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(Created page with " <p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:16.0pt">Basic Counselli...")
 
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<p align="center" class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:16.0pt">Basic Counselling Skills</span>'''</p>
none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:16.0pt">Basic Counselling Skills</span>'''</p>
 
   
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''1. Attending Behaviour'''</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''1. Attending Behaviour'''</p>
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''5. Reflection'''</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''5. Reflection'''</p>
   
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1;
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">1)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">    </span></span></span>''''''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Attending Behaviour</span>'''</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">1)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">    </span></span></span>''''''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Attending Behaviour</span>'''</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1;
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Orienting oneself physically and psychological</p>
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mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Orienting oneself physically and psychological</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1;
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Encourages the other person to talk</p>
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mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Encourages the other person to talk</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1;
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Lets the client know you’re listening</p>
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mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Lets the client know you’re listening</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1;
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Conveys empathy</p>
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mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Conveys empathy</p>
 
   
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;text-indent:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">What Does Attending Behaviour Look Like?</span>'''</p>
none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">What Does Attending Behaviour Look Like?</span>'''</p>
 
   
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
 
   
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;text-indent:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">a) SHOVLER (Or SOLER – ''the underlined''):</span>'''</p>
none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">a) SHOVLER (Or SOLER – ''the underlined''):</span>'''</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">''' '''</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">''' '''</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1;
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>'''<u>S</u>'''<u>: Face the other '''S'''quarely</u></p>
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mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>'''<u>S</u>'''<u>: Face the other '''S'''quarely</u></p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1;
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>'''H''': '''H'''ead nods</p>
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mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>'''H''': '''H'''ead nods</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1;
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>'''<u>O</u>'''<u>: Adopt an '''O'''pen Posture</u></p>
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mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>'''<u>O</u>'''<u>: Adopt an '''O'''pen Posture</u></p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1;
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>'''V''': '''V'''erbal Following</p>
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mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>'''V''': '''V'''erbal Following</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1;
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>'''E''': Sp'''e'''ech</p>
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mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>'''E''': Sp'''e'''ech</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1;
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>'''<u>L</u>'''<u>: '''L'''ean toward the other</u></p>
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mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>'''<u>L</u>'''<u>: '''L'''ean toward the other</u></p>
 
   
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>'''<u>E: </u>'''<u>Make '''E'''ye Contact</u></p>
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mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>'''<u>E: </u>'''<u>Make '''E'''ye Contact</u></p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1;
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>'''<u>R</u>'''<u>: Be Relatively '''R'''elaxed</u></p>
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mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>'''<u>R</u>'''<u>: Be Relatively '''R'''elaxed</u></p>
 
   
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;text-indent:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;text-indent:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">b) Listening:</span>'''</p>
none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">b) Listening:</span>'''</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">Listening is the most important skill in counselling. It is the process of ‘hearing’ the other person. Three aspects of listening;</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">Listening is the most important skill in counselling. It is the process of ‘hearing’ the other person. Three aspects of listening;</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-36.0pt;mso-list:l10 level1 lfo14;
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-36.0pt;mso-list:l10 level1 lfo14; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span style="mso-list: Ignore">i)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">                    </span></span>''''''<u>Linguistic:</u>''' actual words, phrases and metaphors used to convey feelings.</p>
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Ignore">i)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">                    </span></span>''''''<u>Linguistic:</u>''' actual words, phrases and metaphors used to convey feelings.</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-36.0pt;mso-list:l10 level1 lfo14;
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-36.0pt;mso-list:l10 level1 lfo14; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span style="mso-list: Ignore">ii)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">                  </span></span>''''''<u>Paralinguistic:</u>''' not words themselves but timing, accent, volume, pitch, etc.</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span style="mso-list:
 
Ignore">ii)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">                  </span></span>''''''<u>Paralinguistic:</u>''' not words themselves but timing, accent, volume, pitch, etc.</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-36.0pt;mso-list:l10 level1 lfo14;
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-36.0pt;mso-list:l10 level1 lfo14; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span style="mso-list: Ignore">iii)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">                </span></span>''''''<u>Non-verbal:</u>''' ‘body language’ or facial expression, use of gestures, body position and movement, proximity or touch in relation to the counsellor</p>
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Ignore">iii)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">                </span></span>''''''<u>Non-verbal:</u>''' ‘body language’ or facial expression, use of gestures, body position and movement, proximity or touch in relation to the counsellor</p>
 
