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Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
Medical imaging refers to the techniques and processes used to create images of the human body (or parts thereof) for clinical purposes (medical procedures seeking to reveal, diagnose or examine disease) or medical science (including the study of normal anatomy and physiology).
As a discipline and in its widest sense, it is part of biological imaging and incorporates radiology (in the wider sense), radiological sciences, endoscopy, (medical) thermography, medical photography and microscopy (e.g. for human pathological investigations).
Measurement and recording techniques which are not primarily designed to produce images, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) and others, but which produce data susceptible to be represented as maps (i.e. containing positional information), can be seen as forms of medical imaging.
In the clinical context, medical imaging is generally equated to radiology or "clinical imaging" and the medical practitioner responsible for interpreting (and sometimes acquiring) the images is a radiologist. Diagnostic radiography designates the technical aspects of medical imaging and in particular the acquisition of medical images. The radiographer or radiologic technologist is usually responsible for acquiring medical images of diagnostic quality, although some radiological interventions are performed by radiologists.
As a field of scientific investigation, medical imaging constitutes a sub-discipline of biomedical engineering, medical physics or medicine depending on the context: Research and development in the area of instrumentation, image acquisition (e.g. radiography), modelling and quantification are usually the preserve of biomedical engineering, medical physics and computer science; Research into the application and interpretation of medical images is usually the preserve of radiology and the medical sub-discipline relevant to medical condition or area of medical science (neuroscience, cardiology, psychiatry, psychology, etc) under investigation. Many of the techniques developed for medical imaging also have scientific and industrial applications.
Medical imaging is often perceived to designate of the set of techniques that noninvasively produce images of the internal aspect of the body. In this restricted sense, medical imaging can be seen as the solution of mathematical inverse problems. This means that cause (the properties of living tissue) is inferred from effect (the observed signal). In the case of ultrasonography the probe consists of ultrasonic pressure waves and echoes inside the tissue show the internal structure. In the case of projection radiography, the probe is X-ray radiation which is absorbed at different rates in different tissue types such as bone, muscle and fat.
- Main article: Electron microscope
The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small details with high resolving power due to the use of electrons as the source of illumination, magnifying at levels up to 2,000,000 times.
Electron microscopy is employed in anatomic pathology to identify organelles within the cells. Its usefulness has been greatly reduced by immunhistochemistry but it is still irreplaceable for the diagnosis of kidney disease, identification of immotile cilia syndrome and many other tasks
- Main article: Medical radiography
Two forms of radiographic images are in use in medical imaging; projection radiography and fluoroscopy, with latter useful for intraoperative and catheter guidance. These 2D techniques are still in wide use despite the avant of 3D tomography due to the low cost, high resolution, and depending on application, lower radiation dosages. This imaging modality utilizes a wide beam of x rays for image acquisition and is the first imaging technique available in modern medicine.
- Fluoroscopy produces real-time images of internal structures of the body in a similar fashion to radiography, but employs a constant input of x-rays, at a lower dose rate. Contrast media, such as barium, iodine, and air are used to visualize internal organs as they work. Fluoroscopy is also used in image-guided procedures when constant feedback during a procedure is required. An image receptor is required to convert the radiation into an image after it has passed through the area of interest. Early on this was a fluorescing screen, which gave way to an Image Amplifier (IA) which was a large vacuum tube that had the receiving end coated with cesium iodide, and a mirror at the opposite end. Eventually the mirror was replaced with a TV camera.
- Projectional radiographs, more commonly known as x-rays, are often used to determine the type and extent of a fracture as well as for detecting pathological changes in the lungs. With the use of radio-opaque contrast media, such as barium, they can also be used to visualize the structure of the stomach and intestines - this can help diagnose ulcers or certain types of colon cancer.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)Edit
- Main article: Magnetic resonance imaging
- See also: Magnetic resonance neurography
A magnetic resonance imaging instrument (MRI scanner) uses powerful magnets to polarise and excite hydrogen nuclei (single proton) in water molecules in human tissue, producing a detectable signal which is spatially encoded resulting in images of the body. In brief, MRI involves the use of three kinds of electromagnetic field: a very strong (of the order of units of teslas) static magnetic field to polarize the hydrogen nuclei, called the static field; a weaker time-varying (of the order of 1 kHz) for spatial encoding, called the gradient field(s); and a weak radio-frequency (RF) field for manipulation of the hydrogen nuclei to produce measurable signals, collected through an RF antenna.
Like CT, MRI traditionally creates a 2D image of a thin "slice" of the body and is therefore considered a tomographic imaging technique. Modern MRI instruments are capable of producing images in the form of 3D blocks, which may be considered a generalisation of the single-slice, tomographic, concept. Unlike CT, MRI does not involve the use of ionizing radiation and is therefore not associated with the same health hazards; for example there are no known long term effects of exposure to strong static fields (this is the subject of some debate; see 'Safety' in MRI) and therefore there is no limit on the number of scans to which an individual can be subjected, in contrast with X-ray and CT. However, there are well identified health risks associated with tissue heating from exposure to the RF field and the presence of implanted devices in the body, such as pace makers. These risks are strictly controlled as part of the design of the instrument and the scanning protocols used.
