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Main article: Tree of Knowledge System

The Tree of Knowledge (ToK) System, created by Gregg Henriques, (Ph.D., Assistant Professor Combined-Integrated Doctoral Program, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA, USA), depicts knowledge as consisting of four levels or dimensions of complexity:


The Tree of Knowledge Diagram. Adapted from Presentation on The Official ToK System website.

  • Matter
  • Life
  • Mind
  • Culture

that correspond with four classes of objects:

  • Material objects
  • Organisms
  • Animals
  • Humans

and four classes of science:

  • Physical
  • Biological
  • Psychological
  • Social

Each dimension of complexity is connected to the dimension of complexity beneath it via a theoretical joint point:

Each joint point provides the causal explanatory framework for how the level of complexity evolved.

Psychology is defined as being "boxed in" between the Life-to-Mind joint point, (conceptualized by BIT), and the Mind-to-Culture joint point, (conceptualized by the JH).

Taken from :


This category has the following 3 subcategories, out of 3 total.



  • BIT(7 C, 2 P)


  • JH(2 C, 4 P)

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