   
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">All these express the internal state of the counselee and can be ‘listened’ to by the attentive counsellor.</p>
text-autospace:none">All these express the internal state of the counselee and can be ‘listened’ to by the attentive counsellor. </p>
 
   
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1;
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">2)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">    </span></span></span>''''''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Four types of Counselling Interventions</span>'''</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">2)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">    </span></span></span>''''''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Four types of Counselling Interventions</span>'''</p>
 
   
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-36.0pt;mso-list:l15 level1 lfo15;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-36.0pt;mso-list:l15 level1 lfo15; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">i)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">                   </span></span></span>''''''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Open-Ended Questions</span>'''</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">i)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">                   </span></span></span>''''''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Open-Ended Questions</span>'''</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman""> </span></p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman""> </span></p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo2;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo2; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">ü<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Questions that clients cannot easily answer with “Yes,”, “No,” or one- or two-word responses</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">ü<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Questions that clients cannot easily answer with “Yes,”, “No,” or one- or two-word responses</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo2;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo2; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">ü<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span><span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span>“Tell me about your family while you were growing up”</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">ü<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span><span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span>“Tell me about your family while you were growing up”</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo2;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo2; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">ü<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>“Why is that important to you?”</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">ü<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>“Why is that important to you?”</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo2;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo2; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">ü<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>How did you feel when that happened?”</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">ü<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>How did you feel when that happened?”</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo2;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo2; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">ü<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span><span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span>“What did you do when she said that?”</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">ü<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span><span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span>“What did you do when she said that?”</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo2;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo2; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">ü<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>“What are your reasons for saying that?”</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">ü<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>“What are your reasons for saying that?”</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">
text-autospace:none"> </p>
+
</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Purposes of Open-Ended Questions:</span>'''</p>
text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Purposes of Open-Ended Questions:</span>'''</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l8 level1 lfo3;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l8 level1 lfo3; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To begin an interview</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To begin an interview</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l8 level1 lfo3;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l8 level1 lfo3; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To encourage client elaboration</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To encourage client elaboration</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l8 level1 lfo3;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l8 level1 lfo3; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To elicit specific examples</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To elicit specific examples</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l8 level1 lfo3;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l8 level1 lfo3; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To motivate clients to communicate</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To motivate clients to communicate</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"> </p>
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">
  +
</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-36.0pt;mso-list:l15 level1 lfo15;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-36.0pt;mso-list:l15 level1 lfo15; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">ii)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">                </span></span></span>''''''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Closed-Ended Questions</span>'''</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">ii)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">                </span></span></span>''''''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Closed-Ended Questions</span>'''</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l9 level1 lfo4;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l9 level1 lfo4; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>Questions that the other can easily answer with a “Yes,” “No,” or one- or two-word responses</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>Questions that the other can easily answer with a “Yes,” “No,” or one- or two-word responses</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l9 level1 lfo4;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l9 level1 lfo4; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>“Are you going to have the test done?”</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>“Are you going to have the test done?”</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l9 level1 lfo4;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l9 level1 lfo4; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>“Did you drink before you got into the car?”</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>“Did you drink before you got into the car?”</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l9 level1 lfo4;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l9 level1 lfo4; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span><span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span>“Do you drink often?”</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span><span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span>“Do you drink often?”</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l9 level1 lfo4;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l9 level1 lfo4; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>“Do you exercise?”</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>“Do you exercise?”</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l9 level1 lfo4;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l9 level1 lfo4; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span><span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span>“Do you like your job?”</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span><span style="mso-spacerun:yes"> </span>“Do you like your job?”</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"> </p>
