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Main article: Indigenous peoples

This is a partial list of the world's indigenous / aboriginal / native peoples. Indigenous peoples are any ethnic group of peoples who inhabit a geographic region, with which they have the earliest known historical connection.

Note that this is a listing of peoples, groups and communities.

This list is grouped by region, and sub-region. Note that a particular group may warrant listing under more than one region, either because the group is distributed in more than one region (example: Inuit in North America and eastern Russia), or there may be some overlap of the regions themselves (that is, the boundaries of each region are not always clear and some locations may commonly be associated with more than one region).

Africa Edit

Main article: Indigenous peoples of Africa

The continent of Africa, including associated islands such as Madagascar, but excluding Arabia.

Central Africa Edit

Central Africa generally includes the lands mainly of the Congo River basin, south of the Sahara and west of the Great Rift Valley.

East Africa Edit

East Africa generally includes the Horn of Africa region and (parts of) surrounding countries. Template:Colbegin


North Africa Edit

North Africa generally includes African countries with borders on the Mediterranean and northern Red Sea and Atlantic Ocean, bounded largely by the Sahara Desert to the south.

Main article: Ethnic groups of North Africa

Southern Africa Edit

Southern Africa generally includes lands from the Cape of Good Hope northwards to the borders of Democratic Republic of the Congo and Tanzania, and islands such as Madagascar.

West Africa Edit

West Africa generally includes the region bounded by the Sahara Desert to the north and the Gulf of Guinea to the south.

Americas Edit

the Americas is the continent (or supercontinent) comprising North and South America, and associated islands.

Main article: Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas

The Caribbean Edit

the Caribbean, or West Indies, generally includes the island chains of the Caribbean.

Central America and MexicoEdit

Central America generally includes the part of the North American continent from southern Mexico to and including Panama; this section includes indigenous peoples of Mexico.

North America Edit

North America generally includes Greenland, Canada, the United States, Mexico, and the eastern Aleutian Islands; however, Mexican peoples are listed above.

Main article: List of First Nations peoples

South America Edit

South America generally includes all of the (sub-)continent and islands south of the Isthmus of Panama.
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Urarina shaman, 1988

Asia Edit

The (sub-)continent of Asia, including related islands, the Indian subcontinent, Central Asian Republics, the Middle East and Arabia.

Central Asia Edit

Central Asia generally includes the landlocked region east of the Caspian Sea, south of the Russian Taiga, to the Himalayas, and extending eastwards to Mongolia and the western Chinese provinces and autonomous regions.

East Asia Edit

East Asia generally includes the People's Republic of China, the Korean Peninsula, and the associated Pacific islands, principally Japan and Taiwan.

North Asia Edit

North Asia generally includes the Russian Far East and the northern and eastern parts of Siberia.

South Asia Edit

South Asia generally includes the Indian subcontinental region, adjacent areas, and related islands of the Indian Ocean.

Southeast Asia Edit

Southeast Asia generally includes the mainland region sometimes known as Indochina, and the Malay archipelago.

Southwest Asia Edit

File:Ghilzai nomad women of Afghanistan in 1839-42.jpg

Southwest Asia generally includes the region (formerly Persia) westwards of Pakistan, the Arabian peninsula, the Middle East, the Levant, Mesopotamia, the South Caucasus region and Anatolia.

Circumpolar North Edit

The Circumpolar North generally includes the lands surrounding the Arctic Circle.

Europe Edit

Europe generally refers to the mass of the Eurasian peninsula westwards of the Ural Mountains, the islands of the Mediterranean and North Atlantic Ocean.

Oceania Edit

Oceania includes most islands of the Pacific Ocean, New Guinea and the continent of Australia.

Australia Edit

Australia includes the continental landmass, and associated islands.

Further information: List of Indigenous Australian group names

Melanesia Edit

Melanesian generally includes New Guinea and other (far-)western Pacific islands from the Arafura Sea out to Fiji.

Micronesia Edit

Micronesia generally includes the various small island chains of the western and central Pacific.

