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{{ProfPsy}}
 
{{ProfPsy}}
   
A '''citation''' is a credit or reference to another document or source which documents both influence and authority. There are many rules for the format and use of such citations in different fields:
 
   
Varying rules and practices for citations apply in a [[scientific citation|science]], a [[Legal citation|law]], a [[theology|theological citing]] of authority (e.g. the [[isnad]] which "back" the [[hadith]] in [[Islam]]), the [[prior art]] that applies in [[patent law]], or marks applied in [[copyright]].
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{{Selfref|"Citation needed" redirects here. For the Psychology Wiki tag, see [[Template:Citation needed]]. For Psychology Wiki's citation guideline, see [[Psychology Wiki:Citing sources]]. For Psychology Wiki's citation templates, see [[Psychology Wiki:Citation templates]].}}
   
Definitions of [[plagiarism]], uniqueness or [[innovation]], trustworthiness or reliability vary so widely among these fields that the use of citations has no simple common practice. In any of these fields the concept of a [[citation index]] can apply, which summarizes published citations of a given publication.
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Broadly, a '''citation''' is a [[reference]] to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source).<ref>[http://www.kyvl.org/html/tutorial/research/intext.shtml Citing indirect sources]</ref> More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. [Newell84]) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not).
   
When using citations, one generally uses both a [[works cited]] page or section--also called the [[bibliography]], [[source list]] or [[list]] of [[reference]]s--in conjunction with [[parenthetical citation|parenthetical citations]] (citations which refer the reader to a particular cited work). As an alternative to parenthetical citations, some styles include citations in [[footnote]]s, which appear at the end of each page, or [[endnote]]s, which appear at the end of the document.
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A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty; to attribute to other authors the ideas they have previously expressed, rather than give the appearance to the work's readers that the work's authors are the original wellsprings of those ideas.
   
== Citation styles ==
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The forms of citations generally subscribe to one of the generally-accepted citations systems, such as the Harvard, APA, and other citations systems, as their syntactic conventions are widely-known and easily interpreted by readers. Each of these citation systems has its respective advantages and disadvantages relative to the tradeoffs of being informative (but not too disruptive) and thus should be chosen relative to the needs of the type of publication being crafted. Editors will often specify the citation system to use.
   
Some works are so long established as to have their own citation methods: [[Stephanus pagination]] for [[Plato]]; [[Bekker numbers]] for [[Aristotle]]; line numbers in poems; [[bible citation]] by book, chapter and verse; or [[Shakespeare]] notation by play, act and scene.
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Bibliographies, and other list-like compilations of references, are generally not considered citations because they do not fulfill the true spirit of the term: deliberate acknowledgement by other authors of the priority of one's ideas.
   
Various organizations have created systems of citation to fit their needs. Some of the most important are:
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==Concepts==
   
*The ACS style is the [[American Chemical Society]] style format and is often used in chemical literature.
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*A '''bibliographic citation''' is a reference to a [[book]], [[article (publishing)|article]], [[web page]], or other published item. Citations should supply sufficient detail to identify the item uniquely.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ben.edu/library/help/glossary.htm |title=Library glossary |accessdate=2009-02-27 |date=August 22, 2008 |work= |publisher=[[Benedictine University]] |dateformat=lmdy}}</ref> Different citation systems and styles are used in [[scientific citation]], [[legal citation]], [[prior art]], and [[the arts]] and the [[humanities]].
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*A '''citation number''', used in some citation systems, is a number or symbol added [[inline]] and usually in superscript, to refer readers to a footnote or endnote that cites the source. In other citation systems, an [[inline]] parenthetical reference is used rather than a citation number, with limited information such as the author's last name, year of publication, and page number referenced; a full identification of the source will then appear in an appended [[bibliography]].
   
*The [[APA style]] is the [[American Psychological Association]] style format which is most often used in [[social sciences]]. APA style lists sources at the end of the paper, on a References Page. Listing electronic sources of information is more detailed in APA style than in MLA style. APA style uses parenthetical citation within the text, listing the author's name, the year the work was made, and the page that the information may be found on. These work much like the MLA style's parenthetical citations.
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== Citation content ==
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Citation content can vary depending on the [[type]] of source and may include:
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*''Book:'' author(s), book title, publisher, date of publication, and page number(s) if appropriate.<ref>[[Long Island University]].</ref><ref>[[Duke University]] Libraries 2007.</ref>
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*''Journal:'' author(s), article title, journal title, date of publication, and page number(s).
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*''Newspaper:'' author(s), article title, name of newspaper, section title and page number(s) if desired, date of publication.
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*''Web site:'' author(s), article and publication title where appropriate, as well as a [[Uniform Resource Locator|URL]], and a date when the site was accessed.
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*''Play:'' inline citations offer part, scene, and line numbers, the latter separated by periods: 4.452 refers to scene 4, line 452. For example, "In Eugene Onegin, Onegin rejects Tanya when she is free to be his, and only decides he wants her when she is already married" (Pushkin 4.452-53).<ref name=Brigham>[[Brigham Young University]] 2008.</ref>
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*''Poem:'' spaced [[Slash (punctuation)#In English text|slashes]] are normally used to indicate separate lines of a poem, and [[Parenthetical referencing|parenthetical citations]] usually include the line number(s). For example: "For I must love because I live&nbsp;/ And life in me is what you give." (Brennan, lines 15&ndash;16).<ref name=Brigham/>
   