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">
  +
</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Purposes of Closed-Ended Questions:</span>'''</p>
text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Purposes of Closed-Ended Questions:</span>'''</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l16 level1 lfo5;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l16 level1 lfo5; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To obtain specific information</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To obtain specific information</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l16 level1 lfo5;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l16 level1 lfo5; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To identify parameters of a problem or issue</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To identify parameters of a problem or issue</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l16 level1 lfo5;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l16 level1 lfo5; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To narrow the topic of discussion</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To narrow the topic of discussion</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l16 level1 lfo5;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l16 level1 lfo5; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To interrupt an over-talkative client</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To interrupt an over-talkative client</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"> </p>
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">
  +
</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Closed vs. Open-Ended Question</span>'''</p>
text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Closed vs. Open-Ended Question</span>'''</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">'''''Examples'''''</p>
text-autospace:none">'''''Examples'''''</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">C: Are you scared?</p>
text-autospace:none">C: Are you scared?</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">O: How do you feel?</p>
text-autospace:none">O: How do you feel?</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">C: Are you concerned about what you will do if the test results are positive?</p>
text-autospace:none">C: Are you concerned about what you will do if the test results are positive?</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">O: What do you think you might do if the test results are positive?</p>
text-autospace:none">O: What do you think you might do if the test results are positive?</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">C: Is your relationship with your husband a good one?</p>
text-autospace:none">C: Is your relationship with your husband a good one?</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">O: Tell me about your relationship with your husband.</p>
text-autospace:none">O: Tell me about your relationship with your husband.</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"> </p>
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">
  +
</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-36.0pt;mso-list:l15 level1 lfo15;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-36.0pt;mso-list:l15 level1 lfo15; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">iii)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">              </span></span></span>''''''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Reflection:</span>'''</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">iii)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">              </span></span></span>''''''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Reflection:</span>'''</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
Line 178: Line 178:
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'' ''</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'' ''</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-36.0pt;mso-list:l15 level1 lfo15;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-36.0pt;mso-list:l15 level1 lfo15; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">iv)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">              </span></span></span>''''''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Challenging:</span>'''</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">iv)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">              </span></span></span>''''''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Challenging:</span>'''</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
Line 192: Line 192:
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span style="mso-tab-count:1">            </span>''Counsellor: ''Always?</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span style="mso-tab-count:1">            </span>''Counsellor: ''Always?</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"> </p>
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">
  +
</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">3)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">    </span></span></span>''''''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Paraphrasing</span>'''</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">3)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">    </span></span></span>''''''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Paraphrasing</span>'''</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">The counsellor rephrases the content of the client’s message</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">The counsellor rephrases the content of the client’s message</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"> </p>
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">
  +
</p>
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">Example:</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">Example:</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l12 level1 lfo6;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l12 level1 lfo6; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Client: “I know it doesn’t help my depression to sit around or stay in bed all day.”</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Client: “I know it doesn’t help my depression to sit around or stay in bed all day.”</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l12 level1 lfo6;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l12 level1 lfo6; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Counsellor: “It sounds like you know you should avoid staying in bed or sitting around all day to help your depression.”</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Counsellor: “It sounds like you know you should avoid staying in bed or sitting around all day to help your depression.”</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"> </p>
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">
  +
</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Purposes of Paraphrasing</span>'''</p>
text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Purposes of Paraphrasing</span>'''</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l11 level1 lfo7;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l11 level1 lfo7; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To convey that you are understanding him/her</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To convey that you are understanding him/her</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l11 level1 lfo7;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l11 level1 lfo7; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>Help the client by simplifying, focusing and crystallizing what they said</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>Help the client by simplifying, focusing and crystallizing what they said</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l11 level1 lfo7;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l11 level1 lfo7; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>May encourage the client to elaborate</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>May encourage the client to elaborate</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l11 level1 lfo7;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l11 level1 lfo7; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>Provide a check on the accuracy of your perceptions</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>Provide a check on the accuracy of your perceptions</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"> </p>
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">
  +
</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">When to use it</span>'''</p>
text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">When to use it</span>'''</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
  +
  +
 
