the target of a negative stereotype. Journal of Social Issues.
  • Steele, C. M. (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape the intellectual identities and performance of women and African-Americans. American Psychologist, 52, 613-629.
  • Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African-Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 797-811.
  • Steele, C. M., & Josephs, R. A. (1990). Alcohol myopia: Its prized and dangerous effects. American Psychologist, 45(8), 921-933.
  • Steele, C. M., Spencer, S. J., & Lynch, M. (1993). Self-image resilience and dissonance: The role of affirmational resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 885-896.
  • Crocker, J., Major, B., & Steele, C. (1998). Social stigma. In D. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (4th ed., vol. 2, pp. 504-553). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
  • Spencer, S. J., Josephs, R. A., & Steele, C. M. (1993). Low self-esteem: The uphill struggle for self-integrity. In R. F. Baumeister (Ed.), Self-esteem and the puzzle of low self-regard. New York: Wiley.
  • Steele, C. M. (1999, August). Thin ice: "Stereotype threat" and black college students. The Atlantic Monthly. 284(2), 44-47, 50-54.
  • Steele, C. M. (1992, April). Race and the schooling of black Americans. The Atlantic Monthly, 68-78.
  • Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (in press). How stereotypes influence the standardized test performance of talented African American students. In C. Jencks & M. Phillips (Eds.), Black-White Test Score Differences. Harvard Press.
  • Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1998). Stereotype threat and the test performance of academically successful African Americans. In C. Jencks & M. Phillips (Eds.), Black-White test score gap. Brookings Institution Press.
  • Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1994). Stereotype vulnerability and African-American intellectual performance. In E. Aronson (Ed.), Readings about the social animal. New York: Freeman & Co.
  • Steele, C. M., Spencer, S. J., Hummel, M., Schoem, D., Carter, K., Harber, K., & Nisbett, R. (in press). Improving minority performance: An intervention in higher education. In C. Jencks & M. Phillips (Eds.), Black-White Test Score Differences. Harvard Press.

ReferencesEdit

  1. Identity Happens: How It Shapes Performance, Emotion, and Our Lives in a Diverse Society


External linksEdit

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