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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
Carnosine and carnitine were discovered by Russian chemist V.Gulevich. Researchers in Britain, South Korea, Russia and other countries have shown that carnosine has a number of antioxidant properties that may be beneficial. Carnosine has been proven to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as alpha-beta unsaturated aldehydes formed from peroxidation of cell membrane fatty acids during oxidative stress.
Carnosine can oppose glycation and it can chelate divalent metal ions. Chronic glycolysis is suspected to accelerate aging. Carnosine was found to inhibit diabetic nephropathy by protecting the podocytes and mesangial cells.
Carnosine containing products are also used in topical preparations to reduce wrinkles on the skin.
Some studies have detected beneficial effects of N-acetylcarnosine in preventing and treating cataracts of the eyes; in one of these, carnosine was found to reduce cloudiness in rat lenses that were exposed to guanidine to cause cataracts. However, claims that carnosine confers these and other posited ophthalmological benefits are, as yet, insufficiently supported for endorsement by the mainstream medical community; Britain's Royal College of Ophthalmologists, for instance, has asserted that neither safety nor efficacy has been sufficiently demonstrated to recommend carnosine's use as a topical treatment for cataracts.
A small 2002 study reported that carnosine improved socialization and receptive vocabulary in children with autism. Improvement in this study could have been due to maturation, educational interventions, placebo effect, or other confounds that were not addressed in the study design. In animal models, supplemental carnosine can increase corticosterone levels, which may explain the hyperactivity sometimes seen in high doses. However, the aforementioned study used carnosine injected into chicks intracerebroventricularly, and a raise in corticosterone levels has not yet been found in humans.
In animal models carnosine has been shown to retard cancer growth and protect against alcohol-induced oxidative stress as well as ethanol-induced chronic liver damage. Carnosine is also neuroprotective against permanent poor oxygen supply to brain in mice.
Carnosine can increase the Hayflick limit in human fibroblasts, as well as appearing to reduce the telomere shortening rate. This could potentially favor the growth of certain cancers that thrive due to telomere preservation. Carnosine is also considered as a geroprotector.
The Professor Wang et al. clinical trial study called 'Use of carnosine as a natural anti-senescence drug for human beings' was carried out on 96 patients with cataracts of varying degrees of severity, which showed a success rate of 80% in advanced senile cataracts, and 100% in patients with mild to moderate cataracts, over the 6 months trial period.
See also Edit
- Acetyl-carnosine, a similar molecule used to treat lens cataracts
- Carnosinemia, a disease of excess carnosine due to an enzyme defect/deficiency.
- Anserine, another dipeptide antioxidant (found in birds)
- Carnosine synthase, enzyme that helps carnosine production
- Marios Kyriazis
- ↑ (1900). Ueber das Carnosin, eine neue organische Base des Fleischextractes. Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 33 (2): 1902.
- ↑ (1989). Carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine: Could they act as antioxidants in vivo?. The Biochemical journal 264 (3): 863–9.
- ↑ (1999). Hydrogen peroxide-mediated Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase fragmentation: Protection by carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects 1472 (3): 651.
- ↑ (1998). Effect of carnosine and its components on free-radical reactions. Membrane & cell biology 12 (1): 89–99.
- ↑ (1994). L-carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) and carcinine (beta-alanylhistamine) act as natural antioxidants with hydroxyl-radical-scavenging and lipid-peroxidase activities. The Biochemical journal 304 (2): 509–16.
- ↑ A. Karton, R. J. O’Reilly, D. I. Pattison, M. J. Davies and L. Radom (2012). Computational design of effective, bioinspired HOCl antioxidants: The role of intramolecular Cl+ and H+ shifts.. Journal of the American Chemical Society.
- ↑ (1994). Endogenous skeletal muscle antioxidants. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 34 (4): 403–26.
- ↑ (1988). Antioxidant Activity of Carnosine, Homocarnosine, and Anserine Present in Muscle and Brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 85 (9): 3175.
- ↑ (2005). Carnosine: A Versatile Antioxidant and Antiglycating Agent. Science of Aging Knowledge Environment 2005 (18): pe12.
- ↑ (2007). Carnosine and its constituents inhibit glycation of low-density lipoproteins that promotes foam cell formation in vitro. FEBS Letters 581 (5): 1067–70.
- ↑ (2006). Does Chronic Glycolysis Accelerate Aging? Could This Explain How Dietary Restriction Works?. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1067: 361–8.
- ↑ (2005). Carnosine as a Protective Factor in Diabetic Nephropathy: Association with a Leucine Repeat of the Carnosinase Gene CNDP1. Diabetes 54 (8): 2320–7.
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 (2010). Sex-specific serum biomarker patterns in adults with Asperger's syndrome. Molecular Psychiatry 16 (12): 1213–20.
- ↑ (2009). Protective Effects of l- and d-Carnosine on α-Crystallin Amyloid Fibril Formation: Implications for Cataract Disease. Biochemistry 48 (27): 6522–31.
- ↑ Amoaku, Winfried N-Acetyl Carnosine for Cataracts. Royal College of Ophthalmologists.
- ↑ (2002). Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of L-Carnosine Supplementation in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Child Neurology 17 (11): 833–7.
- ↑ (2005). Novel treatments for autistic spectrum disorders. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 11 (2): 131–42.
- ↑ (2004). Effect of central administration of carnosine and its constituents on behaviors in chicks. Brain Research Bulletin 63 (1): 75–82.
- ↑ (2010). Carnosine retards tumor growth in vivo in an NIH3T3-HER2/neu mouse model. Molecular Cancer 9: 2.
- ↑ (2010). Carnosine supplementation protects rat brain tissue against ethanol-induced oxidative stress. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 339 (1–2): 55–61.
- ↑ (2008). Beneficial effects of histidine and carnosine on ethanol-induced chronic liver injury. Food and Chemical Toxicology 46 (5): 1503–9.
- ↑ (2008). Differential neuroprotective effects of carnosine, anserine, andN-acetyl carnosine against permanent focal ischemia. Journal of Neuroscience Research 86 (13): 2984–91.
- ↑ (1994). Retardation of the Senescence of Cultured Human Diploid Fibroblasts by Carnosine. Experimental Cell Research 212 (2): 167–75.
- ↑ (2004). L-Carnosine reduces telomere damage and shortening rate in cultured normal fibroblasts. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 324 (2): 931–6.
- ↑ (2000). Use of carnosine as a natural anti-senescence drug for human beings. Biochemistry. Biokhimiia 65 (7): 869–71.
Angiotensin - Bombesin/Neuromedin B - Calcitonin gene-related peptide - Carnosine - Delta sleep-inducing peptide - FMRFamide - Galanin - Gastrin releasing peptide - Kinins (Bradykinin, Tachykinins ) - Neuromedin (B, N, U) - Neuropeptide Y - Neurophysins - Neurotensin - Opioid peptide - Pancreatic polypeptide - Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide
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