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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
- This article primarily concerns bullying involving doctors. For bullying involving nurses see Bullying in nursing.
Bullying in the medical profession is common, particularly of student or trainee doctors. It is thought that this is at least in part an outcome of conservative traditional hierarchical structures and teaching methods in the medical profession which may result in a bullying cycle.
Bullying can significantly decrease job satisfaction and increase job-induced stress; it also leads to low self confidence, depression, anxiety and a desire to leave employment. Bullying contributes to high rates of staff turnover, high rates of sickness absence, impaired performance, lower productivity, poor team spirit and loss of trained staff. This has implications for the recruitment and retention of medical staff.
Bullying of medical studentsEdit
- Main article: Bullying in academia
Medical students, perhaps being vulnerable because of their relatively low status in health care settings, may experience verbal abuse, humiliation and harassment (nonsexual or sexual). Discrimination based on gender and race are less common.
In one study, around 35% of medical students reported having been bullied. Around one in four of the 1,000 students questioned said they had been bullied by a doctor, while one in six had been bullied by a nurse. Manifestations of bullying include:
- being humiliated by teachers in front of patients
- been victimised for not having come from a "medical family"
- being put under pressure to carry out a procedure without supervision.
One study showed that the medical faculty was the faculty in which students were most commonly mistreated.
Bullying of junior (trainee) doctorsEdit
In a UK study, 37% of junior doctors reported being bullied in the previous year and 84% had experienced at least one bullying behaviour. Black and Asian doctors were more likely to be bullied than other doctors. Women were more likely to be bullied than men.
Trainee doctors who feel threatened in the clinical workplace develop less effectively and are less likely to ask for advice or help when they need it. Persistent destructive criticism, sarcastic comments and humiliation in front of colleagues will cause all but the most resilient of trainees to lose confidence in themselves.
Medical training usually takes place in institutions that have a highly-structured hierarchical system, and has traditionally involved teaching by intimidation and humiliation.[How to reference and link to summary or text] Such practices may foster a culture of bullying and the setting up of a cycle of bullying, analogous to other cycles of abuse in which those who experience it go on to abuse others when they become more senior. Doctors are increasingly reporting to the British Medical Association that they are being bullied, often by older and more senior colleagues, many of whom were badly treated themselves when more junior.
Bullying in psychiatryEdit
The psychiatric profession might be expected to be particularly sensitive to bullying and its consequences. However psychiatric trainees experience rates of bullying at least as high as other medical students. In a survey of psychiatric trainees in the West Midlands, 47% had experienced bullying within the last year with even higher percentages amongst ethnic minorities and females. Qualified psychiatrists are not themselves required to be psychiatrically tested.
Doctors bullying/abusing patients and nursesEdit
- Main article: Patient abuse
Speaking of many doctor's predilection of bullying nurses, Teresa Brown writes:
- "...the most damaging bullying is not flagrant and does not fit the stereotype of a surgeon having a tantrum in the operating room. It is passive, like not answering pages or phone calls, and tends toward the subtle: condescension rather than outright abuse, and aggressive or sarcastic remarks rather than straightforward insults."
Bullying in nursingEdit
- Main article: Bullying in nursing
Nurses experience bullying quite frequently. It is thought that relational aggression (psychological aspects of bullying such as gossipping and intimidation) are commonplace. Relational aggression has been studied among girls but not so much among adult women.
In popular cultureEdit
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 (2002). Bullying in medicine. BMJ 324 (7340): 786.
- ↑ (2001). Social defeat as a stressor in humans. Physiology & Behavior 73 (3): 435–42.
- ↑ (2009). Mistreatment of Trainees: Verbal Abuse and Other Bullying Behaviors. Academic Psychiatry 33 (4): 269–73.
- ↑ Curtis P Medical students complain of bullying The Guardian 4 May 2005
- ↑ (2005). Mistreatment of university students most common during medical studies. BMC Medical Education 5: 36.
- ↑ (2004). A questionnaire survey of stress and bullying in doctors undertaking research. Postgraduate Medical Journal 80 (940): 93–6.
