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Conditioned emotional responses can develop as a consequence of classical conditioning. For example in the rat where the pressing of the lever in response to food has been effectively conditioned, if a conditioned stimulus such as a loud tone precedes the presentation of an aversiveunconditioned stimulus, such as an electric shock, the animal suppresses responding with a lever press for food, even though it is available and is independent of the tone and shock. This has been taken as evidence that the rat has acquired a conditioned emotional response (fear) that is incompatible with the feeding behavior, and this accounts for its suppression.

Further information: Classical conditioning#Conditioned emotional response

The conditioned emotional response, specifically here the conditioned fear response,[1] is an emotional response that results from classical conditioning, usually from the association of a relatively neutral stimulus with a painful or fear-inducing experience. As a result, the formerly neutral stimulus elicits fear. For example, if seeing a dog (a neutral stimulus) is paired with the pain of being bitten by the dog (unconditioned stimulus), seeing a dog may become a conditioned stimulus that elicits fear (conditioned response).

In 1920 Watson and Rayner demonstrated such fear conditioning in "little Albert". They started with a nine month boy called “Albert”, who was unemotional but was made to cry by the loud noise (unconditioned stimulus) of a hammer striking a steel bar. Albert initially showed no fear of a white rat (neutral stimulus), but after the sight of the rat had been accompanied five times by the loud noise, Albert cried and tried to escape the rat. Thus, the rat had become a conditioned stimulus for fear.

Further work was done by William Kaye Estes and B. F. Skinner, on the development of a widely used method of measuring *emotional reactions (the "CER"). They presented their analysis of anxiety and introduced the Conditioned Emotional Response (CER) paradigm. In their CER paradigm, rats were trained to respond on an operant schedule that produced a steady response rate, after which they were tested with a stimulus that was conditioned as a fear signal. The fear signal suppressed the operant response, and the magnitude of suppression was used as a mesure of anxiety.

NeuroscienceEdit

The amygdala, located in the temporal lobe, is a key brain region involved in the conditioned fear response and contributes to the autonomic, hormonal, and behavioral factors associated with that response. According to studies by Coover, Murison, & Jellestad and Davis and LeDoux in 1992, when a dog's amygdala is damaged, it does not show fear, and, when tamed by human beings, the dog's stress hormone levels in the blood are lower than they are in a normal dog. Similarly, humans become less likely to report feelings of fear after their amygdala has been damaged due to injury or stroke.

The most common measure of the conditioned fear response is the suppression ratio.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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