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(New page: {{ClinPsy}} {{PsyPerspective}} * '''First-degree burns''' are usually limited to redness (erythema), a white plaque, and minor pain at the site of injury. Thes...)
 
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{{ClinPsy}}
 
{{PsyPerspective}}
 
{{PsyPerspective}}
* '''First-degree burns''' are usually limited to redness ([[erythema]]), a white plaque, and minor [[Pain and nociception|pain]] at the site of injury. These burns usually extend only into the [[Epidermis (skin)|epidermis]].
+
A '''burn''' is an [[injury]] caused by [[heat]], [[cold]], [[electricity]], [[chemicals]], [[light]], [[radiation]], or [[friction]].<ref> Burns [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/burns.html MedlinePlus] Accessed [[February 25]], [[2008]]</ref><ref> Burns Topic Overview [http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/burns-topic-overview WebMD] Accessed [[February 27]], [[2008]]</ref> Statistically, it is the second highest unintentional cost of human life behind [[automobile accidents]].<ref> Burn Emergencies [http://phoenix.gov/FIRE/burns.html Phoenix.gov] Accessed [[February 24]], [[2008]]</ref> Burns can be highly variable in terms of the tissue affected, the severity, and resultant complications. [[Muscle]], [[bone]], [[blood vessel]], and [[epidermis|epidermal tissue]] can all be damaged with subsequent pain due to profound injury to [[nerve ending]]s. Depending on the location affected and the degree of severity, a burn victim may experience a wide number of potentially fatal complications including [[shock (medical)|shock]], [[infection]], [[electrolyte imbalance]] and [[respiratory distress]].<ref> A review of the complications of burns, their origin and importance for illness and death - Abstract [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/448773 J Trauma. 1979 May;19(5):358-69.] Accessed [[February 27]], [[2008]]</ref> Beyond physical complications, burns can also result in severe psychological and emotional distress due to [[scarring]] and deformity.
* '''Second-degree burns''' additionally fill with clear fluid, have superficial [[blister]]ing of the skin, and can involve more or less pain depending on the level of [[nerve]] involvement. Second-degree burns involve the superficial (papillary) [[dermis]] and may also involve the deep (reticular) dermis layer.
 
* '''Third-degree burns''' are which most of the epidermis is lost. They additionally have charring of the skin, and sometimes produce hard eshcars. An eschar is a scab that has separated from the unaffected part of the body. These types of burns are often considered painless, because nerve endings have been destroyed in the burned areas. However, there is in reality a significant amount of pain involved in a third degree burn. Hair follicles and sweat glands may also be lost. Third degree burns result in scarring elastic banding of the skin can smooth the scarred skin. Third degree burns over large surface areas are often fatal.
 
* '''Fourth-degree burns''' are burns in which most of the dermis is lost often burning the muscle underneath. These burns usually present hard-to-reverse damage to the skin and there is very few sensation in the burn area as a result. These type of burns will require hospitalization. Grafting is needed to close up the areas.
 
* '''Fifth-degree burns''' are burns in which which most of the hypodermis is lost charring and exposing the muscle underneath. Sometimes, fifth-degree burns can be fatal.
 
* '''Sixth-degree burns''' are burn types in which almost all the muscle tissue in the area is burned away leaving almost nothing but charred bone. Often, sixth-degree burns are deadly. Sixth-degree burns are the highest in the burn category.
 
