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Brain healing is the process that occurs after the brain has been damaged. When parts of the brain are damaged, for instance by stroke, there will be no repair or scar formation. The brain tissue will undergo liquefactive necrosis, and a rim of gliosis will form around the damaged area.
No scar formation
Apart from a small amount in the blood vessels, there is no collagen or fibroblasts in the brain. A scar is formed by fibroblasts producing collagen to repair an area, which will later contract. If scars did form in the brain, the contraction would cause even more damage.
No neuronal growth
Although axons in the developing brain, as well as in the peripheral nervous system, can regenerate, they cannot in the adult brain. This is partly because of factors produced by cells in the brain that inhibit this regeneration. However, recent research indicates stem-cells may be able to regenerate tissues in the brain.
Formation of a glial membrane
Around the edge of necrosis, astrocytes proliferate. These cells extend processes, and form a delicate rim of gliosis around the margin of damage. The empty space left by brain tissue fills up with cerebrospinal fluid.