- ↑ (2007). Bullying among trainee doctors in Southern India: A questionnaire study. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine 53 (2): 87–90.
- ↑ (2002). Workplace bullying in junior doctors: Questionnaire survey. BMJ 324 (7342): 878–9.
- ↑ (1975). Two familial cases of congenital erythroderma ichthyosiforme. Revue médicale de Liège 30 (13): 439–44.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Paice E, Smith D. Bullying of trainee doctors is a patient safety issue. The Clinical Teacher 2009; 6:13-7.
- ↑ Williams K (1998) Stress linked to bullying. BMA News Review, April 18
- ↑ (2004). A survey of workplace bullying of psychiatric trainees in the West Midlands. Psychiatric Bulletin 28 (6): 225–7.
- ↑ Gadit AA Bullying in psychiatry must stop - Clinical Psychiatry News, May, 2007
- ↑ Doctor faces court-martial in patient abuse case Stars and Stripes January 16, 2010
- ↑ 'Groping' surgeon found guilty BBC News 28 July 2002
- ↑ title="Physician Heel Thyself"|url='http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/08/opinion/08Brown.html'
- ↑ (2008). The development and validation of a bullying inventory for the nursing workplace. Nurse researcher 15 (2): 19–29.
- ↑ (2008). Transforming work environments. Interview by Diane E Scott and Amanda Rosenkranz. The American nurse 40 (2): 7.
- ↑ Richards A, Edwards SL A Nurse's Survival Guide to the Ward (2008)Template:Page needed
- ↑ (2009). Bullying among nurses. The American journal of nursing 109 (1): 52–8.
- (2008). Bullying of Medical Students in Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Survey. PLoS ONE 3 (12): e3889.
- (2007). Poorly performing supervisors and trainers of trainee doctors. Psychiatric Bulletin 31 (4): 148–52.
- (2006). Experiences of belittlement and harassment and their correlates among medical students in the United States: Longitudinal survey. BMJ 333 (7570): 682–0.
- (2008). A pilot study of bullying and harassment among medical professionals in Pakistan, focussing on psychiatry: Need for a medical ombudsman. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (6): 463–6.
- (2010). Bullying of junior doctors in Pakistan: A cross-sectional survey. Singapore medical journal 51 (7): 592–5.
- (2003). A report on student abuse during medical training. Medical Teacher 25 (5): 497–501.
- (2010). Bullying of medical students. Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP 20 (12): 814–8.
- (2004). Bullying among doctors in training: Cross sectional questionnaire survey. BMJ 329 (7467): 658–9.
- Mistry M and Latoo J Bullying: a growing workplace menace BJMP Mar 2009 Volume 2 Number 1
- (2003). Who's a bully then?. BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 326 (7393): S127.
- (1999). Workplace bullying in NHS community trust: Staff questionnaire survey. BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 318 (7178): 228–32.
- Vanderstar ES Workplace Bullying in the Healthcare Professions 2004 8 Employee Rights and Employment Policy Journal 455
- (2006). Bullying and harassment in medical schools. BMJ 333 (7570): 664–5.
- Wood DF Bullying in medical schools Student BMJ October 2006
- Bullying and harassment British Medical Association 8 May 2007
- Guidance for medical students on harassment, intimidation, victimisation and bullying British Medical Association 21 December 2007
- Bullying and harassment of doctors in the workplace Report British Medical Association Health Policy & Economic Research Unit May 2006
- The cost of bullying to the NHS
- News stories
- Bullying on the NHS BBC News January 22, 1999
- Bullying 'ruining NHS workers' lives' BBC News 6 December 2000
- Many junior doctors bullied BBC News 11 April 2002
- One in four junior doctors bullied BBC News 26 September 2002
- Dunne R 'My fellow doctors bullied me' BBC News 9 June 2003
- NHS anti-bullying culture ordered BBC News 12 January 2006
- Targets' triggering NHS bullying BBC News 18 May 2006
- Surgery team 'unsafe' - and at times 'dangerous' Staffordshire Newsletter 10 March 2011
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