Wikia

Psychology Wiki

B. F. Skinner

Talk1
34,139pages on
this wiki

Redirected from BF Skinner

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Professional Psychology: Debating Chamber · Psychology Journals · Psychologists


Skinner

Burrhus Frederic Skinner

Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist and author. He conducted pioneering work on experimental psychology and advocated behaviorism, which seeks to understand behavior as a function of environmental histories of reinforcement. He also wrote a number of controversial works in which he proposed the widespread use of psychological behavior modification techniques, primarily operant conditioning, in order to improve society and increase human happiness, as a form of social engineering.

Skinner was born in rural Susquehanna, Pennsylvania. He attended Hamilton College in New York with the intention of becoming a writer and received a B.A. in English literature in 1926. After graduation, he spent a year in Greenwich Village attempting to become a writer of fiction, but he soon became disillusioned with his literary skills and concluded that he had little world experience and no strong personal perspective from which to write. During this time, which Skinner later called "the dark year," he chanced upon a copy of Bertrand Russell's recently published book An Outline of Philosophy, in which Russell discusses the behaviorist philosophy of psychologist John B. Watson. At the time, Skinner had begun to take more interest in the actions and behaviors of those around him, and some of his short stories had taken a "psychological" slant. He decided to abandon literature and seek admission as a graduate student in psychology at Harvard University (which at the time was not regarded as a leading institution in that field).

Skinner received a Ph.D. from Harvard in 1931 and remained at that institution as a researcher until 1936. He then taught at the University of Minnesota at Minneapolis and later at Indiana University before returning to Harvard as a tenured professor in 1948. He remained there for the rest of his career.

Skinner was granted numerous awards in his lifetime. In 1968, he received the National Medal of Science by President Lyndon B. Johnson. Three years later, he was awarded the Gold Medal of the American Psychological Foundation, and in 1972, he was given the Humanist of the Year Award of the American Humanist Association. Just eight days before his death, he received the first Citation for Outstanding Lifetime Contribution to Psychology by the American Psychological Association (Epstein, 1997).

Behaviorism Edit

Skinner was mainly responsible for the development of the philosophy of radical behaviorism and for the further development of applied behavior analysis, a branch of psychology which aims to develop a unified framework for animal and human behavior based on principles of learning. He conducted research on shaping behavior through positive and negative reinforcement and demonstrated operant conditioning, a behavior modification technique which he developed in contrast with classical conditioning.

Skinner did not advocate the use of punishment. His research suggested that punishment was an ineffective way of controlling behavior, leading generally to short-term behavior change, but resulting mostly in the subject attempting to avoid the punishing stimulus instead of avoiding the behavior that was causing punishment. A simple example of this is the failure of prison to eliminate criminal behavior. If prison (as a punishing stimulus) were effective at altering behavior, there would be no criminality, since the risk of imprisonment for criminal conduct is well established. However, individuals still commit offences, but attempt to avoid discovery and therefore punishment. The punishing stimulus does not stop criminal behaviour. The criminal simply becomes more sophisticated at avoiding the punishment. Reinforcement, both positive and negative (the latter of which is often confused with punishment), proves to be more effective in bringing about lasting changes in behaviour.

Superstition in the pigeonEdit

One of Skinner 's most famous and interesting experiments examined the formation of superstition in one of his favorite experimental animals, the pigeon. Skinner placed a series of hungry pigeons in a cage attached to an automatic mechanism that delivered food to the pigeon "at regular intervals with no reference whatsoever to the bird's behavior". He discovered that the pigeons associated the delivery of the food with whatever chance actions they had been performing as it was delivered, and that they continued to perform the same actions:

One bird was conditioned to turn counter-clockwise about the cage, making two or three turns between reinforcements. Another repeatedly thrust its head into one of the upper corners of the cage. A third developed a 'tossing' response, as if placing its head beneath an invisible bar and lifting it repeatedly. Two birds developed a pendulum motion of the head and body, in which the head was extended forward and swung from right to left with a sharp movement followed by a somewhat slower return. ("'Superstition' in the Pigeon", B.F. Skinner, Journal of Experimental Psychology #38, 1948 [1])