Polynesia Edit

Polynesia generally includes New Zealand and the islands of the central and southern Pacific Ocean

See alsoEdit

Related articlesEdit

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  1. Kipuri (2007, p.472)
  2. Rouse (1992)
  3. COUNTRY PROFILE: AFGHANISTAN, Library of Congress Country Studies
  4. Sawahla & Dloomy (2007, pp. 425–433)
  5. Bachmann (2007, pp. 420–424)
  6. Dowty (2008, pp. 40, 57-8, 220-1)
  7. Farsoun (2005, pp. 233ff.)
  8. The Local Preparatory Committee of Palestinian NGOs in Israel
  9. Minority Rights Group International (1997, pp. 366ff.)
  10. Mossawa (2006, p. 20)
  11. Forman & Kedar (2003)
  12. Peled (2007, 616)
  13. United Nations (1978)


Bachmann, Anna Sophia (2007). "The Marsh Dwellers of Iraq" Sille Stidsen (compilation and ed.) The Indigenous World 2007 (PDF online edition), 420–424, Copenhagen: IWGIA, distributed by Transaction Publishers.
Dowty, Alan (2008). Israel/Palestine, London, UK: Polity. "Palestinians are the descendants of all the indigenous peoples who lived in Palestine over the centuries; since the seventh century, they have been predominantly Muslim in religion and almost completely Arab in language and culture."
Farsoun, Samih K. (2005), "Palestinian Diasporas", in Ember, Melvin; Ember, Carol R.; Skoggard, Ian, Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World, 2, New York, NY: Springer, ISBN 978-03-06483-21-9, OCLC 315151735, "The Palestinians are the indigenous people of Palestine." 
Forman, Geremy; Kedar, Alexandre (2003), "Colonialism, Colonization and Land Law in Mandate Palestine: The Zor al-Zarqa and Barrat Qisarya Land Disputes in Historical Perspective", Theoretical Inquiries in Law 4 (2): 491–539, 
Kipuri, Naomi (2007). "Kenya" Sille Stidsen (compilation and ed.) The Indigenous World 2007 (PDF online edition), Marianne Wiben Jensen (Horn of Africa and East Africa regional ed.), 468–476, Copenhagen: IWGIA, distributed by Transaction Publishers.
The Local Preparatory Committee of Palestinian NGOs in Israel (Undated), Statement submitted to: World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, Haifa, Israel: Adalah – The Legal Center for Arab Minority Rights in Israel,, retrieved on 6 April 2011, "Palestinians are also an indigenous group entitled to the recognition of their historical claims and the receipt of compensation, as outlined in the Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples." 
Minority Rights Group International (1997), World Directory of Minorities, London, UK: Minority Rights Group International, ISBN 978-18-73194-36-2 
Mossawa Center – The Advocacy Center for Arab Citizens of Israel (June 2006), The Palestinian Arab Citizens of Israel: Status, Opportunities and Challenges for an Israeli-Palestinian Peace, Haifa, Israel: Mossawa Center – The Advocacy Center for Arab Citizens of Israel,, retrieved on 6 April 2011, "Consisting of those who remained and were internally displaced during the creation of the state and their descendents, Palestinian Arab citizens are an indigenous population to Israel." 
Peled, Yoav (2007), "Citizenship Betrayed: Israel's Emerging Immigration and Citizenship Regime", Theoretical Inquiries in Law 8 (2): 603–628,, "Israel is the effective sovereign in the entire area of Mandatory Palestine, and it has incorporated the indigenous Palestinian population of this area into its control system in two different ways: some as second-class citizens of Israel, but most as subjects devoid of rights living under military rule." 
Rouse, Irving (1992). The Tainos: Rise and Decline of the People who greeted Columbus, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.
Sawalha, Faisal; and Ariel Dloomy (2007). "The Arab Bedouins of Israel" Sille Stidsen (compilation and ed.) The Indigenous World 2007 (PDF online edition), 425–433, Copenhagen: IWGIA, distributed by Transaction Publishers.
United Nations (30 June 1978), The Origins and Evolution of the Palestine Problem: 1917–1988, Part I, New York: United Nations,, retrieved on 5 April 2011 

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