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Chromosome 2 (human)

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Chromosome 2

Chromosome 2 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans[1]. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome 2 is the second largest human chromosome, spanning more than 237 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and representing almost 8% of the total DNA in cells.

Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. Chromosome 2 likely contains between 1,300 and 1,800 genes[citation needed], including those of the HOXD homeobox gene cluster.

EvolutionEdit

Chromosome 2 is widely accepted to be a result of a fusion of two ancestral chromosomes. The evidence for this is the correspondence of chromosome 2 to two ape chromosomes and the presence of a vestigial centromere and vestigial telomeres. [2]

GenesEdit

The following genes are located on chromosome 2:

  • ABCA12: ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 12
  • AGXT: alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (oxalosis I; hyperoxaluria I; glycolicaciduria; serine-pyruvate aminotransferase)
  • ALMS1: Alstrom syndrome 1
  • ALS2: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 (juvenile)
  • BMPR2: bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type II (serine/threonine kinase)
  • COL3A1: collagen, type III, alpha 1 (Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, autosomal dominant)
  • COL4A3: collagen, type IV, alpha 3 (Goodpasture antigen)
  • COL4A4: collagen, type IV, alpha 4
  • COL5A2: collagen, type V, alpha 2
  • HADHA: hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-Coenzyme A thiolase/enoyl-Coenzyme A hydratase (trifunctional protein), alpha subunit
  • HADHB: hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-Coenzyme A thiolase/enoyl-Coenzyme A hydratase (trifunctional protein), beta subunit
  • MSH2: mutS homolog 2, colon cancer, nonpolyposis type 1 (E. coli)
  • MSH6: mutS homolog 6 (E. coli)
  • NR4A2: nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 2
  • OTOF: otoferlin
  • PAX3: paired box gene 3 (Waardenburg syndrome 1)
  • PAX8: paired box gene 8
  • SLC40A1: solute carrier family 40 (iron-regulated transporter), member 1
  • TPO: thyroid peroxidase

Related diseasesEdit

The following diseases are related to genes located on chromosome 2:

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Hillier LW, Graves TA, Fulton RS, Fulton LA, Pepin KH, Minx P, Wagner-McPherson C, Layman D, Wylie K, Sekhon M, Becker MC, Fewell GA, Delehaunty KD, Miner TL, Nash WE, Kremitzki C, Oddy L, Du H, Sun H, Bradshaw-Cordum H, Ali J, Carter J, Cordes M, Harris A, Isak A, van Brunt A, Nguyen C, Du F, Courtney L, Kalicki J, Ozersky P, Abbott S, Armstrong J, Belter EA, Caruso L, Cedroni M, Cotton M, Davidson T, Desai A, Elliott G, Erb T, Fronick C, Gaige T, Haakenson W, Haglund K, Holmes A, Harkins R, Kim K, Kruchowski SS, Strong CM, Grewal N, Goyea E, Hou S, Levy A, Martinka S, Mead K, McLellan MD, Meyer R, Randall-Maher J, Tomlinson C, Dauphin-Kohlberg S, Kozlowicz-Reilly A, Shah N, Swearengen-Shahid S, Snider J, Strong JT, Thompson J, Yoakum M, Leonard S, Pearman C, Trani L, Radionenko M, Waligorski JE, Wang C, Rock SM, Tin-Wollam AM, Maupin R, Latreille P, Wendl MC, Yang SP, Pohl C, Wallis JW, Spieth J, Bieri TA, Berkowicz N, Nelson JO, Osborne J, Ding L, Meyer R, Sabo A, Shotland Y, Sinha P, Wohldmann PE, Cook LL, Hickenbotham MT, Eldred J, Williams D, Jones TA, She X, Ciccarelli FD, Izaurralde E, Taylor J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Cox DR, Huang X, McPherson JD, Mardis ER, Clifton SW, Warren WC, Chinwalla AT, Eddy SR, Marra MA, Ovcharenko I, Furey TS, Miller W, Eichler EE, Bork P, Suyama M, Torrents D, Waterston RH, Wilson RK (2005). Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4. Nature 434 (7034): 724-31. PMID 15815621.
  2. Human Chromosome 2 is a fusion of two ancestral chromosomes by Alec MacAndrew, Accessed 18 May 2006
Human chromosomes

{1} {2} {3} {4} {5} {6} {7} {8} {9} {10} {11} {12} {13} {14} {15} {16} {17} {18} {19} {20} {21} {22} {X} {Y}


fr:Chromosome 2 humain
hu:Humán 2-es kromoszóma
pt:Cromossoma 2 (humano)
sr:Хромозом 2 (човек)
tr:kromozom 2
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