Skinner suggested that the pigeons believed that they were influencing the automatic mechanism with their "rituals" and that the experiment also shed light on human behavior:

The experiment might be said to demonstrate a sort of superstition. The bird behaves as if there were a causal relation between its behavior and the presentation of food, although such a relation is lacking. There are many analogies in human behavior. Rituals for changing one's fortune at cards are good examples. A few accidental connections between a ritual and favorable consequences suffice to set up and maintain the behavior in spite of many unreinforced instances. The bowler who has released a ball down the alley but continues to behave as if she were controlling it by twisting and turning her arm and shoulder is another case in point. These behaviors have, of course, no real effect upon one's luck or upon a ball half way down an alley, just as in the present case the food would appear as often if the pigeon did nothing -- or, more strictly speaking, did something else. (Ibid.)

Modern behavioral psychologists have disputed Skinner's "superstition" explanation for the behaviors he recorded. Subsequent research (for instance, by Staddon and Simmelhag in 1971) failed to replicate his results. Eduardo J. Fernandez of the Department of Psychology of Indiana University sought to follow up on Staddon and Simmelhag's debunking of Skinner's hypothesis and to "further contrast superstitious versus functional interpretations of behavior" in pigeons. In a 2004 paper titled "Superstition Re-revisited: An Examination of Niche-Related Mechanisms Underlying Schedule Produced Behavior in Pigeons," he demonstrated that what Skinner had seen as "supersitious" behaviour was accounted for by the natural foraging behaviours of the species he used as test subjects.

Social engineeringEdit

Skinner is popularly known mainly for his controversial books Walden Two and Beyond Freedom and Dignity. Walden Two describes a visit to an imaginary utopian commune in the 1940s United States, where the productivity and happiness of the citizens is far in advance of that in the outside world due to their practice of scientific social planning and the use of operant conditioning in the raising of children.

Walden Two, like Thoreau's Walden, champions a lifestyle that does not support war or foster competition and social strife. It encourages a lifestyle of minimal consumption, rich social relationships, personal happiness, satisfying work and leisure.

Beyond Freedom and Dignity advanced the thesis that social concepts such as free will and human dignity (by which Skinner meant belief in individual autonomy) were obsolete, and stood in the way of greater human happiness and productivity. Skinner was opposed to inhumane treatment and bad government, but he argued that the champions of freedom went so far as to deny causality in human action so they could champion the "free person." In a sense, the champions of freedom were enemies of a scientific way of knowing. There is a rough parallel here to the book Higher Superstition in the identification of opponents to scientific knowledge, except Skinner here is being much more general in the opponents actually identified.

As understood by Skinner, ascribing dignity to individuals involves giving them credit for their actions. To say "Skinner is brilliant" means that Skinner is an originating force. If Skinner is right, he is merely the focus of his environment. He is not an originating force and he had no choice in saying the things he said or doing the things he did. Skinner's environment and genetics both allowed and compelled him to write his book (though this does not entail that the book's claims are untrue, which is a separate issue). Similarly, the environment and genetic potentials of the advocates of freedom and dignity cause them to resist the reality that their own activities are deterministically grounded.

Rumors Edit

One often-repeated story claims that Skinner ventured into human experiments by raising his daughter Deborah in a Skinner box, which led to her life-long mental illness and a bitter resentment towards her father.

In fact, the Heir Conditioner, a term for Skinner's baby crib, was heated, cooled, had filtered air, allowed plenty of space to walk around in, and was much like a miniature version of a modern home. It was designed to make the baby more confident, more comfortable, less sick, less prone to cry, and so on. Reportedly it had some success in these goals.