* The [[American Political Science Association]] (APSA) publication on citation is the [[Style Manual for Political Science]], which is a system often used by political science scholars and historians. It is largely based on that of the Chicago Manual of Style.
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=== Unique identifiers ===
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Along with [[information]] such as author(s), date of [[publication]], [[title]] and [[page number]]s, citations may also include [[unique]] identifiers depending on the type of work being referred to.
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* Citations of books may include an [[International Standard Book Number]] (ISBN).
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* Specific volumes, articles or other identifiable parts of a periodical, may have an associated [[Serial Item and Contribution Identifier]] (SICI).
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* Electronic documents may have a [[digital object identifier]] (DOI).
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* Biomedical research articles may have a PubMed Identifier ([[PMID]]).
   
*The [[Bluebook]] is the citation system traditionally used in American academic legal writing, and the Bluebook (or similar systems derived from it) are used by many courts. The dominance of the Bluebook is currently being challenged by the newer [[ALWD Citation Manual]]. At present, academic legal articles are always footnoted, but motions submitted to courts and court opinions traditionally use [[inline citation]]s which are either separate sentences or separate clauses. Inline citation is controversial among lawyers, because it is thought to be one of the reasons why most laypersons find legal writing hard to read.
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== Citation systems ==
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Broadly speaking, there are two citation systems:<ref>[[University of Maryland, College Park]] 2006.</ref><ref name=YaleUni>[[Yale University]] 2008.</ref><ref name=ColoradoStateUni>[[Colorado State University]] 2008.</ref>
   
*The [[CBE style]] is the [[Council of Biology Editors]] style format, which is most often used in scientific papers and research.
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=== Note systems ===
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Note systems involve the use of sequential numbers in the text which refer to either footnotes (notes at the end of the page) or endnotes (a note on a separate page at the end of the paper) which gives the source detail. The notes system may or may not require a full bibliography, depending on whether the writer has used a full note form or a shortened note form.
   
*The [[The Chicago Manual of Style|Chicago Style]] was developed and its guide is ''The Chicago Manual of Style''. Some social sciences and humanities scholars use the nearly identical [[Turabian]] style.
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For example, an excerpt from the text of a paper using a notes system ''without a full bibliography'' could look like this:
   
*The [[Columbia Style]] was made by Janice R. Walker and Todd Taylor to give detailed guidelines for citing internet sources. Columbia Style offers models for both the humanities and the sciences. More information can be found in ''[http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cup/cgos/index.html The Columbia Guide to Online Style]''.
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:"The five stages of grief are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance."<sup>1</sup>
   
*The [[MHRA Style Guide]] is the [[Modern Humanities Research Association]] style format and is most often used in the arts and humanities, particularly in the [[United Kingdom]] where the MHRA is based. It is fairly similar to the MLA style, but with some differences. The style guide uses footnotes that fully reference a citation and has a bibliography at the end. Its major advantage is that a reader does not need to consult the bibliography to find a reference as the footnote provides all the details. The guide is available for free download [http://www.mhra.org.uk/Publications/Books/StyleGuide/].
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The note, located either at the foot of the page (footnote) or at the end of the paper (endnote) would look like this:
   
*[[The MLA style manual|MLA style]] was developed by The [[Modern Language Association]] and is most often used in [[English studies]], [[comparative literature]], foreign-language [[literary criticism]], and some other fields in the [[humanities]]. MLA style uses a Works Cited Page to list works at the end of the paper. Brief parenthetical citations, which include an author and page (if applicable), are used within the text. These direct readers to the work of the author on the list of works cited, and the page of the work where the information is located (e.g. <tt>(Smith 107)</tt> refers the reader to page 107 of the work made by someone named Smith). More information can be found in the ''MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers''.
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:1. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, ''On Death and Dying'' (New York: Macmillan, 1969) 45–60.
   
