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Individual differences |
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Bidental consonants are consonants pronounced with both the lower and upper teeth. They are normally found only in speech pathology. The Extensions to the IPA symbol is both a superscript and a subscript bridge, [ ̪͆].
Besides interdental consonants such as [n̪͆], which involve the tongue, there is at least one confirmed attestation of a true bidental consonant in normal language. The Black Sea sub-dialect of the Shapsug dialect of Adyghe has a voiceless bidental non-sibilant fricative where other dialects have [x], such as xə "six" and daxə "pretty". Therefore it might best be transcribed phonemically as /x̪͆/. However, there is no frication at the velum. The teeth themselves are the only constriction: "The lips [are] fully open, the teeth clenched and the tongue flat, the air passing between the teeth; the sound is intermediate between [ʃ] and [f]" (L&M 1996:144-145). This can be transcribed phonetically as [h̪͆], since [h] has no place of articulation of its own.
The Extensions to the IPA specify one other purely bidental consonant sound, the bidental percussive.
- Ladefoged, Peter (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages, Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.
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