In 2004, psychologist and author Lauren Slater published a book, Opening Skinner's Box, which mentioned claims that Deborah Skinner (now Deborah Skinner Buzan) unsuccessfully sued her father for abuse, and later committed suicide. In response, Buzan herself came forward to publicly denounce the story as nothing more than hearsay and presumably to vouch for her own continued existence. She blasted Lauren Slater's book for repeating this urban legend as being vicious and harmful. [1] Farhad Manjoo, a writer for Salon.com, protested in a 2004 literary review that Buzan's Guardian article 'reads as if she has never even picked up Slater's book', observed that 'Slater's description of the box is pretty much in line with Buzan's description in the Guardian', and called the book 'a genuinely compelling read'. [2]

Political Views Edit

Skinner's political writings emphasized his hopes that an effective and humane science of behavioral control - a behavioral technology - could solve human problems which were not solved by earlier approaches or were actively aggravated by advances in physical technology such as the atomic bomb. One of Skinner's stated goals was to prevent humanity from destroying itself.

Skinner was sometimes accused of being a totalitarian by his critics. In addition to his aspirations to state design, Skinner was a determinist, believing that all of our behavior is profoundly determined and influenced by the environment.

Skinner saw the problems of political control not as a battle of [domination versus freedom, but as choices of what kinds of control were used for what purposes. Skinner opposed the use of coercion, punishment and fear and supported the use of positive reinforcement.

Skinner's book Walden Two presents a vision of a decentralized, localized society which applies a practical, scientific approach and futuristically advanced behavioral expertise to peacefully deal with social problems. Skinner's [utopia, like every other utopia or dystopia, is both a thought experiment and a [rhetorical work.

Skinner answers a problem that exists in many utopian novels "What is the Good Life?" Skinner answers that it is a life of friendship, health, art, a healthy balance between work and leisure, a minimum of unpleasantness, and a feeling that one has made worthwhile contributions to one's society.

Additionally Skinner felt behavioral technology would offer alternatives to coercion, good science applied right would help society, and we would all be better off if we cooperated with each other peacefully. Skinner's novel has been described by Skinner as "my New Atlantis" referring to Francis Bacon]'s utopia.

Intellectual opponents, such as Noam Chomsky, in their attempt to show Skinner wrong, have equated Skinner's philosophic determinism with political oppression. Skinner has often been equated to political and social positions he never espoused and even explicitly objected to.

TriviaEdit

According to a photo caption at the site of Los Horcones community (which was inspired by Skinner's Walden Two), in his youth Skinner used to swim in Thoreau's Walden Pond. [3]

PublicationEdit

BooksEdit

  • Skinner, B.F. (1938)The Behavior of Organisms: An Experimental Analysis. ISBN 1-58390-007-1, ISBN 0-87411-487-X.
  • Walden Two, 1948. ISBN 0-02-411510-X.
  • Skinner, B.F. (1953)Science and Human Behavior. ISBN 0-02-929040-6.
  • Skinner, B.F. (1957)Schedules of Reinforcement, with C. B. Ferster, . ISBN 0-13-792309-0.
  • Skinner, B.F. (1957)Verbal Behavior. ISBN 1-58390-021-7.
  • Skinner, B.F. (1961)The Analysis of Behavior: A Program for Self Instruction, with James G. Holland, . This self-instruction book is no longer in print, but the B.F. Skinner Foundation web site has an interactive version. ISBN 07-029565-4.
  • Skinner, B.F. (1968)The Technology of Teaching.
  • Skinner, B.F. (1969)Contingencies of Reinforcement: A Theoretical Analysis. ISBN 390-81280-3.
  • Skinner, B,F. (1972)Beyond Freedom and Dignity. ISBN 0-394-42555-3.
  • Skinner, B,F. (1974)About Behaviorism. ISBN 0-394-49201-3
  • Skinner, B,F. (1976)Particulars of My Life: Part One of an Autobiography. ISBN 0-394-40071-2.
  • Skinner, B,F. (1978)Reflections on Behaviorism and Society. ISBN 0-13-770057-1.
  • Skinner, B,F. (1979)The Shaping of a Behaviorist: Part Two of an Autobiography. ISBN 0-394-50581-6.
  • Skinner, B. F. (1967). B. F. Skinner. East Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
  • Skinner, B. F. (1972). Cumulative record: A selection of papers. (3rd ed.). East Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
  • Skinner, B. F. (1988). Behaviorism at fifty. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Skinner, B. F. (1988). Methods and theories in the experimental analysis of behavior. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Skinner, B. F. (1988). An operant analysis of problem solving. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Skinner, B. F. (1988). The operational analysis of psychological terms. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Skinner, B. F. (1988). Selection by consequences. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Skinner, B. F. (1995). "The Behavior of Organisms" at fifty. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press/Greenwood Publishing Group.
  • Skinner, B. F. (1996). Some responses to the stimulus "Pavlov." Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science Vol 31(3) Jul-Sep 1996, 254-257.
  • Skinner, B. F. (1998). The experimental analysis of operant behavior: A history. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Skinner, B. F. (1999). Baby in a box. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Enjoy Old Age: A Program of Self-Management, with M. E. Vaughan, 1983.
  • A Matter of Consequences: Part Three of an Autobiography, 1983. ISBN 0-394-53266-0, ISBN 0-8147-7845-3.
  • Upon Further Reflection, 1987. ISBN 0-13-938986-5.
  • Recent Issues in the Analysis of Behavior, 1989. ISBN 0-675-20674-X.
  • Cumulative Record: A Selection of Papers, 1959, 1961, 1972 and 1999 as Cumulative Record: Definitive Edition. This book includes the authentic account of the much-misrepresented "Baby in a box" device. ISBN 1-58390-00505.