Citations permit readers to put the claims to a better test by consulting the earlier work. Authors often engage earlier work directly, explaining why they agree or differ from earlier views. Ideally, sources are primary (first-hand), recent, with good ethos, credentials, and citations. Some have questioned the authority assumed or conferred by citation, considering it endlessly recursive, the authority of a work resting on its citations, the authority of which in turn rely on their citations.
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In a paper which contains a full bibliography, the shortened note could look like this:
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:1. Kübler-Ross, ''On Death and Dying'' 45–60.
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and the bibliography entry, which would be required with a shortened note, would look like this:
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:Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth. ''On Death and Dying''. New York: Macmillan, 1969.
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In the humanities, many authors use footnotes or endnotes to supply anecdotal information. In this way, what looks like a citation is actually supplementary material, or suggestions for further reading.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.studenthandouts.com/citations.htm |title=How to Write Research Papers with Citations - MLA, APA, Footnotes, Endnotes |accessdate=2010-01-31 |dateformat=lmdy}}</ref>
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===Parenthetical referencing===
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[[Parenthetical referencing]] is where full or partial, in-text citations are enclosed within parentheses and embedded in the paragraph, as opposed to the footnote style. Depending on the choice of style, fully cited parenthetical references may require no end section. Alternately a list of the citations with complete bibliographical references may be included in an end section sorted alphabetically by author's last name.
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This section may be known as:
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* References
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* Bibliography
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* Works cited
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* Works consulted
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== Citation styles ==
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{{styles}}
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{{Main|APA style|MLA style|The Chicago Manual of Style|Bluebook|ALWD Citation Manual|ASA style|Harvard referencing|Vancouver system}}
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Citation styles can be broadly divided into styles common to the Humanities and the Sciences, though there is considerable overlap. Some style guides, such as the Chicago Manual of Style, are quite flexible and cover both parenthetical and note citation systems.<ref name=ColoradoStateUni/> Others, such as [[MLA style manual|MLA]] and [[APA style|APA]] styles, specify formats within the context of a single citation system.<ref name=YaleUni/> These may be referred to as citation formats as well as citation styles.<ref>[[California State University]] 2007.</ref><ref>[[Lesley University]] 2007.</ref><ref>[[Rochester Institute of Technology]] 2003.</ref> The various guides thus specify order of appearance, for example, of publication date, title, and page numbers following the author name, in addition to conventions of punctuation, use of italics, emphasis, parenthesis, quotation marks, etc., particular to their style.
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A number of organizations have created styles to fit their needs; consequently, a number of different guides exist. Individual publishers often have their own in-house variations as well, and some works are so long-established as to have their own citation methods too: [[Stephanus pagination]] for [[Plato]]; [[Bekker numbers]] for [[Aristotle]]; citing the Bible by book, chapter and verse; or [[Shakespeare]] notation by play, act and scene.
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Some examples of style guides include:
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=== Humanities ===
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*The [[American Political Science Association]] (APSA) relies on the ''Style Manual for Political Science'', a style often used by political science scholars and historians. It is largely based on that of the Chicago Manual of Style.
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*The [[ASA style]] of [[American Sociological Association]] is one of the main styles used in [[sociological]] publications.
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*The [[The Chicago Manual of Style|Chicago Style]] (CMOS) was developed and its guide is ''The Chicago Manual of Style''. Some social sciences and humanities scholars use the nearly identical [[Turabian]] style. Used by writers in many fields.
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*The Columbia Style was made by Janice R. Walker and Todd Taylor to give detailed guidelines for citing internet sources. Columbia Style offers models for both the humanities and the sciences.
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*''Evidence Explained: Citing History Sources from Artifacts to Cyberspace'' by Elizabeth Shown Mills covers primary sources not included in CMOS, such as censuses, court, land, government, business, and church records. Includes sources in electronic format. Used by genealogists and historians.<ref name="evidence">Mills, Elizabeth Shown. Evidence explained : citing history sources from artifacts to cyberspace (Baltimore:Genealogical Pub. Co., 2007).</ref>
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*[[Harvard referencing]] (or author-date system) is a specific kind of [[parenthetical referencing]]. Parenthetical referencing is recommended by both the [[BSI Group|British Standards Institution]] and the [[Modern Language Association]]. Harvard referencing involves a short author-date reference, e.g., "(Smith, 2000)", being inserted after the cited text within parentheses and the full reference to the source being listed at the end of the article.
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*[[The MLA Style Manual|MLA style]] was developed by the [[Modern Language Association]] and is most often used in [[the arts]] and the [[humanities]], particularly in [[English studies]], other [[Literary criticism|literary studies]], including [[comparative literature]] and [[literary criticism]] in languages other than English ("[[foreign languages]]"), and some [[Interdisciplinarity|interdisciplinary]] studies, such as [[cultural studies]], [[drama]] and [[theatre]], [[film]], and other [[Mass media|media]], including [[television]]. This style of citations and bibliographical format uses [[parenthetical referencing]] with author-page (Smith 395) or author-[short] title-page (Smith, ''Contingencies'' 42) in the case of more than one work by the same author within parentheses in the text, keyed to an alphabetical list of sources on a "Works Cited" page at the end of the paper, as well as notes (footnotes or endnotes). See ''[[The MLA Style Manual]]'' and ''[[The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers]]'', particularly [[The MLA Style Manual#Citation and bibliography format|Citation and bibliography format]].<ref>The field of [[Communication]] (or Communications) overlaps with some of the disciplines also covered by the [[Modern Language Association|MLA]] and has its own disciplinary style recommendations for documentation format; the style guide recommended for use in student papers in such departments in American colleges and universities is often ''[[APA style|The Publication Manual of the APA]]'' ([[American Psychological Association]]); designated for short as "[[APA style]]".</ref>