*When you have an hypothesis about what’s going on with the client
 
*When you have an hypothesis about what’s going on with the client
 
*When the client is in a decision making conflict
 
*When the client is in a decision making conflict
 
*When the client has presented a lot of material and you feel confused
 
*When the client has presented a lot of material and you feel confused
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"> </p>
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">
  +
</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Steps in Paraphrasing</span>'''</p>
text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Steps in Paraphrasing</span>'''</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">Client, a 40-year-old woman: “How can I tell my husband I want a divorce? He’ll think I’m crazy. I guess I’m just afraid to tell him.”</p>
text-autospace:none">Client, a 40-year-old woman: “How can I tell my husband I want a divorce? He’ll think I’m crazy. I guess I’m just afraid to tell him.”</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''Steps'''</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''Steps'''</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l5 level1 lfo16;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l5 level1 lfo16; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">a)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span>Recall the message and restate it to yourself covertly</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">a)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span>Recall the message and restate it to yourself covertly</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l5 level1 lfo16;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l5 level1 lfo16; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">b)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span>Identify the content part of the message</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">b)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span>Identify the content part of the message</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l5 level1 lfo16;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l5 level1 lfo16; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">c)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span>Wants divorce, but hasn’t told husband because he will think she’s crazy</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">c)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span>Wants divorce, but hasn’t told husband because he will think she’s crazy</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l5 level1 lfo16;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l5 level1 lfo16; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">d)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span>Select an appropriate beginning: E.g., “It sounds like,” “You think,” “I hear you saying,”</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">d)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span>Select an appropriate beginning: E.g., “It sounds like,” “You think,” “I hear you saying,”</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l5 level1 lfo16;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l5 level1 lfo16; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">e)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span>Translate the key content into your own words: Want a divorce= break off, split; E.g., “It sounds like you haven’t found a way to tell your husband you want to end the relationship because of his possible reaction. Is that right?”</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">e)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span>Translate the key content into your own words: Want a divorce= break off, split; E.g., “It sounds like you haven’t found a way to tell your husband you want to end the relationship because of his possible reaction. Is that right?”</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l5 level1 lfo16;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l5 level1 lfo16; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">f)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">        </span></span>Confirm the accuracy of the paraphrase</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">f)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">        </span></span>Confirm the accuracy of the paraphrase</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"> </p>
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">
  +
</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Practice: </span>'''Get into triads/dyads and do the following paraphrases together</p>
text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Practice: </span>'''Get into triads/dyads and do the following paraphrases together</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">4)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">    </span></span></span>''''''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Summary</span>'''</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">4)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">    </span></span></span>''''''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Summary</span>'''</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>A collection of two or more paraphrases or reflections that condenses the client’s messages or the session</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>A collection of two or more paraphrases or reflections that condenses the client’s messages or the session</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Covers more material</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Covers more material</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Covers a longer period of client’s discussion</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Covers a longer period of client’s discussion</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"> </p>
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">
  +
</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Purposes of a Summary</span>'''</p>
text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Purposes of a Summary</span>'''</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l14 level1 lfo9;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l14 level1 lfo9; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To tie together multiple elements of client messages</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To tie together multiple elements of client messages</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l14 level1 lfo9;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l14 level1 lfo9; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To identify a common theme or pattern</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To identify a common theme or pattern</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l14 level1 lfo9;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l14 level1 lfo9; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To interrupt excessive rambling</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To interrupt excessive rambling</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l14 level1 lfo9;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l14 level1 lfo9; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To start a session</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To start a session</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l14 level1 lfo9;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l14 level1 lfo9; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To end a session</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To end a session</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l14 level1 lfo9;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l14 level1 lfo9; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To pace a session</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To pace a session</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l14 level1 lfo9;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l14 level1 lfo9; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To review progress</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To review progress</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l14 level1 lfo9;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l14 level1 lfo9; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To serve as a transition when changing topics</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>To serve as a transition when changing topics </p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"> </p>
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">
  +
</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Steps in a Summary</span>'''</p>
text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Steps in a Summary</span>'''</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">Example- Client, an young girl</p>
text-autospace:none">Example- Client, an young girl </p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l4 level1 lfo10;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l4 level1 lfo10; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>At the beginning of the session:</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>At the beginning of the session:</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">“I don’t understand why my parents can’t live together anymore. I’m not blaming anybody, but it just feels very confusing to me.” [Said in a low, soft voice with lowered, moist eyes]</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">“I don’t understand why my parents can’t live together anymore. I’m not blaming anybody, but it just feels very confusing to me.” [Said in a low, soft voice with lowered, moist eyes]</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent:36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent:36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman""> </span></p>
text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";
 
mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman""> </span></p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l4 level1 lfo10;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l4 level1 lfo10; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Near the middle of the same session:</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Near the middle of the same session:</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">“I wish they could keep it together. I guess I feel like they can’t because they fight about me so much. Maybe I’m the reason they don’t want to live together anymore.”</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">“I wish they could keep it together. I guess I feel like they can’t because they fight about me so much. Maybe I’m the reason they don’t want to live together anymore.”</p>
Line 312: Line 314:
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">a) Recall key content and affect messages</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">a) Recall key content and affect messages</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l4 level1 lfo10;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l4 level1 lfo10; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Key content: wants parents to stay together</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Key content: wants parents to stay together</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l4 level1 lfo10;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l4 level1 lfo10; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Key affect: feels sad, upset, responsible</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Key affect: feels sad, upset, responsible</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">b) Identify patterns or themes</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">b) Identify patterns or themes</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l7 level1 lfo11;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l7 level1 lfo11; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>She is the one who is responsible for her parents’ break-up</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>She is the one who is responsible for her parents’ break-up</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">c) Use an appropriate sentence stem and verbalize the summarization response</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">c) Use an appropriate sentence stem and verbalize the summarization response</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l7 level1 lfo11;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l7 level1 lfo11; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>e.g., “I sense,” or “You are feeling”</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>e.g., “I sense,” or “You are feeling”</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">d) Summarize</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">d) Summarize</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l7 level1 lfo11;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l7 level1 lfo11; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>e.g., “Earlier today you indicated you didn’t feel like blaming anyone for what’s happening to your parents. Now I’m sensing that you are feeling like you are responsible for their break-up</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>e.g., “Earlier today you indicated you didn’t feel like blaming anyone for what’s happening to your parents. Now I’m sensing that you are feeling like you are responsible for their break-up</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">e) Assess the effectiveness of your summarization</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">e) Assess the effectiveness of your summarization</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"> </p>
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">
  +
</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Practice: </span>'''A 30-year-old man who has been blaming himself for his wife’s unhappiness: I really feel guilty about marrying her in the first place. It wasn’t really for love. It was just a convenient thing to do. I feel like I’ve messed up her life really badly. I also feel obliged to her. [Said in low, soft voice tone with lowered eyes]</p>
text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Practice: </span>'''A 30-year-old man who has been blaming himself for his wife’s unhappiness: I really feel guilty about marrying her in the first place. It wasn’t really for love. It was just a convenient thing to do. I feel like I’ve messed up her life really badly. I also feel obliged to her. [Said in low, soft voice tone with lowered eyes]</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"> </p>
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">
  +
</p>
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Practice: </span>'''A 27-year-old woman who has continually focused on her relationships with men and her needs for excitement and stability:</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Practice: </span>'''A 27-year-old woman who has continually focused on her relationships with men and her needs for excitement and stability:</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:54.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l7 level1 lfo11;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:54.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l7 level1 lfo11; tab-stops:list 54.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>First session: I’ve been dating lots and lots of men for the last few years. Most of them have been married. That’s great because there are no demands on me. [Bright eyes, facial animation, high-pitched voice]</p>
tab-stops:list 54.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>First session: I’ve been dating lots and lots of men for the last few years. Most of them have been married. That’s great because there are no demands on me. [Bright eyes, facial animation, high-pitched voice]</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:54.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l7 level1 lfo11;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:54.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l7 level1 lfo11; tab-stops:list 54.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Fourth session: It doesn’t feel so good anymore. It’s</p>
tab-stops:list 54.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Fourth session: It doesn’t feel so good anymore. It’s</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:54.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:54.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">not so much fun. Now I guess I miss having some commitment and stability in my life. [Soft voice, lowered eyes]</p>
text-autospace:none">not so much fun. Now I guess I miss having some commitment and stability in my life. [Soft voice, lowered eyes]</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"> </p>
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">
  +
</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">5)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">    </span></span></span>''''''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Reflection</span>'''</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">5)<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">    </span></span></span>''''''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Reflection</span>'''</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>A verbal response to client emotion</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>A verbal response to client emotion</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">Example</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">Example</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Client: “So many things are going on right now: another hectic semester has started, my dog’s sick, and my mom’s ill too. I find myself running around trying to take care of everything. I’m not sure I can take it anymore.”</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Client: “So many things are going on right now: another hectic semester has started, my dog’s sick, and my mom’s ill too. I find myself running around trying to take care of everything. I’m not sure I can take it anymore.”</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Counsellor: “You’re feeling pretty overwhelmed by all the things that are going on right now.”</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">v<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Counsellor: “You’re feeling pretty overwhelmed by all the things that are going on right now.”</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Purposes of a Reflection</span>'''</p>
text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Purposes of a Reflection</span>'''</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt"> </span>'''</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l1 level1 lfo12;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l1 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">¨<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>Helps clients:</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:
 
Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">¨<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">      </span></span></span>Helps clients:</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:90.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l13 level1 lfo17;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:90.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l13 level1 lfo17; tab-stops:list 90.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">ü<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Feel understood</p>
tab-stops:list 90.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">ü<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Feel understood</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:90.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l13 level1 lfo17;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:90.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l13 level1 lfo17; tab-stops:list 90.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">ü<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Express more feelings</p>
tab-stops:list 90.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">ü<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Express more feelings</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:90.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l13 level1 lfo17;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:90.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l13 level1 lfo17; tab-stops:list 90.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">ü<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Manage feelings</p>
tab-stops:list 90.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">ü<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Manage feelings</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:90.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l13 level1 lfo17;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:90.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l13 level1 lfo17; tab-stops:list 90.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">ü<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Discriminate among various feelings</p>
tab-stops:list 90.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">ü<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Discriminate among various feelings</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"> </p>
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">
  +
</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Steps of a Reflection</span>'''</p>
text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Steps of a Reflection</span>'''</p>
 
   
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="mso-hansi-font-family:Arial"> </span></p>
 
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="mso-hansi-font-family:Arial"> </span></p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l6 level1 lfo13;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l6 level1 lfo13; tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Client, a 50-year-old steelworker now laid off: “Now look, what can I do? I’ve been laid off over a year. I’ve got no money, no job, and a family to take care of. It’s also clear to me that my mind and skills are just wasting away. [Said in a loud, critical voice, staring at the ceiling, brow furrowed, eyes squinting]</p>
tab-stops:list 36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Client, a 50-year-old steelworker now laid off: “Now look, what can I do? I’ve been laid off over a year. I’ve got no money, no job, and a family to take care of. It’s also clear to me that my mind and skills are just wasting away. [Said in a loud, critical voice, staring at the ceiling, brow furrowed, eyes squinting]</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"> </p>
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none">
  +
</p>
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">a. Listen closely and observe behaviour</p>
text-autospace:none">a. Listen closely and observe behaviour</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l6 level1 lfo13;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l6 level1 lfo13; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Watch nonverbal behaviour</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Watch nonverbal behaviour</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l6 level1 lfo13;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l6 level1 lfo13; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Verbally reflect the feelings back to the client</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>Verbally reflect the feelings back to the client</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
+
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">b. Identify the feeling category</p>
text-autospace:none">b. Identify the feeling category</p>
 
   
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">c. Identify the intensity</p>
text-autospace:none">c. Identify the intensity</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">d. Match the feeling and intensity of a word</p>
text-autospace:none">d. Match the feeling and intensity of a word</p>
 
   
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">e. Feed back to the client</p>
text-autospace:none">e. Feed back to the client</p>
 
   
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">f. Add content using the form</p>
text-autospace:none">f. Add content using the form</p>
 
   
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l6 level1 lfo13;
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:72.0pt;text-indent:-18.0pt;mso-list:l6 level1 lfo13; tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>“You feel ___ , because _____.”</p>
tab-stops:list 72.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:Wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:Wingdings;
 
mso-bidi-font-family:Wingdings"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">Ø<span style="font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"">  </span></span></span>“You feel ___ , because _____.”</p>
 
   
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">g. Check for accuracy</p>
text-autospace:none">g. Check for accuracy</p>
 
   
 
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<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:18.0pt;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Practice: </span>'''Get into your triads/dyads and do the following paraphrases together</p>
text-autospace:none">'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:14.0pt">Practice: </span>'''Get into your triads/dyads and do the following paraphrases together</p>
 
   
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Latest revision as of 12:15, April 20, 2014


Basic Counselling Skills

1. Attending Behaviour

2. Closed and Open-Ended Questions

3. Paraphrase

4. Summary

5. Reflection

'1)    'Attending Behaviour

v  Orienting oneself physically and psychological

v  Encourages the other person to talk

v  Lets the client know you’re listening

v  Conveys empathy

What Does Attending Behaviour Look Like?

