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A child (plural: children). Precise definitions vary; is the offspring, of any age, of two people. The American Heritage Dictionary defined a child as an individual who has not yet reached puberty.
The term "child" is also a counterpart of parent: adults are the children of their parents despite their maturation beyond infancy; for example "Benjamin, aged 46, is the child of Tobias, aged 73". Similarly in a generalized sense, see child node.
Legal definition of child
Child development is the study or examination of processes and mechanisms that operate during the physical and mental development of an infant into an adult. Pediatrics is the branch of medicine relating to the care of children. It encompasses ages from prenatal to teenagers and even young adults (ages 0-21 years).
Terms for stages of age-related physical development are listed below. Approximate age ranges are shown, but conceptions about the boundaries between different stages of life vary between cultures and periods. The age ranges and terms listed reflect 21st century conceptions in the developed world.
- Zygote, the point of Conception, fertilization
- Embryo; in the later stages also called fetus
- Infant (baby) (ages 0 - 1.5)
- Neonate (newborn) in the first month of life
- Toddler (ages 1.5 - 4)
- Middle childhood (schoolchild (or schoolboy or schoolgirl)) - Primary school/Elementary school age (ages 4 - 11)
- prepubescence, a subset of the above (ages 10 - 11, approximately)
- Preadolescence (preteen, or late childhood) - in the United States, middle school age (ages 10 - 12, approximately. Note overlap with prepubesent stage of middle childhood.)
- Infant (baby) (ages 0 - 1.5)
- Adolescence and puberty (teenager) (13-19)
- Young adult (18-25)
- Adult (starts at age 18-21 or older; exact minimum age may vary)
- Death (occurs at various ages depending on person)
Also sometimes used are terms that specify one's age in decades, such as:
- Twenty something (20-29)
- Thirty something (30-39)
- Forty something/Quadragenarian (rarely used since 1980)(40-49)
- Quinquagenarian (50-59)
- Sexagenarian (60-69)
- Septuagenarian (70-79)
- Octogenarian (80-89)
- Nonagenarian (90-99)
- Centenarian (100-109)
- Supercentenarian (110+)
Notable child prodigies
- Main article: Child prodigy
- Christian Friedrich Heinecken (The Infant of Lübeck)
- Isaac Albéniz
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
- Sarah Chang
- Tiger Woods
- Main article: Human development
Human development refers to all forms of development above, often in the context of clinical or developmental psychology, or as human development theory (in economics, an outgrowth of welfare economics).
Both the psychological and economic fields share a special concern with education and language fluency including literacy and numeracy, and with identification and development of more unique talents into the economic variable known as individual capital.
Earlier branches of economics see humans in terms of labour for production, means of persuasion or protection, which tend to be skills acquired only in adolescence and adulthood. The human development view is more evident in sports, music and other performing arts, such as acting where the child begins training often as early as three years of age. A contemporary example is Tiger Woods and his early training in golfing.
Children are often targeted at for advertising, as many people, including Eric Schlosser, have told the world via books.
While there are problems with such early "streaming", child murder, child abandonment, military use of children and other major social ills are thought to be reduced by a human development approach – as there is a high value assigned to children by the state.
- ↑ Definition of child. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company.
- ↑ Convention on the Rights of the Child. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Ratified by 192 of 194 member countries.
- CDC's "Learn the Signs. Act Early.” campaign - Information for parents on early childhood development and developmental disabilities
- Boy, Girl
- Child abandonment
- Child abuse
- Child carrier
- Child custody
- Child discipline
- Child labor
- Child prodigy
- Child sexual abuse
- Child murder
- Child sexuality
- Child support
- Children in history
- Defense of infancy
- Education, School
- Educational psychology
- Fathers' rights
- Adult infantilism
- Parental Alienation Syndrome
- Parental leave
- Street children
- Children's culture
- Children's street culture
- children's geographies
- Taking Children Seriously
- Indigo children
- List of songs about children
- Françoise Dolto
|Stages of human development|
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