PapersEdit

  • Skinner, B. F. (1950). Are theories of learning necessary? Psychological Review, 57, 193–216.
  • Skinner, B. F. (1966). The phylogeny and ontogeny of behavior. Science, 153, 1205–1213.
  • Skinner, B. F. (1974). About behaviorism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Skinner, B. F. (1981). Selection by consequences.Science, 213, 501–504.
  • Skinner, B. F. (1984). The evolution of behavior.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior,41, 217–221.
  • Skinner, B. F. (1988a). Reply to Gottlieb. In A. C. Catania & S. Harnard (Eds.), The selection of behavior: The operant behaviorism of B. F. Skinner:Comments and consequences (p. 430). New

York: Cambridge University Press.

  • Skinner, B. F. (1988b). What are the scopes and limits of radical behaviorist theory: Reply to Harnard. In A. C. Catania & S. Harnard (Eds.), The selection of behavior: The operant behaviorism of B. F. Skinner: Comments and consequences (pp.465–473). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Skinner, B. F. (1990). Can psychology be a science of mind? American Psychologist, 45, 1206–1210.
  • Skinner, B. F. (1999). Some responses to the stimulus "Pavlov": Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 72(3) Nov 1999, 463-465.
  • Skinner, B. F. (2001). The design of cultures: Behavior and Social Issues Vol 11(1) Fal 2001, 4-13.
  • Skinner, B. F. (2006). Special Article: Russia, 1961: The Spanish Journal of Psychology Vol 9(1) May 2006, 115-142.
  • Skinner, B. F., & Green, L. (2004). Psychology in the year 2000: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 81(2) Mar 2004, 207-213.
  • Smith, B. D., & Vetter, H. J. (1996). A behavioral approach: B. F. Skinner. Needham Heights, MA, England: Simon & Schuster Custom Publishing.

