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Carol Ryff, in her seminal paper, "Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being." contrasts psychological well being with subjective well-being or hedonic well-being. Ryff attempted to combine different conceptions of well-being from the ancient Greek to the modern psychological such as theories of Individuation from Carl Jung, Self-actualization from Abraham Maslow and others.[1]


  1. Self-acceptance
  2. Personal growth
  3. Purpose in life
  4. Environmental mastery
  5. Autonomy
  6. Positive relations with others


Individual differences in both overall Eudaimonia, identified loosely with self-control and in the facets of eudaimonia are heritable. Evidence from one study supports 5 independent genetic mechanisms underlying the Ryff facets of this trait, leading to a genetic construct of eudaimonia in terms of general self-control, and four subsidiary biological mechanisms enabling the psychological capabilities of purpose, agency, growth, and positive social relations.[2]

See alsoEdit


  1. Ryff, Carol D. (1 January 1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being.. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57 (6): 1069–1081.
  2. Archontaki, Despina, Lewis, Gary J.; Bates, Timothy C. (1 March 2012). Genetic influences on psychological well-being: A nationally representative twin study. Journal of Personality: n/a–n/a.

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