==Current Classification==
 
   
  +
==Classification by degree==
  +
The most common system of classifying burns categorizes them as first-, second-, or third-degree. Sometimes this is extended to include a fourth or even up to a sixth degree, but most burns are first- to third-degree, with the higher-degree burns typically being used to classify burns post-mortem. The following are brief descriptions of these classes:<ref> Burn Degrees [http://www.lifespan.org/services/criticalcare/articles/burns/burns.htm Lifespan.com] Accessed [[February 24]], [[2008]]</ref>
  +
* '''First-degree burns''' are usually limited to redness ([[erythema]]), a white plaque and minor [[Pain and nociception|pain]] at the site of injury. These burns only involve the [[Epidermis (skin)|epidermis]].
  +
* '''Second-degree burns''' manifest as erythema with superficial [[blister]]ing of the skin, and can involve more or less pain depending on the level of [[nerve]] involvement. Second-degree burns involve the superficial (papillary) [[dermis]] and may also involve the deep (reticular) dermis layer.
  +
* '''Third-degree burns''' occur when most of the epidermis is lost with damage to underlying [[ligaments]], [[tendons]] and muscle. Burn victims will exhibit charring of the skin, and sometimes hard eschars will be present. An eschar is a scab that has separated from the unaffected part of the body. These types of burns are often considered painless, because nerve endings have been destroyed in the burned area. Hair follicles and sweat glands may also be lost due to complete destruction of the dermis. Third degree burns result in scarring and may be fatal if the affected area is significantly large.
  +
*'''Fourth-degree burns''' damage bone tissue and may result in a condition called [[compartment syndrome]], which threatens the life of the limb.
  +
* '''Fifth-degree burns''' are burns in which most of the [[hypodermis]] is lost, charring and exposing the muscle underneath. Sometimes, fifth-degree burns can be fatal.
  +
* '''Sixth-degree burns''', the most severe form, are burn types in which almost all the muscle tissue in the area is destroyed, leaving almost nothing but charred bone. Often, sixth-degree burns are deadly.
  +
  +
==Other classifications==
 
A newer classification of "Superficial Thickness", "Partial Thickness" (which is divided into superficial and deep categories) and "Full Thickness" relates more precisely to the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous layers of skin and is used to guide treatment and predict outcome.
 
A newer classification of "Superficial Thickness", "Partial Thickness" (which is divided into superficial and deep categories) and "Full Thickness" relates more precisely to the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous layers of skin and is used to guide treatment and predict outcome.
   
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|Full thickness||Third- or fourth-degree||Dermis and underlying tissue and possibly [[fascia]], [[bone]], or [[muscle]]||Hard, leather-like eschar, purple fluid, no sensation (insensate)
 
|Full thickness||Third- or fourth-degree||Dermis and underlying tissue and possibly [[fascia]], [[bone]], or [[muscle]]||Hard, leather-like eschar, purple fluid, no sensation (insensate)
 
|}
 
|}
Serious burns, especially if they cover large areas of the body, can cause [[death]]; any hint of burn injury to the [[lung]]s (e.g. through smoke inhalation) is a [[medical emergency]].
 
   
Chemical burns are usually caused by [[chemical compounds]], such as [[sodium hydroxide]] ([[lye]]), [[silver nitrate]], and more serious compounds (such as [[sulfuric acid]]). Most chemicals (but not all) that can cause moderate to severe chemical burns are strong [[acid]]s or [[base (chemistry)|bases]]. [[Nitric acid]], as an oxidizer, is possibly one of the worst burn-causing chemicals. [[Hydrofluoric acid]] can eat down to the bone and its burns are often not immediately evident. Most chemicals that can cause moderate to severe chemical burns are called [[Caustic (substance)|caustic]].
+
{{main|Total body surface area}}
  +
Burns can also be assessed in terms of total body surface area (TBSA), which is the percentage affected by partial thickness or full thickness burns (superficial thickness burns are not counted). The [[rule of nines]] is used as a quick and useful way to estimate the affected TBSA.
   
Electrical burns are generally symptoms of [[electric shock]], being struck by [[lightning]], being [[defibrillation|defibrillated or cardioverted]] without conductive gel, etc. The internal injuries sustained may be disproportionate to the size of the "burns" seen - as these are only the entry and exit wounds of the electrical current.
+
==Causes of burns==
  +
Burns may be caused by a wide variety of substances and external sources such as exposure to chemicals, friction, electricity, radiation, and extreme temperatures, both hot and cold.
   
Survival and outcome (scars, contractures, complications) of severe burn injuries is remarkably improved if the patient is treated in a specialized burn center/unit rather than a hospital.
+
Most '''chemicals''' (but not all) that can cause moderate to severe chemical burns are strong [[acid]]s or [[base (chemistry)|bases]].<ref> Chemical Burn Causes [http://www.emedicinehealth.com/chemical_burns/page2_em.htm#Chemical%20Burn%20Causes emedicine Health] Accessed [[February 24]], [[2008]]</ref> Chemical burns are usually caused by [[caustic]] [[chemical compounds]], such as [[sodium hydroxide]], [[silver nitrate]], and more serious compounds (such as [[sulfuric acid]] and [[Nitric acid]]).<ref> Chemical Burn Causes [http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic73.htm eMedicine] Accessed [[February 24]], [[2008]]</ref> [[Hydrofluoric acid]] can cause damage down to the bone and its burns are sometimes not immediately evident.<ref> Hydrofluoric Acid Burns [http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic804.htm emedicine] Accessed [[February 24]], [[2008]]</ref>
   