PapersEdit

  • Adelman, B. E. (2007). An underdiscussed aspect of Chomsky (1959): Analysis of Verbal Behavior Vol 23 2007, 29-34.
  • Alessi, G. (1992). Models of proximate and ultimate causation in psychology: American Psychologist Vol 47(11) Nov 1992, 1359-1370.
  • Al-Khatib, J. (1990). B. F. Skinner's concept in Arabic introductory psychology textbooks: Dirasat Vol 17A(4) Oct 1990, 129-144.
  • Amsel, A. (1992). B. F. Skinner and the cognitive revolution: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 23(2) Jun 1992, 67-70.
  • Andery, M. A., Micheletto, N., & Serio, T. M. (2005). Meaning and verbal behavior in Skinner's work from 1934 to 1957: Analysis of Verbal Behavior Vol 21 2005, 163-174.
  • Andery, M. A., & Serio, T. M. (2002). Is thinking a category in Skinner's system of behavior? : Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia Vol 54(3) 2002, 274-283.
  • Andresen, J. (1991). Skinner and Chomsky 30 years later or: The return of the repressed: Behavior Analyst Vol 14(1) Spr 1991, 49-60.
  • Andresen, J. T. (1992). The behaviorist turn in recent theories of language: Behavior and Philosophy Vol 20(1) Spr-Sum 1992, 1-19.
  • Azevedo Pires Serio, T. M. d. (1993). Re-reading B. F.Skinner and learning with him: Acta Comportamentalia Vol 1(2) Dec 1993, 155-166.
  • Baars, B. J. (2003). The double life of B.F. Skinner: Inner conflict, dissociation and the scientific taboo against consciousness: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 10(1) 2003, 5-25.
  • Baars, B. J. (2003). Reply to comments on "The double life of B. F. Skinner": Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 10(1) 2003, 79-94.
  • Balcazar, F. E. (2001). The role of the behavior scientist in the design of counter culture: Behavior and Social Issues Vol 11(1) Fal 2001, 17-18.
  • Baum, W. M. (2004). The accidental behaviorist: A review of the new behaviorism by John Staddon: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 82(1) Jul 2004, 73-78.
  • Baum, W. M. (2004). Responses to Staddon, Shimp, Malone, and Donahoe: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 82(1) Jul 2004, 117-120.
  • Baum, W. M., & Heath, J. L. (1992). Behavioral explanations and intentional explanations in psychology: American Psychologist Vol 47(11) Nov 1992, 1312-1317.
  • Benjamin, L. T., Jr., & Nielsen-Gammon, E. (1999). B. F. Skinner and psychotechnology: The case of the heir conditioner: Review of General Psychology Vol 3(3) Sep 1999, 155-167.
  • Birnbrauer, J. S. (2003). Review of The Psychology of B.F. Skinner: Behaviour Change Vol 20(4) 2003, 231-233.
  • Blough, D. S. (1961). Vive la Controle, a bas la Variabilite: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 6 (8), Aug, 1961.
  • Branch, M. N. (1990). Confused Criticisms: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 35 (5), May, 1990.
  • Brandt, P. A. (2003). A conscious behaviourist and his context: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 10(1) 2003, 26-28.
  • Caracuel Tubio, J. C. (1991). Skinner and education: A behavioral analysis of teaching/learning process: Apuntes de Psicologia No 33 Aug 1991, 111-122.
  • Casas, M. (1997). The history surrounding the use of Skinnerian teaching machines and programmed instruction (1960-1970). Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Castagnaro, P. J. (2006). Audiolingual Method and Behaviorism: From Misunderstanding to Myth: Applied Linguistics Vol 27(3) Sep 2006, 519-526.
  • Catania, A. C. (1992). B. F. Skinner, organism: American Psychologist Vol 47(11) Nov 1992, 1521-1530.
  • Catania, A. C. (1993). Approaching Skinner: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 38 (8), Aug, 1993.
  • Catania, A. C. (2003). B.F Skinner's Science and Human Behavior. Its antecedents and its consequences: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 80(3) Nov 2003, 313-320.
  • Catania, A. C. (2008). An orderly arrangement of well-known facts: Retrospective review of B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior: International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy Vol 8(3) 2008, 279-285.
