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Carroll Ellis Izard (born 1924) is an American psychologist known for his contributions to Differential Emotions Theory (DET),[1] and the Maximally Discriminative Affect Coding System (MAX). DET maintains that universally recognizable innate, basic emotions emerge within the first 2 to 7 months of post-natal life "without facial movement precursors" (Izard, et al., 1995), and argues for congruence of emotion expression and subjective experience (Izard & Abe, 2004). He also proposed the facial feedback hypothesis according to which emotions which have different functions also cause facial expression which in turn provide us with cues about what emotion exactly a person is feeling.

Representative PublicationsEdit

  • (2008). Accelerating the development of emotion competence in Head Start children: Effects on adaptive and maladaptive behavior. Development and Psychopathology 20: 369–297.
  • (2007). Kindergarten children's emotion competence as a predictor of their academic competence in first grade. Emotion 7 (1): 77–88.
  • (2003). First grade emotion knowledge as a predictor of fifth grade self-reported internalizing behaviors in children from economically disadvantaged families. Development and Psychopathology 15 (2): 331–342.
  • (2002). Emotion processes in normal and abnormal development and preventative intervention. Development and Psychopathology 14 (4): 761–787.
  • (2002). Modeling the emotional, cognitive, and behavioral predictors of peer acceptance. Child Development 73 (6): 1775–1787.
  • (2002). Translating emotion theory and research into preventative interventions. Psychological Bulletin 128 (5): 796–824.
  • (2001). Emotional intelligence or adaptive emotions?. Emotion 1 (3): 249–257.

See alsoEdit


  1. Siegler, Robert (2006). How Childred Develop, Exploring Child Develop Student Media Tool Kit & Scientific American Reader to Accompany How Children Develop, New York: Worth Publishers.

External linksEdit

  • [1] Carrol Izard's homepage at University of Delaware's Department of Psychology

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