CT and MRI being sensitive to different properties of the tissue, the appearance of the images obtained with the two techniques differ markedly. In CT, X-rays must be blocked by some form of dense tissue to create an image, therefore the image quality when looking at soft tissues will be poor. While any nucleus with a net nuclear spin can be used, the proton of the hydrogen atom remains the most widely used, especially in the clinical setting, since it is so ubiquitous and returns much signal. This nucleus, present in water molecules, allows excellent soft-tissue contrast.
MRI, or "NMR imaging" as it was originally known, has only been in use since the early 1980s. Effects from long term, or repeated exposure, to the intense static magnetic field are not known.
- Main article: Nuclear medicine
Nuclear medicine on a whole encompasses both the diagnosis and treatment of disease using nuclear properties. In imaging the energetic photons emitted from radioactive nuclei are used for enhancing and viewing various pathologies.
- Gamma cameras are used in nuclear medicine to detect regions of biological activity that are often associated with diseases. A short lived isotope, such as 123I is administered to the patient. These isotopes are more readily absorbed by biologically active regions of the body, such as tumors or fracture points in bones.
- Positron emission tomography (PET) is primarily used to detect diseases of the brain and heart. Similarly to nuclear medicine, a short-lived isotope, such as 18F, is incorporated into a substance used by the body such as glucose which is absorbed by the tumor of interest. PET scans are often viewed alongside computed tomography scans, which can be performed on the same equipment without moving the patient. This allows the tumors detected by the PET scan to be viewed next to the rest of the patient's anatomy detected by the CT scan. Another 3D tomographic technique is SPECT but uses gamma camera like method for reconstruction.
- Main article: Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine
Photoacoustic imaging is a recently developed hybrid biomedical imaging modality based on the photoacoustic effect. It combines the advantages of optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution for deep imaging in (optical) diffusive or quasi-diffusive regime. Recent studies have shown that photoacoustic imaging can be used in vivo for tumor angiogenesis monitoring, blood oxygenation mapping, functional brain imaging, and skin melanoma detection etc.
Breast Thermography Edit
Needs main article Digital Infrared Imaging Thermography is based on the principle that metabolic activity and vascular circulation in both pre-cancerous tissue and the area surrounding a developing breast cancer is almost always higher than in normal breast tissue. Cancerous tumors require and ever-increasing supply of nutrients and therefore increase circulation to their cells by holding open existing blood vessels, opening dormant vessels, and creating new ones (neoangiogenesis). This process frequently results in an increase in regional surface temperatures of the breast. Digital Infrared Imaging uses extremely sensitive medical infrared cameras and sophisticated computers to detect, analyze, and produce high-resolution diagnostic images of these temperature variations. Because of DII’s sensitivity, these temperature variations may be among the earliest signs of breast cancer and/or a pre-cancerous state of the breast.
- Main article: Computed tomography
- Linear tomography: This is the most basic form of tomography. The X-ray tube moved from point "A" to point "B" above the patient, while the cassette holder (or "bucky") moves simultaneously under the patient from point "B" to point "A." The fulcrum, or pivot point, is set to the area of interest. In this manner, the points above and below the focal plane are blurred out, just as the background is blurred when panning a camera during exposure. No longer carried out and replaced by computed tomography.
- Poly tomography: This was a complex form of tomography. With this technique, a number of geometrical movements were programmed, such as hypocycloidic, circular, figure 8, and elliptical. Philips Medical Systems  produced one such device called the 'Polytome.' This unit was still in use into the 1990's, as it's resulting imgaes for small or difficult phsiology, such as the inner ear, was still difficult to image with CT's at that time. As the resolution of CT's got better, this procedure was taken over by the CT.
- Zonography: This is a variant of linear tomography, where a limited arc of movement is used. It is still used in some centres for visualising the kidney during an intravenous urogram (IVU).
- Orthopantomography (OPT or OPG): The only common tomographic examination in use. This makes use of a complex movement to allow the radiographic examination of the mandible, as if it were a flat bone. It is often referred to as a "Panorex", but this is incorrect, as it is a trademark of a specific company's equipment
- Computed Tomography (CT), or Computed Axial Tomography (CAT): A CT scan, also known as a CAT scan, is a helical tomography (latest generation), which traditionally produces a 2D image of the structures in a thin section of the body. It uses X-rays. It has a greater ionizing radiation dose burden than projection radiography; repeated scans must be limited to avoid health effects.