  • Catania, A. C. (2008). Skinner's Verbal Behavior in a new century: International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy Vol 8(3) 2008, 277-278.
  • Catania, A. C., & Laties, V. G. (1999). Pavlov and Skinner: Two lives in science (an introduction to B. F. Skinner's "Some responses to the stimulus "Pavlov"'): Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 72(3) Nov 1999, 455-461.
  • Chance, P. (2007). The ultimate challenge: Prove B. F. Skinner wrong: Behavior Analyst Vol 30(2) Fal 2007, 153-160.
  • Chiesa, M. (1992). Radical behaviorism and scientific frameworks: From mechanistic to relational accounts: American Psychologist Vol 47(11) Nov 1992, 1287-1299.
  • Chiesa, M. (1998). Interpreting the record in context: Behavior Analyst Vol 21(1) Spr 1998, 103-105.
  • Claus, C. K. (2007). B. F. Skinner and T. N. Whitehead: A brief encounter, research similarities, Hawthorne revisited, what next? : Behavior Analyst Vol 30(1) Spr 2007, 79-86.
  • Clayton, M. (2008). Review of The psychology of B. F. Skinner: Psychological Record Vol 58(2) Spr 2008, 319-321.
  • Coleman, S. R. (1991). From critic to theorist: Themes in Skinner's development from 1928 to 1938: Journal of Mind and Behavior Vol 12(4) Fal 1991, 509-533.
  • Commons, M. L., & Trudeau, G. M. (2003). A good conversation about Skinner's psychological program: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 48 (6), Dec, 2003.
  • Cook, J. O. (1965). Rejoinder to Holland: American Psychologist Vol 20(8) Aug 1965, 687-688.
  • Dalton, T. C. (2003). Explaining the absence of consciousness in Skinner's psychology: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 10(1) 2003, 28-31.
  • Davis, S. F. (2005). Sometimes Your Parents Exert More Influence Than You Realize: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 50 (5), 2005.
  • DeBell, C. S., & Harless, D. K. (1992). B. F. Skinner: Myth and misperception: Teaching of Psychology Vol 19(2) Apr 1992, 68-73.
  • Delprato, D. J., & Midgley, B. D. (1992). Some fundamentals of B. F. Skinner's behaviorism: American Psychologist Vol 47(11) Nov 1992, 1507-1520.
  • Deterline, W. A. (1962). Pressey and Skinner. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  • Dinsmoor, J. A. (1992). Setting the record straight: The social views of B. F. Skinner: American Psychologist Vol 47(11) Nov 1992, 1454-1463.
  • Dittrich, A., & Abib, J. A. D. (2004). Skinner's Ethical System and Consequences for Behavior Analysts' Practice: Psicologia: Reflexao e Critica Vol 17(3) 2004, 427-433.
  • Dixon, M. R., Small, S. L., & Rosales, R. (2007). Extended analysis of empirical citations with Skinner's Verbal Behavior: 1984-2004: Behavior Analyst Vol 30(2) Fal 2007, 197-209.
  • Donahoe, J. W. (2004). Ships that pass in the night: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 82(1) Jul 2004, 85-93.
  • Dore, F., & Granger, L. (1973). A Critical Study of Two Methodologies Rejected by B. F. Skinner: Canadian Psychologist/Psychologie canadienne Vol 14(4) Oct 1973, 339-349.
  • Dorna, A. (2005). Skinner and social utopia: Journal de Therapie Comportementale et Cognitive Vol 15(1) Mar 2005, 5-14.
  • Dulany, D. E. (2003). Strategies for putting consciousness in its place: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 10(1) 2003, 33-43.
  • Dymond, S., & Barnes, D. (1997). Behavior-analytic approaches to self-awareness: Psychological Record Vol 47(2) Spr 1997, 181-200.
  • Dymond, S., O'Hora, D., Whelan, R., & O'Donovan, A. (2006). Citation Analysis of Skinner's Verbal Behavior: 1984-2004: Behavior Analyst Vol 29(1) Spr 2006, 75-88.
  • Endemann, P., & Tourinho, E. Z. (2007). Language and social institutions in Skinner and Austin: Acta Comportamentalia Vol 15(2) Dec 2007, 207-228.
  • Epstein, R (1980){Ed}Notebooks. ISBN 0-13-624106-9.
  • Epstein, R (1982){Ed}Skinner for the Classroom, ISBN 0-87822-261-8.