==Scald==
+
'''Electrical burns''' are generally caused by an exogenous [[electric shock]], such as being struck by [[lightning]] or [[defibrillation|defibrillated or cardioverted]] without a conductive gel. The internal injuries sustained may be disproportionate to the size of the burns seen, and the extent of the damage is not always obvious. Such injuries may lead to [[cardiac arrhythmias]], [[cardiac arrest]], and unexpected falls with resultant [[fractures]].<ref> Electrical Burns: First Aid [http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/first-aid-electrical-burns/FA00027 Mayo Clinic] Accessed [[February 24]], [[2008]]</ref>
{{Unreferenced|date=December 2006}}
+
  +
'''Radiation burns''' may be caused by protracted and overexposure to [[UV light]] (as from the sun), [[tanning booths]], [[radiation therapy]] (as patients who are undergoing [[cancer]] therapy), sunlamps, and [[X-rays]]. By far the most common burn associated with radiation is sun exposure, specifically two wavelengths of light [[UVA]], and [[UVB]], the latter being the more dangerous of the two. Tanning booths also emit these wavelengths and may cause similar damage to the skin such as irritation, redness, swelling, and [[inflammation]]. More severe cases of sun burn result in what is known as [[sun poisoning]].
  +
===Scalding===
 
[[Image:Scaldburn.jpg|thumb|150px|Two day-old scald caused by boiling [[radiator]] fluid.]]
 
[[Image:Scaldburn.jpg|thumb|150px|Two day-old scald caused by boiling [[radiator]] fluid.]]
[[Image:Frying-pan-scald.jpg|thumb|150px|Two day-old scald from taking a frying pan from an oven.]]
 
'''Scalding''' is a specific type of burning that is caused by hot fluids (i.e. liquids or gases). Examples of common liquids that cause scalds are water and cooking oil. Steam is a common gas that causes scalds. The injury is usually regional and usually does not cause death. More damage can be caused if hot liquids enter an orifice. However, deaths have occurred in more unusual circumstances, such as when people have accidentally broken a steam pipe. Young children, with their delicate skin, can suffer a serious burn in a much shorter time of exposure than the average adult. Also, their small body surface area means even a small amount of hot/burning liquid can cause severe burns over a large area of the body.
 
   
  +
'''Scalding''' is a specific type of burning that is caused by hot fluids or gases. They most commonly occur in the home from exposure to high temperature [[tap water]].<ref> Scald and Burn Care, Public Education [http://www.rochesterhills.org/city_services/fire_department/pubic_education/scald_and_burn_care.asp City of Rochester Hills] Accessed [[February 24]], [[2008]]</ref> Steam is a common gas that causes scalds. The injury is usually regional and usually does not cause death. More damage can be caused if hot liquids enter an orifice. However, deaths have occurred in more unusual circumstances, such as when people have accidentally broken a steam pipe. The demographics that are of the highest risk to suffering from scalding are young children, with their delicate skin, and the elderly over 65 years of age.
   
==Cold burn==
+
===Cold burn===
{{Unreferenced|date=December 2006}}
+
[[Image:Frostbitten hands.jpg|thumb|left|150px|Frostbitten hands]]
A '''cold burn''' (see [[frostbite]]) is a kind of burn which arises when the skin is in contact with a low-temperature body. They can be caused by prolonged contact with moderately cold bodies ([[snow]] and cold [[air]] for instance) or brief contact with very cold bodies such as [[dry ice]], [[liquid helium]], [[liquid nitrogen]], or [[canned air]], all of which can be used in the process of [[wart]] removal. In such a case, the [[heat]] transfers from the skin and organs to the external cold body (as opposed to most other situations where the body causing the burn is hotter, and transfers the heat into the skin and organs). The effects are very similar to a "regular" burn. The remedy is also the same as for any burn: for a small wound keep the injured organ under a flow of comfortably temperatured water; the heat will then transfer slowly from the water to the organs and help the wound. Further treatment or treatments of a more extended wound also are usual.
 
 
==Assessing burns==
 
{{main|Total body surface area}}
 
Burns are assessed in terms of total body surface area (TBSA), which is the percentage affected by partial thickness or full thickness burns (superficial thickness burns are not counted). The [[rule of nines]] is used as a quick and useful way to estimate the affected TBSA.
 