- Main article: Medical ultrasonography
Medical ultrasonography uses high frequency broadband sound waves in the megahertz range that are reflected by tissue to varying degrees to produce (up to 3D) images. This is commonly associated with imaging the fetus in pregnant women. Uses of ultrasound are much broader, however. Other important uses include imaging the abdominal organs, heart, breast, muscles, tendons, arteries and veins. While it may provide less anatomical detail than techniques such as CT or MRI, it has several advantages which make it ideal in numerous situations, in particular that it studies the function of moving structures in real-time, emits no ionizing radiation, and contains speckle that can be used in elastography. It is very safe to use and does not appear to cause any adverse effects, although information on this is not well documented. It is also relatively inexpensive and quick to perform. Ultrasound scanners can be taken to critically ill patients in intensive care units, avoiding the danger caused while moving the patient to the radiology department. The real time moving image obtained can be used to guide drainage and biopsy procedures. Doppler capabilities on modern scanners allow the blood flow in arteries and veins to be assessed.
Medical imaging topics Edit
Creation of three-dimensional imagesEdit
Recently, techniques have been developed to enable CT, MRI and ultrasound scanning software to produce 3D images for the physician. Traditionally CT and MRI scans produced 2D static output on film. To produce 3D images, many scans are made, then combined by computers to produce a 3D model, which can then be manipulated by the physician. 3D ultrasounds are produced using a somewhat similar technique.
With the ability to visualize important structures in great detail, 3D visualization methods are a valuable resource for the diagnosis and surgical treatment of many pathologies. It was a key resource for the famous, but ultimately unsuccessful attempt by Singaporean surgeons to separate Iranian twins Ladan and Laleh Bijani in 2003. The 3D equipment was used previously for similar operations with great success.
Other proposed or developed techniques include:
- Diffuse optical tomography
- Electrical impedance tomography
- Optoacoustic imaging
Some of these techniques are still at a research stage and not yet used in clinical routines.
Non-diagnostic imaging Edit
Medical imaging serviceEditThis is a specialized area of medical equipment service and repair, which is separate from the biomedical field, although a hospital with their own service group may include them in the biomed department.
At one time, there were only two ways to receive training for this field. One was to learn it in the military, and the other was on-the-job training (OJT) from the manufacturer. But since the 1980s several independent training centers have been started. One such school is RSTI .
There are different means of employment in this occupation. Working for the manufacturer's field service department (OEM), working for a hospital (in-house), and working for an independent (outside, or independent provider). The most stable positions are with the OEM or hospital, as you can remain current through on-going training, and the two have good working relationships.
The OEM service engineer can expect to spend a lot of time driving from one site to another during the work day, and working non-standard hours. They will install, remove, diagnose, repair, calibrate, perform preventive maintenance, and interface equipment, all while ensuring good customer relations. You may also be required to do yearly testing of the radiation sources for Federal  and State compliance.
The in-house person is employed by the hospital. With larger medical facilities, travel between the hospitals' other locations may be required to perform the required services. You may also be required to do yearly testing of the radiation sources for compliance. The OEM or independent will provide installation of purchased equipment, and can be used for back-up service.
An independent is typically someone who has left an OEM, and started their own service business. Staying up-to-date as an independent can be difficult and expensive, as the OEM is usually reluctant to provide training. However, non-OEM training facilities are available, such as the aforementioned RSTI. Competition for service can be aggressive, with OEM's giving hospitals or clinics a reduction in equipment purchase price if they retain some form of OEM service.
The independent may also sell and install refurbished equipment, or de-install equipment. They will repair, calibrate, and perform preventative maintenance. Because many of the tasks associated with imaging service require expensive, specialized equipment, there may be a financial limit to the independent. Typical equipment used routinely are a Storage Oscilloscope and multimeter (if servicing old vacuum-state equipment, a VOM would be helpful). Additional equipment: Keithley dosimeter, mAs meter, Biddle contact tachometer, light to radiation template, etc.
Open source software Edit
Several open source software packages are available for performing analysis of medical images:
As well as academic free software:
Proprietary software Edit
- Universial PACS
See also Edit
- Biomedical informatics
- Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine
- EMMI European Master in Molecular Imaging
- Full-body scan
- Medical examination
- Medical radiography
- Medical test
- Non-invasive (medical)
- Segmentation (image processing)
- Signal-to-noise ratio
- Unsolved problems in medical imaging
Further reading Edit
- Wilhelm Burger and Mark J. Burge (2007). Digital Image Processing: An Algorithmic Approach Using Java. Springer.
- Tony F. Chan and Jackie Shen (2005). Image Processing and Analysis - Variational, PDE, Wavelet, and Stochastic Methods. SIAM
- Terry Yoo(Editor) (2004), Insight into Images.
- MicroDicom - Free DICOM viewer for Windows
- SureVistaVision - Multi-platform DICOM viewer.
- MedPix Free Medical Image Database - Proven Cases - Indexed and Searchable Images, for Teaching and CME
- Curriculum In Radiology Reporting - Funded by RSNA WWW Education Grant
- Medical Imaging Portal Diagnostic imaging portal with sections on a variety of topics - MRI, NM, US, CT, Radiography, Bone Densitometry and more.
- Imaging-Centers.com is the first searchable directory of medical imaging centers across the United States.
- Radiology Journal
- Nuclear Medicine Information
- Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe
- Medicalimaging.org - Offers information from peer-reviewed journals on economic and clinical value of medical imaging.
- Medical Imaging News - Gathers headlines daily on medical imaging and major modalities.
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