 

a) SHOVLER (Or SOLER – the underlined):

 

v  S: Face the other Squarely

v  H: Head nods

v  O: Adopt an Open Posture

v  V: Verbal Following

v  E: Speech

v  L: Lean toward the other

v  E: Make Eye Contact

v  R: Be Relatively Relaxed

b) Listening:

 

Listening is the most important skill in counselling. It is the process of ‘hearing’ the other person. Three aspects of listening;

'i)                    'Linguistic: actual words, phrases and metaphors used to convey feelings.

'ii)                  'Paralinguistic: not words themselves but timing, accent, volume, pitch, etc.

'iii)                'Non-verbal: ‘body language’ or facial expression, use of gestures, body position and movement, proximity or touch in relation to the counsellor

All these express the internal state of the counselee and can be ‘listened’ to by the attentive counsellor.

'2)    'Four types of Counselling Interventions

 

'i)                   'Open-Ended Questions

 

ü  Questions that clients cannot easily answer with “Yes,”, “No,” or one- or two-word responses

ü   “Tell me about your family while you were growing up”

ü  “Why is that important to you?”

ü  How did you feel when that happened?”

ü   “What did you do when she said that?”

ü  “What are your reasons for saying that?”

Purposes of Open-Ended Questions:

 

      To begin an interview

      To encourage client elaboration

      To elicit specific examples

      To motivate clients to communicate

'ii)                'Closed-Ended Questions

 

      Questions that the other can easily answer with a “Yes,” “No,” or one- or two-word responses

      “Are you going to have the test done?”

      “Did you drink before you got into the car?”

       “Do you drink often?”

      “Do you exercise?”

       “Do you like your job?”

Purposes of Closed-Ended Questions:

 

      To obtain specific information

      To identify parameters of a problem or issue

      To narrow the topic of discussion

      To interrupt an over-talkative client

Closed vs. Open-Ended Question

 

Examples

C: Are you scared?

O: How do you feel?

C: Are you concerned about what you will do if the test results are positive?

O: What do you think you might do if the test results are positive?

C: Is your relationship with your husband a good one?

O: Tell me about your relationship with your husband.

'iii)              'Reflection:

 

Reflection is the echoing back of the last few words that the client has spoken. It is widely used in Rogerian counselling.

            e.g.: Counselee: We moved to Bangalore from gulf at the beginning of last year but none of us really settled down. My wife never did like living in such a large city. I found it difficult to get a job….

            Counsellor: You found it difficult to get a job…

            Counselee: Well, it was difficult to start with, any way. I suppose I didn’t really try hard enough …

            Counsellor: You didn’t really try hard enough … (more later-below)

 

'iv)              'Challenging:

 

Though challenging and confronting are not associated with counselling, there are times they are appropriate and even necessary.

            Counselee: There is no one in this organization that I can talk to at all

            Counsellor: No one?

            Counselee: I have always been a failure, never been any good at anything.

            Counsellor: Always?

'3)    'Paraphrasing

 

The counsellor rephrases the content of the client’s message

Example:

Ø  Client: “I know it doesn’t help my depression to sit around or stay in bed all day.”

Ø  Counsellor: “It sounds like you know you should avoid staying in bed or sitting around all day to help your depression.”

Purposes of Paraphrasing

 

      To convey that you are understanding him/her

      Help the client by simplifying, focusing and crystallizing what they said

      May encourage the client to elaborate

      Provide a check on the accuracy of your perceptions

When to use it

 


  • When you have an hypothesis about what’s going on with the client
  • When the client is in a decision making conflict
  • When the client has presented a lot of material and you feel confused

Steps in Paraphrasing

 

Client, a 40-year-old woman: “How can I tell my husband I want a divorce? He’ll think I’m crazy. I guess I’m just afraid to tell him.”

