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Individual differences |
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When scholars and scientists use the published work of other scholars and scientists in their own published work, they cite it, giving the author, year, title, and locus of publication (journal, book, or other). Such citations can be counted as measures of the usage and impact of the cited work. This is called citation analysis or bibliometrics. Among the measures that have emerged from citation analysis are the citation count for (1) an individual article (how often it was cited], for (2) an author (total citations, or average citation count per article), and (3) for a journal (journal impact factor, or the average citation count for the articles in the journal). Citation counts are correlated with other measures of scholarly/scientific performance and impact and can be enhanced by making a work open access by self-archiving the full-text on the web or publishing it in an open access journal.
(See also: journal impact factor -- the average citation count for a journal)
(See also the Bibliography of Findings on the Open Access Impact Advantage)
Bollen, J., Van de Sompel, H., Smith, J. and Luce, R. (2005) Toward alternative metrics of journal impact: A comparison of download and citation data Information Processing and Management, 41(6): 1419-1440
Brody, T. and Harnad, S. (2004) Comparing the Impact of Open Access (OA) vs. Non-OA Articles in the Same Journals D-Lib Magazine 10(6).
Brody, T., Harnad, S. and Carr, L. (2005) Earlier Web Usage Statistics as Predictors of Later Citation Impact Journal of the American Association for Information Science and Technology (JASIST).
Eysenbach G. (2006a) Citation Advantage of Open Access Articles. PLoS Biol. 2006;4(5) p. e157.
Landmark paper showing the Open Access citation advantage over non-Open Access papers, as well as a gold-OA over green-OA citation advantage. Eysenbach compared citations to individual articles published between June 2004 and December 2004 in the same journal--namely, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), which announced its open-access option for authors on June 8 of that year, with an associated publication charge of US$1,000. Non-open access articles in PNAS are subject to a six-month delay before the published article becomes publicly available. In the 4 to 16 months following publication, open access articles gained a significant citation advantage over non–open access articles during the same period. They are twice as likely to be cited 4 to 10 months after publication and almost three times as likely between 10 and 16 months.Eysenbach G (2006b) . The Open Access Advantage. J Med Internet Res 2006;8(2):e8 Some follow-up data to the Eysenbach PLoS Biol study
Garfield, E. (1955) Citation Indexes for Science: A New Dimension in Documentation through Association of Ideas. Science, Vol:122, No:3159, p. 108-111
Garfield, E. (1973) Citation Frequency as a Measure of Research Activity and Performance in Essays of an Information Scientist, 1: 406-408, 1962-73, Current Contents, 5
Garfield, E. (1988) Can Researchers Bank on Citation Analysis? Current Comments, No. 44, October 31, 1988
Garfield, E. (1998) The use of journal impact factors and citation analysis in the evaluation of science. 41st Annual Meeting of the Council of Biology Editors, Salt Lake City, UT, May 4, 1998
Hajjem, C., Harnad, S. and Gingras, Y. (2005) Ten-Year Cross-Disciplinary Comparison of the Growth of Open Access and How It Increases Research Citation Impact IEEE Data Engineering Bulletin 28(4) pp. 39-47.
In 2001, Lawrence found that articles in computer science that were Open Access (OA) were cited substantially more than those that were not. Brody & Harnad (2004) replicated this effect in physics. The present study analyzed 1,307,038 articles published across 12 years (1992-2003) in 10 disciplines (Biology, Psychology, Sociology, Health, Political Science, Economics, Education, Law, Business, Management). Comparing OA and NOA articles in the same journal/year, OA articles have consistently more citations (25%-250% varying with discipline and year). Comparing articles within six citation ranges (0, 1, 2-3, 4-7, 8-15, 16+ citations), the annual percentage of OA articles is growing significantly faster than NOA within every citation range (r > .90, N=12, p < .0005) and the effect is greater with the more highly cited articles (r = .98, N=6, p < .005). Causality cannot be determined from these data, but our prior finding of a similar pattern in physics, where percent OA is much higher (and even approaches 100% in some subfields), makes it unlikely that the OA citation advantage is merely or mostly a self-selection bias (toward making only one's better articles OA). Further research will analyze the effect's timing, causal components and relation to other variables.
Kurtz, M. J. , Eichhorn, G. , Accomazzi, A. , Grant, C. S. , Demleitner, M. , Murray, S. S. (2004) kurtz/IPM-abstract.html The Effect of Use and Access on Citations Information Processing and Management 41 (6): 1395-1402
Lawrence, S, (2001) Online or Invisible? Nature 411 (2001) (6837): 521.
Landmark paper: First demonstration of the Open Access citation advantage for self-archived papers.
MacCallum CJ & Parthasarathy H (2006) Open access increases citation rate. PLoS Biol 4(5): e176. Editorial about the Eysenbach study
Moed, H. F. (2005a) [http://www.cwts.nl/1-4020-3713-9/1-4020-3713-9_Executive_Summary.pdf Citation Analysis in Research Evaluation.] NY Springer.
Moed, H. F. (2005b) Statistical Relationships Between Downloads and Citations at the Level of Individual Documents Within a Single Journal Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 56(10): 1088-1097.
Shadbolt, N., Brody, T., Carr, L. and Harnad, S. (2006) The Open Research Web: A Preview of the Optimal and the Inevitable In Jacobs, N., (Ed. Open Access: Key Strategic, Technical and Economic Aspects, chapter 21. Chandos
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