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Characterology is a method of character reading developed in the 1920's that attempted to combine revised physiognomy, reconstructed phrenology, and amplified pathognomy with ethnology, sociology, and anthropology. Designed by L. Hamilton McCormick, it was an attempt to produce a scientific, objective, system to determine character of an individual.
Characterology attempted to fix problems in the phrenological systems of Dr. Francis Joseph Gall and Johann Spurzheim. McCormick tried to distance himself from those systems, and wrote extensively about how his system differed and improved upon their systems.
McCormick suggested that uses for characterology included guiding parents and educators, guidance in military promotion of officers, estimation of the kind of thinking patterns one has (whether a reasoner, or a memorizing brain), a way to judge commercial associates and competitors, guide to hiring, and a guide to marriage selection.