Steps

a)      Recall the message and restate it to yourself covertly

b)      Identify the content part of the message

c)      Wants divorce, but hasn’t told husband because he will think she’s crazy

d)      Select an appropriate beginning: E.g., “It sounds like,” “You think,” “I hear you saying,”

e)      Translate the key content into your own words: Want a divorce= break off, split; E.g., “It sounds like you haven’t found a way to tell your husband you want to end the relationship because of his possible reaction. Is that right?”

f)        Confirm the accuracy of the paraphrase

Practice: Get into triads/dyads and do the following paraphrases together

 

'4)    'Summary

 

v  A collection of two or more paraphrases or reflections that condenses the client’s messages or the session

v  Covers more material

v  Covers a longer period of client’s discussion

Purposes of a Summary

 

      To tie together multiple elements of client messages

      To identify a common theme or pattern

      To interrupt excessive rambling

      To start a session

      To end a session

      To pace a session

      To review progress

      To serve as a transition when changing topics

Steps in a Summary

 

Example- Client, an young girl

Ø  At the beginning of the session:

“I don’t understand why my parents can’t live together anymore. I’m not blaming anybody, but it just feels very confusing to me.” [Said in a low, soft voice with lowered, moist eyes]

 

Ø  Near the middle of the same session:

“I wish they could keep it together. I guess I feel like they can’t because they fight about me so much. Maybe I’m the reason they don’t want to live together anymore.”

 

a) Recall key content and affect messages

Ø  Key content: wants parents to stay together

Ø  Key affect: feels sad, upset, responsible

b) Identify patterns or themes

Ø  She is the one who is responsible for her parents’ break-up

c) Use an appropriate sentence stem and verbalize the summarization response

Ø  e.g., “I sense,” or “You are feeling”

d) Summarize

Ø  e.g., “Earlier today you indicated you didn’t feel like blaming anyone for what’s happening to your parents. Now I’m sensing that you are feeling like you are responsible for their break-up

e) Assess the effectiveness of your summarization

Practice: A 30-year-old man who has been blaming himself for his wife’s unhappiness: I really feel guilty about marrying her in the first place. It wasn’t really for love. It was just a convenient thing to do. I feel like I’ve messed up her life really badly. I also feel obliged to her. [Said in low, soft voice tone with lowered eyes]

Practice: A 27-year-old woman who has continually focused on her relationships with men and her needs for excitement and stability:

Ø  First session: I’ve been dating lots and lots of men for the last few years. Most of them have been married. That’s great because there are no demands on me. [Bright eyes, facial animation, high-pitched voice]

Ø  Fourth session: It doesn’t feel so good anymore. It’s

not so much fun. Now I guess I miss having some commitment and stability in my life. [Soft voice, lowered eyes]

'5)    'Reflection

 

v  A verbal response to client emotion

Example

v  Client: “So many things are going on right now: another hectic semester has started, my dog’s sick, and my mom’s ill too. I find myself running around trying to take care of everything. I’m not sure I can take it anymore.”

v  Counsellor: “You’re feeling pretty overwhelmed by all the things that are going on right now.”

 

Purposes of a Reflection

 

¨      Helps clients:

ü  Feel understood

ü  Express more feelings

ü  Manage feelings

ü  Discriminate among various feelings

Steps of a Reflection

 

Ø  Client, a 50-year-old steelworker now laid off: “Now look, what can I do? I’ve been laid off over a year. I’ve got no money, no job, and a family to take care of. It’s also clear to me that my mind and skills are just wasting away. [Said in a loud, critical voice, staring at the ceiling, brow furrowed, eyes squinting]

a. Listen closely and observe behaviour

Ø  Watch nonverbal behaviour

Ø  Verbally reflect the feelings back to the client

b. Identify the feeling category

c. Identify the intensity

d. Match the feeling and intensity of a word

e. Feed back to the client

f. Add content using the form

Ø  “You feel ___ , because _____.”

g. Check for accuracy

 

Practice: Get into your triads/dyads and do the following paraphrases together

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