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*The [[MHRA Style Guide]] is published by the [[Modern Humanities Research Association]] (MHRA) and most widely used in the arts and humanities in the [[United Kingdom]], where the MHRA is based. It is available for sale both in the UK and in the [[United States]]. It is similar to [[The MLA Style Manual|MLA style]], but has some differences. For example, MHRA style uses footnotes that reference a citation fully while also providing a bibliography. Some readers find it advantageous that the footnotes provide full citations, instead of shortened references, so that they do not need to consult the bibliography while reading for the rest of the publication details.<ref>The 2nd edition (updated April 2008) of the ''[[MHRA Style Guide]]'' is downloadable for free from the [[Modern Humanities Research Association]] official Website.</ref>
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=== Law ===
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{{Main|Legal citation}}
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*The [[Bluebook]] is a citation system traditionally used in American academic legal writing, and the Bluebook (or similar systems derived from it) are used by many courts.<ref>Martin 2007.</ref> At present, academic legal articles are always footnoted, but motions submitted to courts and court opinions traditionally use [[inline citation]]s which are either separate sentences or separate clauses.
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*The legal citation style used almost universally in Canada is based on the ''Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation'' (aka ''[[McGill Guide]]''), published by ''McGill Law Journal''.<ref>''[http://lawjournal.mcgill.ca/citeguide.php Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (Cite Guide)]''. ''McGill Law Journal''. Updated October 2008. Retrieved on 2009-02-05.</ref>
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=== Sciences, mathematics, engineering, physiology, and medicine ===
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{{Main|Scientific citation}}
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*The [[American Chemical Society]] style, or [[ACS style]], is often used in [[chemistry]] and other physical sciences. In ACS style references are numbered in the text and in the reference list, and numbers are repeated throughout the text as needed.
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*In the style of the [[American Institute of Physics]] (AIP style), references are also numbered in the text and in the reference list, with numbers repeated throughout the text as needed.
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*Styles developed for the [[American Mathematical Society]] (AMS), or AMS styles, such as [[AMS-LaTeX]], are typically implemented using the [[BibTeX]] tool in the [[LaTeX]] typesetting environment. Brackets with author’s initials and year are inserted in the text and at the beginning of the reference. Typical citations are listed in-line with alphabetic-label format, e.g. [AB90]. This type of style is also called a "''Authorship trigraph.''"
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*The [[Vancouver system]], recommended by the [[Council of Science Editors]] (CSE), is used in medical and scientific papers and research.
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**In one major variant, that used by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), citation numbers are included in the text in square brackets rather than as superscripts. All bibliographical information is exclusively included in the list of references at the end of the document, next to the respective citation number.
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**The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) is reportedly the original kernel of this biomedical style which evolved from the Vancouver 1978 editors' meeting.<ref>''[http://www.icmje.org Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals]''.</ref> The [[MEDLINE]]/[[PubMed]] database uses this citation style and the [[National Library of Medicine]] provides "ICMJE [[Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals]] -- Sample References".<ref>International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html "ICMJE Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals -- Sample References"].</ref>
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*The style of the [[Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers]] (IEEE), or IEEE style, encloses citation numbers within square brackets and arranges the reference list by the order of citation, not by alphabetical order.
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*Pechenik Citation Style is a style described in ''A Short Guide to Writing about Biology'', 6th ed. (2007), by [[Jan Pechenik|Jan A. Pechenik]].<ref>''[http://www.augustana.ca/files/group/418/pechenik_qg_november2007.pdf Pechenik Citation Style QuickGuide]'' ([[PDF]]). [[University of Alberta]], Augustana Campus, Canada. [[World Wide Web|Web]]. November 2007.</ref>
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*In 2006, Eugene Garfield proposed a bibliographic system for scientific literature, to consolidate the integrity of [[scientific publishing|scientific publications]].<ref name=cisn>{{cite journal
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| last = Garfield
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| first = Eugene
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| authorlink =
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| coauthors =
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| title = Citation indexes for science. A new dimension in documentation through association of ideas
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| journal = International Journal of Epidemiology
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| volume = 35
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| issue = 5
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| pages = 1123–1127
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| publisher =
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| location =
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| date = 2006
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| url =
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| issn =
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| doi = 1093/ije/dyl189
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| id =
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| accessdate = 12 June 2009
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| pmid = 16987841
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| doi_brokendate = 2010-01-07}}</ref>
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=== Social sciences ===
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*The style of the [[American Psychological Association]], or [[APA style]], published in ''[[The Style Manual of the APA]]'', is most often used in [[social sciences]]. APA style uses [[Harvard referencing]] within the text, listing the author's name and year of publication, keyed to an alphabetical list of sources at the end of the paper on a References page
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*The [[American Political Science Association]] publishes both a style manual and a style guide for publications in this field.<ref name=APSA>Stephen Yoder, ed. (2008). ''The APSA Guide to Writing and Publishing'' and ''Style Manual for Political Science''. Rev. ed. August 2006.
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[http://www.apsanet.org/content_6899.cfm?navID=248 APSAnet.org Publications]. Retrieved on 2009-02-05.</ref>
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*The [[American Anthropological Association]] utilizes a modified form of the [[Chicago Manual of Style|Chicago Style]] laid out in their [http://www.aaanet.org/publications/guidlines.cfm Publishing Style Guide]
   