   
  +
A '''cold burn''' (see [[frostbite]]) is a kind of burn which arises when the skin is in contact with a low-temperature body. They can be caused by prolonged contact with moderately cold bodies ([[snow]] and cold [[air]] for instance) or brief contact with very cold bodies such as [[dry ice]], [[liquid helium]], [[liquid nitrogen]], or [[canned air]]. In such a case, the [[heat]] transfers from the skin and organs to the external cold body. The effects are very similar to that of a burn caused by extreme heat. The remedy is also the same. For a minor cold burn, it is advisable to keep the injured organ under a flow of water of comfortable temperature. This will allow heat to transfer slowly from the water to the organs.
   
 
==Management==
 
==Management==
The first step in managing a person with a burn is to stop the burning process. With dry powder burns, the powder should be brushed off first. With other burns, the affected area should be rinsed with a large amount of clean water to remove [[foreign body|foreign bodies]] and help stop the burning process. Cold water should never be applied to any person with extensive burns, as it may severely compromise the burn victim's temperature status.
+
A [[local anesthetic]] is usually sufficient in managing pain of minor first-degree and second-degree burns. However, systemic anti-inflammatory drugs such as [[naproxen]] may be effective in mitigating pain and swelling. Additionally, topical antibiotics such as [[Mycitracin]] are useful in preventing infection to the damaged area.<ref> Minor Burns [http://quickcare.org/skin/burns.html quickcare.org] Accessed [[February 25]], [[2008]]</ref> [[Lidocaine]] can be administered to the spot of injury and will generally negate most of the pain. Regardless of the cause, the first step in managing a person with a burn is to stop the burning process at the source. For instance, with dry powder burns, the powder should be brushed off first. With other burns, such as those caused by exposure to chemicals, the affected area should be rinsed throughly with a large amount of clean water to remove the caustic agent and any [[foreign body|foreign bodies]]. Cold water should not be applied to a person with extensive burns, however, as it may compromise the burn victim's temperature status.
   
At this stage of management, it is also critical to assess the airway status. If the patient was involved in a fire, then it must be assumed that he or she has sustained inhalation injury until proven otherwise, and treatment should be managed accordingly.
+
If the patient was involved in a fire accident, then it must be assumed that he or she has sustained inhalation injury until proven otherwise, and treatment should be managed accordingly. At this stage of management, it is also critical to assess the airway status. Any hint of burn injury to the [[lung]]s (e.g. through [[smoke inhalation]]) is considered a [[medical emergency]]. Survival and outcome of severe burn injuries is remarkably improved if the patient is treated in a specialized burn center/unit rather than a hospital. Serious burns, especially if they cover large areas of the body, can result in death.
   
Once the burning process has been stopped, and airway status is ensured, the patient should be volume resuscitated according to the [[Parkland Memorial Hospital#Capabilities|Parkland]] formula. This formula dictates that the amount of [[Lactated Ringer's solution]] to deliver in the first twenty four hours after time of injury is: excludes any first degree burn
+
Once the burning process has been stopped, the patient should be volume resuscitated according to the Parkland formula, since such injuries can disturb a person's [[osmotic balance]]. This formula dictates the amount of [[Lactated Ringer's solution]] to deliver in the first twenty four hours after time of injury. This formula excludes first and most second degree burns. Half of the fluid should be given in the first eight hours post injury and the rest in the subsequent sixteen hours. The formula is a guide only and infusions must be tailored to [[urine]] output and [[central venous pressure]]. Inadequate fluid resuscitation causes [[renal failure]] and [[death]].
Half of this fluid should be given in the first eight hours post injury and the rest in the subsequent sixteen hours. The formula is a guide only and infusions must be tailored to [[urine]] output and central venous pressure. Inadequate fluid resuscitation causes [[renal failure]] and [[death]].
 
 
Severe edema in full thickness burns may be treated by escharotomy.
 
 
== Treatment of low-grade burns ==
 
A [[local anesthetic]] is usually sufficient in managing pain of smaller first-degree and second-degree burns. [[Lidocaine]] can be administered to the spot of injury and will generally negate most pain.
 
