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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
- Main article: Cerebral ventricles
|Brain: Choroid plexus|
|Scheme of roof of fourth ventricle. The arrow is in the foramen of Magendie.|
1: inferior medullary velum
2: Choroid plexus
3: Cerebellomedullary cistern of subarachnoid cavity
4: Central canal
5: Corpora quadrigemina
6: Cerebral peduncle
7: Superior medullary velum
8: Ependymal lining of ventricle
9: Pontine cistern of subarachnoid cavity
|Coronal section of lateral and third ventricles.|
|Gray's||subject #187 798|
The choroid plexus (from Greek khorion "membrane enclosing the fetus, afterbirth"; plexus: Mod.L., lit. "braid, network") is a structure in the ventricles of the brain where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced. The choroid plexus consists of modified ependymal cells. CSF is recycled (flushed) 4 times per day in order to clean out metabolites and toxins like beta amyloid. Hence the choroid plexus must produce about 500 milliliters of CSF daily (or 20.83 ml per hour).
It is found in the superior part of the inferior horn of the lateral ventricles. It follows up along this boundary, continuous with the inferior of the body of the lateral ventricles. It passes into the interventricular foramen, and is present at the top of the third ventricle.
Structure of the choroid plexusEdit
The choroid plexus (CP) consists of many capillaries, separated from the ventricles by choroid epithelial cells. Fluid filters through these cells from blood to become cerebrospinal fluid. There is also much active transport of substances into, and out of, the CSF as it is made.
There are four choroid plexuses in the brain, one in each of the ventricles. The CP consist of a layer of cuboidal epithelial cells surrounding a core of capillaries and loose connective tissue. The CP epithelial layer is continuous with the ependymal cell layer that lines the ventricles, but unlike the ependyma, the CP epithelial layer has tight junctions in between the cells on the side facing the ventricle (apical surface). These tight junctions prevent the majority of substances from crossing the cell layer into the CSF; thus the CP acts as a blood-CSF barrier. The CP folds into many villi around each capillary, creating frond-like processes that project into the ventricles. The villi, along with a brush border of microvilli, greatly increases the surface area of the CP. CSF is formed as plasma is filtered from the blood through the epithelial cells. CP epithelial cells actively transport sodium, chloride and bicarbonate ions into the ventricles and water follows the resulting osmotic gradient.
In addition to CSF production, the CP act as a filtration system, removing metabolic waste, foreign substances, and excess neurotransmitters from the CSF. In this way the CP has a very important role in helping to maintain the delicate extracellular environment required by the brain to function optimally.
During embryological development, some fetuses may form choroid plexus cysts. These fluid-filled cysts can be detected by a level II ultrasound (18–20 weeks gestation). The finding is relatively common, with a prevalence of ~1%. Choroid plexus cysts (CPC) can be an isolated finding, which confers a 1-12% (variable based on population studied) risk of fetal aneuploidy. The risk of aneuploidy increases to 10.5-12% if other risk factors or ultrasound findings are noted. The idioma size, bilaterality, disappearance/progression of the CPC, and position of the CPC do not have any effect on the risk of aneuploidy. 44-50% of trisomy 18 cases will present with CPC, and 1.4% of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) cases will present with CPC. ~75% of abnormal karyotypes (obtained by chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis) associated with CPCs are trisomy 18, while the remainder are trisomy 21.
CPCs typically disappear later during pregnancy, and are considered soft markers. They are likely harmless, and studies have shown that they have no effect on infant and early childhood development.
Brodbelt and Stoodley. "CSF Pathways: A Review". 2007 British Journal of Neurosurgery
Strazielle and Ghersi-Egea. "Choroid Plexus in the Central Nervous System: BIology and Physiopathology". 2000. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 59(7): 561-574.
| Choroid plexus]]
- University of Idaho
- 3-Dimensional images of choroid plexus (marked red)
- Roche Lexicon - illustrated navigator, at Elsevier 13048.000-3
|Meninges of the brain and medulla spinalis|
Dura mater - Falx cerebri - Tentorium cerebelli - Falx cerebelli - Arachnoid mater - Subarachnoid space - Cistern - Cisterna magna - Median aperture - Cerebrospinal fluid - Arachnoid granulation - Pia mater
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