Carroll Ellis Izard (born 1924) is an American psychologist known for his contributions to Differential Emotions Theory (DET), and the Maximally Discriminative Affect Coding System (MAX). DET maintains that universally recognizable innate, basic emotions emerge within the first 2 to 7 months of post-natal life "without facial movement precursors" (Izard, et al., 1995), and argues for congruence of emotion expression and subjective experience (Izard & Abe, 2004). He also proposed the facial feedback hypothesis according to which emotions which have different functions also cause facial expression which in turn provide us with cues about what emotion exactly a person is feeling.
(2008). Accelerating the development of emotion competence in Head Start children: Effects on adaptive and maladaptive behavior. Development and Psychopathology20: 369–297.
(2007). Kindergarten children's emotion competence as a predictor of their academic competence in first grade. Emotion7 (1): 77–88.
(2003). First grade emotion knowledge as a predictor of fifth grade self-reported internalizing behaviors in children from economically disadvantaged families. Development and Psychopathology15 (2): 331–342.
(2002). Emotion processes in normal and abnormal development and preventative intervention. Development and Psychopathology14 (4): 761–787.
(2002). Modeling the emotional, cognitive, and behavioral predictors of peer acceptance. Child Development73 (6): 1775–1787.
(2002). Translating emotion theory and research into preventative interventions. Psychological Bulletin128 (5): 796–824.
(2001). Emotional intelligence or adaptive emotions?. Emotion1 (3): 249–257.