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Individual differences |
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Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
|Café au lait spot|
|Classification and external resources|
A café au lait spot on a patient's left cheek.
Café au lait spots or Café au lait macules are pigmented birthmarks. The name café au lait is French for "coffee with milk" and refers to their light-brown color. They are also called "giraffe spots" or "coast of Maine spots."
- Having six or more café au lait spots greater than 5 mm in diameter before puberty, or greater than 15 mm in diameter after puberty, is a diagnostic feature of neurofibromatosis type I, but other features are required to diagnose NF-1.
- Familial multiple café au lait spots have been observed without NF-1 diagnosis.
- They can be caused by vitiligo in the rare McCune–Albright syndrome.
- Legius syndrome
- Tuberous sclerosis
- Fanconi anemia, a rare genetic disease.
- Ataxia telangiectasia
- Basal cell nevus syndrome
- Benign congenital skin lesion
- Bloom syndrome
- Chediak Higashi syndrome
- Congenital naevus
- Gaucher disease
- Hunter syndrome
- Maffucci syndrome
- Multiple mucosal neuroma syndrome
- Noonan syndrome
- Silver–Russell syndrome
- Watson syndrome
- Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome
Diagnosis is visual with measurement of spot size and count of number of spots having clinical significance for diagnosis of associated disorders such as Neurofibromatosis type I. Usually, more than 6 spots more than 3 cm in diameter indicates NF1.
Café au lait spots are benign and do not cause any ailment themselves.
They can be treated with lasers.
- List of cutaneous conditions
- List of conditions associated with café au lait macules
- ↑ Plensdorf S, Martinez J (January 2009). Common pigmentation disorders. American Family Physician 79 (2): 109–16.
- ↑ coast of Maine spots - General Practice Notebook
- ↑ "Cafe Au Lait Spots", by William D James, MD
- ↑ Cafe Au Lait Spots
- ↑ Arnsmeier, Sheryl L. (1994). Familial Multiple Cafe au lait Spots. Arch Dermatol. 130 (11): 1425–1426.
- ↑ Whyte, M. P. (2000). Café-au-lait spots caused by vitiligo in McCune-Albright syndrome. J Bone Miner Res. 15 (12): 2521–2523.
- ↑ Scheinfeld, Noah S. (2011). Laser Treatment of Benign Pigmented Lesions.
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