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
*[[Acknowledgment (creative arts)]]
 
*[[Bekker numbers]] for citations of Aristotle
 
*[[Citation impact]]
 
*[[Citation signal]]
 
*[[Credit (creative arts)]]
 
*[[Scholarly method]]
 
*[[Stephanus pagination]] for citations of Plato
 
*[[Bible citation]]
 
 
*[[Case citation]]
 
*[[Case citation]]
*[[Legal citation]]
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*[[Citation creator]]
*[[Citation (horse)]]
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*[[Cross-reference]]
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*[[Scholarly method]]
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*[[Source evaluation]]
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*[[Style guide]]
   
== References ==
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== Footnotes ==
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{{Reflist|2}}
   
* American Psychological Association (2001) ''Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fifth Edition''. American Psychological Association. ISBN 1557987912
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== References ==
* Gibaldi, J. (2003) ''MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (6th Ed)''. Modern Language Association. ISBN 0873529863
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<!--This list needs to be ordered alphabetically.-->
* Walker, J and Taylor, T. (1998) ''The Columbia Guide to Online Style''. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231107897
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{{Refbegin}}
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*<cite id=refLongIslandUni>{{cite web |url=http://www.liunet.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workbook/evaluate.htm#citing |title=Anatomy of a Citation |work=LIUNet.edu |accessdate=2008-02-03}}</cite>
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*<cite id=refLesleyUni>{{cite web |url=http://www.lesley.edu/library/guides/citation/apa.html |title=APA Citation Format |work=Lesley.edu |year=2005 |accessdate=2008-02-11}}</cite>
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*<cite id=refRIT>{{cite web |url=http://wally.rit.edu/pubs/guides/apa.html |title=APA Citation Format |work=RIT.edu |year=2003 |accessdate=2008-02-11}}</cite>
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*<cite id=refCaliforniaStateUni>{{cite web |url=http://www.csuchico.edu/lref/newciting.html |title=Citation Formats & Style Manuals |work=CSUChico.edu |year=2007 |accessdate=2008-02-11}}</cite>
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*<cite id=refUniMaryland>{{cite web |url=http://www.lib.umd.edu/guides/style_manuals.html |title=Citation Systems and Style Manuals |work=UMD.edu |year=2006 |accessdate=2008-02-11}}</cite>
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*<cite id=refBrigham>{{cite web |url=http://www.byui.edu/english/mlaguide/MLA_intext_citation.htm |title=How to cite sources in the body of your paper |work=BYUI.edu |year=2008 |accessdate=2008-02-08}}</cite>
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*<cite id=refIEEEstyle>{{cite web |url=http://www.ieee.org/portal/cms_docs_iportals/iportals/publications/authors/transjnl/stylemanual.pdf |title=IEEE Editorial Style Manual |work=IEEE.org |year=2007 |accessdate=2008-02-08}}</cite>
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*<cite id=refMHRA>{{cite web |url=http://www.mhra.org.uk/Publications/Books/StyleGuide/ |title=MHRA Style Guide: A Handbook for Authors, Editors, and Writers of Theses|work=MHRA.org.uk |publisher=Modern Humanities Research Association|year=2008|accessdate=2009-02-05}} (2nd ed.)</cite>
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*<cite id=refPechenik2004>{{cite book |title=A Short Guide to Writing About Biology |publisher=Pearson/Longman |location=[[New York City|New York]] |first=Jan A |last=Pechenik |year=2004 |edition=5th |isbn=0321159810 |oclc=52166026}}</cite>
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*<cite id=refYaleUni>{{cite web |url=http://www.yale.edu/bass/writing/sources/kinds/principles/why.html |title=Why Are There Different Citation Styles? |work=Yale.edu |year=2008 |accessdate=2008-02-11}}</cite>
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*<cite id=refWright & Armstrong 2008>{{cite journal |url=http://marketing.wharton.upenn.edu/Marketing_Content_Management/Marketing_files/Publication_Files/Citations-Interfaces.pdf |title=The Ombudsman: Verification of Citations: Fawlty Towers of Knowledge? |journal=Interfaces |publisher=Institute of Management Sciences |location=[[Providence, Rhode Island|Providence]] |first=Malcolm |last=Wright |coauthors=Armstrong, J Scott |pages=125–139 |volume=38 |issue=2 |date=March 2008 |oclc=229821277 |doi=10.1287/inte.1070.0317 |format={{Dead link|date=March 2009}} &ndash; <sup>[http://scholar.google.co.uk/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=author%3AWright+intitle%3AThe+Ombudsman%3A+Verification+of+Citations%3A+Fawlty+Towers+of+Knowledge%3F&as_publication=Interface&as_ylo=&as_yhi=&btnG=Search Scholar search]</sup>}}</cite>
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{{Refend}}
   
