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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Child slavery refers to the slavery of children at a young age. In the past, many children have been sold into slavery in order for their family to repay debts or crimes or earn some money if the family were short of cash. Sometimes this is also to give the children a better life than what they had with their family or because the family did not want the child to live with them any more.
In most institutions of slavery throughout the world, the children of slaves became the property of the owner. This was the case with, for example, thralls and American slaves. In other cases, children were enslaved as if they were adults. Usually the status of the mother determined if the child was a slave, but some local laws varied the decision to the father. In many cultures, slaves could earn their freedom through hard work and buying their own freedom. The infamous Children's Crusade is believed to have led to the enslavement of many young pilgrims.
Although the abolition of slavery in much of the world has greatly reduced child slavery, the phenomenon lives on, especially in Third World countries. According to the Anti-Slavery Society, "Although there is no longer any state which legally recognizes, or which will enforce, a claim by a person to a right of property over another, the abolition of slavery does not mean that it ceased to exist. There are millions of people throughout the world — mainly children — in conditions of virtual to slavery." It further notes that slavery, particularly child slavery, was on the rise in 2003. It points out that there are countless others in other forms of servitude (such as peonage, bonded labor and servile concubinage) which are not slavery in the narrow legal sense. Critics claim they are stretching the definition and practice of slavery beyond its original meaning, and are actually referring to forms of unfree labour other than slavery . In 1990 reports of slavery came out of Bahr al Ghazal, a Dinka region in southern Sudan. In 1995, Dinka mothers spoke about their abducted children. Roughly 20,000 slaves were reported in Sudan in 1999. "The handmade woolen carpet industry is extremely labor intensive and one of the largest export earners for India, Pakistan, Nepal and Morocco." During the past 20 years, about 200,000 and 300,000 children are involved, most of them in the carpet belt of Uttar Pradesh in central India. Many children in Asia are kidnapped or trapped in servitude, where they work in factories and workshops for no pay and receive constant beatings. Slaves have reappeared following the old slave trade routes in West Africa. "The children are kidnapped or purchased for $20 - $70 each in poorer states, such as Benin and Togo, and sold into slavery in sex dens or as unpaid domestic servants for $350.00 each in wealthier oil-rich states, such as Nigeria and Gabon" 
Trafficking of childrenEdit
- Main article: Trafficking of children
Trafficking of children includes recruiting, harbouring, obtaining, and transporting children by use of force or fraud for the purpose of subjecting them to involuntary acts, such as commercial sexual exploitation (including prostitution) or involuntary labour, i.e., enslavement. Some see human trafficking as the modern form of slavery. Human trafficking is the trade of human beings and their use by criminals to make money. The majority of trafficking victims are adults, predominantly made up women forced into prostitution (although men are trafficked also), but children make up a significant number of the victims forced into prostitution.
In Ukraine, a survey conducted by the non-governmental organization (NGO) “La Strada-Ukraine” in 2001-2003, based on a sample of 106 women being trafficked out of Ukraine found that 3% were under 18, and the US State Department reported in 2004 that incidents of minors being trafficked was increasing. In Thailand, NGOs have estimated that up to a third of prostitutes are children under 18, many trafficked from outside Thailand.
Following the 2010 Haiti earthquake, Save the Children, World Vision and the British Red Cross have called for an immediate halt to adoptions of Haitian children not approved before the earthquake, warning that child traffickers could exploit the lack of regulation. An Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights spokesman said that child enslavement and trafficking was "an existing problem and could easily emerge as a serious issue over the coming weeks and months".
- Slave collar
- Child labor
- Child prostitution
- Military use of children
- Trafficking of children
- Children's Care International or Aide Internationale Pour l'Enfance (AIPE-CCI)
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Does Slavery Still Exist?. Anti-Slavery Society. URL accessed on 2008-01-04.
- ↑ includeonly>Miniter, Richard. "The False Promise of Slave Redemption". Retrieved on July 2000.
- ↑ Child Labor in the Carpet Industry. Anti-Slavery Society. URL accessed on April 2007.
- ↑ UN Crime and Justice Research Institution
- ↑ http://www.ecpatusa.org/index.asp
- ↑ Call for halt to Haiti adoptions over traffickers, The Times, January 23, 2010.
- Asian child slavery
- Anti-Slavery Society
- BBC - Help for Gulf child camel jockeys
- Gulf - Under-age camel jockeys get caring hand
- NY Times - Robot Jockeys
- BBC - Child camel jockeys find hope
- More camel jockeys related news
- Ansar Burney Trust - brought world attention to the plight of child camel jockeys and rescued hundreds of children from camel farms; operates shelter homes for trafficked victims; persuaded governments of Qatar and UAE to ban use of children as camel jockeys in 2005.
- Sport of Sheikhs - Emmy and duPont award winning documentary on camel jockeys in the Middle East
- Every Child Ministries—child slaves
- Trafficking in Minors - United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute
- ‘End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes’ international NGO
- 'Tracking Africa's child trafficking - BBC
- 'Child traffic victims 'failed'- BBC
- Fears of rising child sex trade – The Guardian
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