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
*[[Electrica injuries]]
+
*[[Electrical injuries]]
 
*[[Wounds]]
 
*[[Wounds]]
   
  +
==References==
  +
{{reflist}}
   
  +
==External links==
  +
*[http://www.aarbf.org Alisa Ann Ruch Burn Foundation]
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[[Category:Skin]]
 
[[Category:Injuries]]
 
[[Category:Injuries]]
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A burn is an injury caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, light, radiation, or friction.[1][2] Statistically, it is the second highest unintentional cost of human life behind automobile accidents.[3] Burns can be highly variable in terms of the tissue affected, the severity, and resultant complications. Muscle, bone, blood vessel, and epidermal tissue can all be damaged with subsequent pain due to profound injury to nerve endings. Depending on the location affected and the degree of severity, a burn victim may experience a wide number of potentially fatal complications including shock, infection, electrolyte imbalance and respiratory distress.[4] Beyond physical complications, burns can also result in severe psychological and emotional distress due to scarring and deformity.

Classification by degree

The most common system of classifying burns categorizes them as first-, second-, or third-degree. Sometimes this is extended to include a fourth or even up to a sixth degree, but most burns are first- to third-degree, with the higher-degree burns typically being used to classify burns post-mortem. The following are brief descriptions of these classes:[5]

  • First-degree burns are usually limited to redness (erythema), a white plaque and minor pain at the site of injury. These burns only involve the epidermis.
  • Second-degree burns manifest as erythema with superficial blistering of the skin, and can involve more or less pain depending on the level of nerve involvement. Second-degree burns involve the superficial (papillary) dermis and may also involve the deep (reticular) dermis layer.
  • Third-degree burns occur when most of the epidermis is lost with damage to underlying ligaments, tendons and muscle. Burn victims will exhibit charring of the skin, and sometimes hard eschars will be present. An eschar is a scab that has separated from the unaffected part of the body. These types of burns are often considered painless, because nerve endings have been destroyed in the burned area. Hair follicles and sweat glands may also be lost due to complete destruction of the dermis. Third degree burns result in scarring and may be fatal if the affected area is significantly large.
  • Fourth-degree burns damage bone tissue and may result in a condition called compartment syndrome, which threatens the life of the limb.
  • Fifth-degree burns are burns in which most of the hypodermis is lost, charring and exposing the muscle underneath. Sometimes, fifth-degree burns can be fatal.
  • Sixth-degree burns, the most severe form, are burn types in which almost all the muscle tissue in the area is destroyed, leaving almost nothing but charred bone. Often, sixth-degree burns are deadly.

Other classifications

A newer classification of "Superficial Thickness", "Partial Thickness" (which is divided into superficial and deep categories) and "Full Thickness" relates more precisely to the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous layers of skin and is used to guide treatment and predict outcome.

Table 1. A description of the traditional and current classifications of burns.

Template:Bgcolor-gold|NomenclatureTemplate:Bgcolor-gold|Traditional nomenclatureTemplate:Bgcolor-gold|DepthTemplate:Bgcolor-gold|Clinical findings
Superficial thicknessFirst-degreeEpidermis involvementErythema, minor pain, lack of blisters
Partial thickness — superficialSecond-degreeSuperficial (papillary) dermisBlisters, clear fluid, and pain
Partial thickness — deepSecond-degreeDeep (reticular) dermisWhiter appearance, with decreased pain. Difficult to distinguish from full thickness
Full thicknessThird- or fourth-degreeDermis and underlying tissue and possibly fascia, bone, or muscleHard, leather-like eschar, purple fluid, no sensation (insensate)
Main article: Total body surface area

Burns can also be assessed in terms of total body surface area (TBSA), which is the percentage affected by partial thickness or full thickness burns (superficial thickness burns are not counted). The rule of nines is used as a quick and useful way to estimate the affected TBSA.

Causes of burns

Burns may be caused by a wide variety of substances and external sources such as exposure to chemicals, friction, electricity, radiation, and extreme temperatures, both hot and cold.

Most chemicals (but not all) that can cause moderate to severe chemical burns are strong acids or bases.[6] Chemical burns are usually caused by caustic chemical compounds, such as sodium hydroxide, silver nitrate, and more serious compounds (such as sulfuric acid and Nitric acid).[7] Hydrofluoric acid can cause damage down to the bone and its burns are sometimes not immediately evident.[8]

Electrical burns are generally caused by an exogenous electric shock, such as being struck by lightning or defibrillated or cardioverted without a conductive gel. The internal injuries sustained may be disproportionate to the size of the burns seen, and the extent of the damage is not always obvious. Such injuries may lead to cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, and unexpected falls with resultant fractures.[9]

Radiation burns may be caused by protracted and overexposure to UV light (as from the sun), tanning booths, radiation therapy (as patients who are undergoing cancer therapy), sunlamps, and X-rays. By far the most common burn associated with radiation is sun exposure, specifically two wavelengths of light UVA, and UVB, the latter being the more dangerous of the two. Tanning booths also emit these wavelengths and may cause similar damage to the skin such as irritation, redness, swelling, and inflammation. More severe cases of sun burn result in what is known as sun poisoning.