 
== External links ==
 
== External links ==
+
;Guidelines
Guidelines
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*[http://www.library.unt.edu/govinfo/browse-topics/citation-guides-and-style-manuals/citing-government-documents/?searchterm=citing%20government Citing Government Documents/Government Agency Style Manuals], University of North Texas Libraries.
* Radford, Robert, ''[http://www.angelfire.com/tv2/robertradford0/Footnotes/footnotes.htm How to write footnotes or endnotes]''.
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*[http://www.documentit.co.uk/download.php Document it Citation and Referee AMS], and the [[AMSRefs]] package.
*[http://www.uwsp.edu/psych/apa4b.htm Psychology with Style: A Hypertext Writing Guide]
 
*[http://www.library.unt.edu/govinfo/citate/Citegen.html General Guidelines for Citing Government Publications]
 
 
*[http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/journalism/cite.html Guide to Citation Style Guides]
 
*[http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/journalism/cite.html Guide to Citation Style Guides]
*[http://www.aresearchguide.com/11guide.html Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography in MLA Style]
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*[http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/citex.html ONLINE! Citation Styles (An online guide to different citation formats)]
*[http://www.aresearchguide.com/12biblio.html How to Write a Bibliography - Examples in MLA Style]
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*[http://turnitin.com/research_site/e_citation.html "What is citation?"], ''Turnitin.com''
*[http://www.aresearchguide.com/7footnot.html How to Write Footnotes and Endnotes in MLA Style]
+
*[http://www.makecitation.com "Cater all your Citation needs?"], ''Makecitation.com''
*[http://www.aresearchguide.com/8firstfo.html First Footnotes and Endnotes - Examples in MLA Style]
+
;Examples
*[http://www.aresearchguide.com/9parenth.html Parenthetical Reference - Examples in MLA Style]
+
*[http://www.cs.stir.ac.uk/~kjt/software/latex/showbst.html Illustrated examples], generated using [[BibTeX]], of several major styles, including more than those listed above.
  +
*PDF file [http://amath.colorado.edu/documentation/LaTeX/reference/faq/bibstyles.pdf bibstyles.pdf] illustrates how several bibliographic styles appear with citations and reference entries, generated using [[BibTeX]].
   
+
;Style guides
Style Guides
 
*[http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/mla/ A Guide for Writing Research Papers Based on Modern Language Association (MLA) Documentation]
 
 
*[http://www.liunet.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citama.htm AMA Citation Style]
 
*[http://www.liunet.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citama.htm AMA Citation Style]
*[http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/citex.html An online guide to different citation formats]
+
*[http://robertradford.com/Footnotes/footnotes_html/fnotes_html_en.htm How to write footnotes, endnotes and electronic references in a proper format]
*[http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html APA Style.org]
+
*Swarthmore library's Guide to Citation Styles for [http://www.swarthmore.edu/Documents/library/reftip_citesci.pdf Science] and [http://www.swarthmore.edu/Documents/library/reftip_citestyle.pdf Humanities].
*[http://www.english.uiuc.edu/cws/wworkshop/writer_resources/citation_styles/apa/apa.htm Citation Styles Handbook: APA]
 
*[http://www.english.uiuc.edu/cws/wworkshop/writer_resources/citation_styles/mla/mla.htm Citation Styles Handbook: MLA]
 
*[http://www.rhetoric.umn.edu/Student/Graduate/~mstewart/citations/ Citing Electronic Documentation] (APA, Chicago, MLA)
 
*[http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_apa.html Using American Psychological Association (APA) Format] (Updated to 5th Edition)
 
*[http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cup/cgos/idx_basic.html The Columbia Guide to Online Style]
 
*[http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/DocChiWorksCited.html Chicago/Turabian Documentation]
 
*[http://library.concordia.ca/help/howto/turabian.pdf Citation Guide - Turabian] (.PDF file)
 
*[http://www.stthomas.edu/libraries/guides/quickref/citing/ASRstyle.htm Sociology style (ASR)]
 
*[http://www.aresearchguide.com/styleguides.html Research, Writing, and Style Guides] (MLA, APA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard, CGOS, CBE)
 
   
Tools
+
;Other online resources
* [http://citationmachine.net/ The Citation Machine], a site which generates full MLA and APA citations.
+
*[http://www.thehistorysite.org thehistorysite.org] Online resources for historical research and writing.
* [http://english.ttu.edu/kairos/3.1/coverweb/ipc/authorship.htm The Citation Functions: Literary Production and Reception] by The (In)Citers, featuring full position statements and citation bibliography
 
* [http://www.citeulike.org/ CiteULike.org] - 'CiteULike: Everyone's library' (citation compilation wiki)
 
* [http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/DocAPSA.html], a site that presents the format used by the APSA.
 
* [http://www.apsanet.org/section_362.cfm], the page on the APSA site listing its publications, including the Style Manual for Political Science (for purchase)
 
Other
 
*[http://www.ee.ucla.edu/~simkin/read_before_you_cite.html Unread citations]
 
 
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Latest revision as of 11:10, May 5, 2010

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"Citation needed" redirects here. For the Psychology Wiki tag, see Template:Citation needed. For Psychology Wiki's citation guideline, see Psychology Wiki:Citing sources. For Psychology Wiki's citation templates, see Psychology Wiki:Citation templates.

Broadly, a citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source).[1] More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. [Newell84]) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not).

A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty; to attribute to other authors the ideas they have previously expressed, rather than give the appearance to the work's readers that the work's authors are the original wellsprings of those ideas.

The forms of citations generally subscribe to one of the generally-accepted citations systems, such as the Harvard, APA, and other citations systems, as their syntactic conventions are widely-known and easily interpreted by readers. Each of these citation systems has its respective advantages and disadvantages relative to the tradeoffs of being informative (but not too disruptive) and thus should be chosen relative to the needs of the type of publication being crafted. Editors will often specify the citation system to use.

Bibliographies, and other list-like compilations of references, are generally not considered citations because they do not fulfill the true spirit of the term: deliberate acknowledgement by other authors of the priority of one's ideas.

ConceptsEdit

  • A bibliographic citation is a reference to a book, article, web page, or other published item. Citations should supply sufficient detail to identify the item uniquely.[2] Different citation systems and styles are used in scientific citation, legal citation, prior art, and the arts and the humanities.
  • A citation number, used in some citation systems, is a number or symbol added inline and usually in superscript, to refer readers to a footnote or endnote that cites the source. In other citation systems, an inline parenthetical reference is used rather than a citation number, with limited information such as the author's last name, year of publication, and page number referenced; a full identification of the source will then appear in an appended bibliography.

Citation content Edit

Citation content can vary depending on the type of source and may include:

  • Book: author(s), book title, publisher, date of publication, and page number(s) if appropriate.[3][4]
  • Journal: author(s), article title, journal title, date of publication, and page number(s).
  • Newspaper: author(s), article title, name of newspaper, section title and page number(s) if desired, date of publication.
  • Web site: author(s), article and publication title where appropriate, as well as a URL, and a date when the site was accessed.
  • Play: inline citations offer part, scene, and line numbers, the latter separated by periods: 4.452 refers to scene 4, line 452. For example, "In Eugene Onegin, Onegin rejects Tanya when she is free to be his, and only decides he wants her when she is already married" (Pushkin 4.452-53).[5]
  • Poem: spaced slashes are normally used to indicate separate lines of a poem, and parenthetical citations usually include the line number(s). For example: "For I must love because I live / And life in me is what you give." (Brennan, lines 15–16).[5]

Unique identifiers Edit

Along with information such as author(s), date of publication, title and page numbers, citations may also include unique identifiers depending on the type of work being referred to.

Citation systems Edit

Broadly speaking, there are two citation systems:[6][7][8]

Note systems Edit

Note systems involve the use of sequential numbers in the text which refer to either footnotes (notes at the end of the page) or endnotes (a note on a separate page at the end of the paper) which gives the source detail. The notes system may or may not require a full bibliography, depending on whether the writer has used a full note form or a shortened note form.

For example, an excerpt from the text of a paper using a notes system without a full bibliography could look like this:

"The five stages of grief are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance."1

The note, located either at the foot of the page (footnote) or at the end of the paper (endnote) would look like this:

1. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, On Death and Dying (New York: Macmillan, 1969) 45–60.

In a paper which contains a full bibliography, the shortened note could look like this:

1. Kübler-Ross, On Death and Dying 45–60.

and the bibliography entry, which would be required with a shortened note, would look like this:

Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth. On Death and Dying. New York: Macmillan, 1969.

In the humanities, many authors use footnotes or endnotes to supply anecdotal information. In this way, what looks like a citation is actually supplementary material, or suggestions for further reading.[9]

Parenthetical referencingEdit

Parenthetical referencing is where full or partial, in-text citations are enclosed within parentheses and embedded in the paragraph, as opposed to the footnote style. Depending on the choice of style, fully cited parenthetical references may require no end section. Alternately a list of the citations with complete bibliographical references may be included in an end section sorted alphabetically by author's last name.

This section may be known as:

  • References
  • Bibliography
  • Works cited
  • Works consulted

Citation styles Edit

Template:Styles

Main article: APA style

Citation styles can be broadly divided into styles common to the Humanities and the Sciences, though there is considerable overlap. Some style guides, such as the Chicago Manual of Style, are quite flexible and cover both parenthetical and note citation systems.[8] Others, such as MLA and APA styles, specify formats within the context of a single citation system.[7] These may be referred to as citation formats as well as citation styles.[10][11][12] The various guides thus specify order of appearance, for example, of publication date, title, and page numbers following the author name, in addition to conventions of punctuation, use of italics, emphasis, parenthesis, quotation marks, etc., particular to their style.