Scalding

File:Scaldburn.jpg
Two day-old scald caused by boiling radiator fluid.

Scalding is a specific type of burning that is caused by hot fluids or gases. They most commonly occur in the home from exposure to high temperature tap water.[10] Steam is a common gas that causes scalds. The injury is usually regional and usually does not cause death. More damage can be caused if hot liquids enter an orifice. However, deaths have occurred in more unusual circumstances, such as when people have accidentally broken a steam pipe. The demographics that are of the highest risk to suffering from scalding are young children, with their delicate skin, and the elderly over 65 years of age.

Cold burn

File:Frostbitten hands.jpg
Frostbitten hands

A cold burn (see frostbite) is a kind of burn which arises when the skin is in contact with a low-temperature body. They can be caused by prolonged contact with moderately cold bodies (snow and cold air for instance) or brief contact with very cold bodies such as dry ice, liquid helium, liquid nitrogen, or canned air. In such a case, the heat transfers from the skin and organs to the external cold body. The effects are very similar to that of a burn caused by extreme heat. The remedy is also the same. For a minor cold burn, it is advisable to keep the injured organ under a flow of water of comfortable temperature. This will allow heat to transfer slowly from the water to the organs.

Management

A local anesthetic is usually sufficient in managing pain of minor first-degree and second-degree burns. However, systemic anti-inflammatory drugs such as naproxen may be effective in mitigating pain and swelling. Additionally, topical antibiotics such as Mycitracin are useful in preventing infection to the damaged area.[11] Lidocaine can be administered to the spot of injury and will generally negate most of the pain. Regardless of the cause, the first step in managing a person with a burn is to stop the burning process at the source. For instance, with dry powder burns, the powder should be brushed off first. With other burns, such as those caused by exposure to chemicals, the affected area should be rinsed throughly with a large amount of clean water to remove the caustic agent and any foreign bodies. Cold water should not be applied to a person with extensive burns, however, as it may compromise the burn victim's temperature status.

If the patient was involved in a fire accident, then it must be assumed that he or she has sustained inhalation injury until proven otherwise, and treatment should be managed accordingly. At this stage of management, it is also critical to assess the airway status. Any hint of burn injury to the lungs (e.g. through smoke inhalation) is considered a medical emergency. Survival and outcome of severe burn injuries is remarkably improved if the patient is treated in a specialized burn center/unit rather than a hospital. Serious burns, especially if they cover large areas of the body, can result in death.

Once the burning process has been stopped, the patient should be volume resuscitated according to the Parkland formula, since such injuries can disturb a person's osmotic balance. This formula dictates the amount of Lactated Ringer's solution to deliver in the first twenty four hours after time of injury. This formula excludes first and most second degree burns. Half of the fluid should be given in the first eight hours post injury and the rest in the subsequent sixteen hours. The formula is a guide only and infusions must be tailored to urine output and central venous pressure. Inadequate fluid resuscitation causes renal failure and death.

See also

References

  1. Burns MedlinePlus Accessed February 25, 2008
  2. Burns Topic Overview WebMD Accessed February 27, 2008
  3. Burn Emergencies Phoenix.gov Accessed February 24, 2008
  4. A review of the complications of burns, their origin and importance for illness and death - Abstract J Trauma. 1979 May;19(5):358-69. Accessed February 27, 2008
  5. Burn Degrees Lifespan.com Accessed February 24, 2008
  6. Chemical Burn Causes emedicine Health Accessed February 24, 2008
  7. Chemical Burn Causes eMedicine Accessed February 24, 2008
  8. Hydrofluoric Acid Burns emedicine Accessed February 24, 2008
  9. Electrical Burns: First Aid Mayo Clinic Accessed February 24, 2008
  10. Scald and Burn Care, Public Education City of Rochester Hills Accessed February 24, 2008
  11. Minor Burns quickcare.org Accessed February 25, 2008

External links


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