A number of organizations have created styles to fit their needs; consequently, a number of different guides exist. Individual publishers often have their own in-house variations as well, and some works are so long-established as to have their own citation methods too: Stephanus pagination for Plato; Bekker numbers for Aristotle; citing the Bible by book, chapter and verse; or Shakespeare notation by play, act and scene.

Some examples of style guides include:

Humanities Edit

Law Edit

Main article: Legal citation
  • The Bluebook is a citation system traditionally used in American academic legal writing, and the Bluebook (or similar systems derived from it) are used by many courts.[16] At present, academic legal articles are always footnoted, but motions submitted to courts and court opinions traditionally use inline citations which are either separate sentences or separate clauses.
  • The legal citation style used almost universally in Canada is based on the Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (aka McGill Guide), published by McGill Law Journal.[17]

Sciences, mathematics, engineering, physiology, and medicine Edit

Main article: Scientific citation
  • The American Chemical Society style, or ACS style, is often used in chemistry and other physical sciences. In ACS style references are numbered in the text and in the reference list, and numbers are repeated throughout the text as needed.
  • In the style of the American Institute of Physics (AIP style), references are also numbered in the text and in the reference list, with numbers repeated throughout the text as needed.
  • Styles developed for the American Mathematical Society (AMS), or AMS styles, such as AMS-LaTeX, are typically implemented using the BibTeX tool in the LaTeX typesetting environment. Brackets with author’s initials and year are inserted in the text and at the beginning of the reference. Typical citations are listed in-line with alphabetic-label format, e.g. [AB90]. This type of style is also called a "Authorship trigraph."
  • The Vancouver system, recommended by the Council of Science Editors (CSE), is used in medical and scientific papers and research.
    • In one major variant, that used by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), citation numbers are included in the text in square brackets rather than as superscripts. All bibliographical information is exclusively included in the list of references at the end of the document, next to the respective citation number.
    • The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) is reportedly the original kernel of this biomedical style which evolved from the Vancouver 1978 editors' meeting.[18] The MEDLINE/PubMed database uses this citation style and the National Library of Medicine provides "ICMJE Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals -- Sample References".[19]
  • The style of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), or IEEE style, encloses citation numbers within square brackets and arranges the reference list by the order of citation, not by alphabetical order.
  • Pechenik Citation Style is a style described in A Short Guide to Writing about Biology, 6th ed. (2007), by Jan A. Pechenik.[20]
  • In 2006, Eugene Garfield proposed a bibliographic system for scientific literature, to consolidate the integrity of scientific publications.[21]

Social sciences Edit

See also Edit

Footnotes Edit

  1. Citing indirect sources
  2. Library glossary. Benedictine University. URL accessed on 2009-02-27.
  3. Long Island University.
  4. Duke University Libraries 2007.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Brigham Young University 2008.
  6. University of Maryland, College Park 2006.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Yale University 2008.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Colorado State University 2008.
  9. How to Write Research Papers with Citations - MLA, APA, Footnotes, Endnotes. URL accessed on 2010-01-31.
  10. California State University 2007.
  11. Lesley University 2007.
  12. Rochester Institute of Technology 2003.
  13. Mills, Elizabeth Shown. Evidence explained : citing history sources from artifacts to cyberspace (Baltimore:Genealogical Pub. Co., 2007).
  14. The field of Communication (or Communications) overlaps with some of the disciplines also covered by the MLA and has its own disciplinary style recommendations for documentation format; the style guide recommended for use in student papers in such departments in American colleges and universities is often The Publication Manual of the APA (American Psychological Association); designated for short as "APA style".
  15. The 2nd edition (updated April 2008) of the MHRA Style Guide is downloadable for free from the Modern Humanities Research Association official Website.
  16. Martin 2007.
  17. Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (Cite Guide). McGill Law Journal. Updated October 2008. Retrieved on 2009-02-05.
  18. Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.
  19. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. "ICMJE Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals -- Sample References".
  20. Pechenik Citation Style QuickGuide (PDF). University of Alberta, Augustana Campus, Canada. Web. November 2007.
  21. Garfield, Eugene (2006). Citation indexes for science. A new dimension in documentation through association of ideas. International Journal of Epidemiology 35 (5): 1123–1127.
  22. Stephen Yoder, ed. (2008). The APSA Guide to Writing and Publishing and Style Manual for Political Science. Rev. ed. August 2006. APSAnet.org Publications. Retrieved on 2009-02-05.

References Edit


External links Edit

Guidelines
Examples
  • Illustrated examples, generated using BibTeX, of several major styles, including more than those listed above.
  • PDF file bibstyles.pdf illustrates how several bibliographic styles appear with citations and reference entries, generated using BibTeX.
Style guides
Other online resources
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