  • Epstein, R. (1991). Skinner, creativity, and the problem of spontaneous behavior: Psychological Science Vol 2(6) Nov 1991, 362-370.
  • Epstein, R. (1997). Skinner as self-manager: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 30(3) Fal 1997, 545-568.
  • Epstein, R. (2003). Straw paradoxes: A commentary on Bernard J. Baars' 'Double life of B.F. Skinner.' Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 10(1) 2003, 43-46.
  • Epstein, R., & Joker, V. R. (2007). A threshold theory of the humor response: Behavior Analyst Vol 30(1) Spr 2007, 49-58.
  • Ervin, R. A., Ehrhardt, K. E., & Poling, A. (2001). Functional assessment: Old wine in new bottles: School Psychology Review Vol 30(2) 2001, 173-179.
  • Evans, R. I. (1970). A third view: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 15 (4), Apr, 1970.
  • Fagen, J. W. (1993). Reinforcement is not enough: Learned expectancies and infant behavior: American Psychologist Vol 48(11) Nov 1993, 1153-1155.
  • Fallon, D. (1992). An existential look at B. F. Skinner: American Psychologist Vol 47(11) Nov 1992, 1433-1440.
  • Fancher, R. E. (1995). A Slim Life of a Large Figure: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 40 (8), Aug, 1995.
  • Ferster, C. B. (1977). The Ultimate Behaviorist: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 22 (2), Feb, 1977.
  • Ferster, C. B. (2002). Schedules of reinforcement with Skinner: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 77(3) May 2002, 303-312.
  • Freeman, M., & Locurto, C. (1994). In Skinner's wake: Behaviorism, poststructuralism, and the ironies of intellectual discourse: New Ideas in Psychology Vol 12(1) Mar 1994, 39-56.
  • Fuentes Ortega, J. B., & Robles Rodriguez, F. J. (1991). B. F. Skinner: The phenomenological control of behavior: Apuntes de Psicologia No 33 Aug 1991, 25-43.
  • Gable, R. S. (1993). Skinner, Maslow, and psilocybin: Journal of Humanistic Psychology Vol 33(3) Sum 1993, 42-51.
  • Garcia-Hoz, V. (2004). A Note on Skinner and Pavlov's Physiology: The Spanish Journal of Psychology Vol 7(2) Nov 2004, 153-160.
  • Gardner, L. (1979). Behaviorism and dynamic psychology: Skinner and Freud: Psychoanalytic Review Vol 66(2) 1979, 253-262.
  • Garrett, R. (1996). Skinner's case for radical behaviorism. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Gewirtz, J. L., & Pelaez-Nogueras, M. (1992). B. F. Skinner's legacy in human infant behavior and development: American Psychologist Vol 47(11) Nov 1992, 1411-1422.
  • Glassman, R. B. (1974). A Real Dilemma: American Psychologist Vol 29(8) Aug 1974, 639.
  • Glenn, S. S. (2001). On the design of cultures: 1961 and 2001: Behavior and Social Issues Vol 11(1) Fal 2001, 14-15.
  • Glenn, S. S., Ellis, J., & Greenspoon, J. (1992). On the revolutionary nature of the operant as a unit of behavioral selection: American Psychologist Vol 47(11) Nov 1992, 1329-1336.
  • Goguen, J. (2003). A scent of Skinner at Harvard: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 10(1) 2003, 46-48.
  • Gollub, L. R. (2002). Between the waves: Harvard Pigeon Lab 1955-1960: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 77(3) May 2002, 319-326.
  • Green, L., & Marr, M. J. (2004). Special Article: Psychology in the Year 2000 by B. F. Skinner, Editors' Introduction: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 81(2) Mar 2004, 205.
  • Guerin, B. (1990). Gibson, Skinner and perceptual responses: Behavior and Philosophy Vol 18(1) Spr-Sum 1990, 43-54.
  • Guerin, B. (1992). Behavior analysis and the social construction of knowledge: American Psychologist Vol 47(11) Nov 1992, 1423-1432.
  • Gullickson, T., & Ramser, P. (1996). Review of Three Psychologies: Perspectives from Freud, Skinner, and Rogers: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 41 (7), Jul, 1996.
  • Hackenberg, T. D. (1995). Jacques Loeb, B. F. Skinner, and the legacy of prediction and control: Behavior Analyst Vol 18(2) Fal 1995, 225-236.
  • Hackenberg, T. D. (1996). When being a mechanist wasn't so bad: Reply to Moxley: Behavior Analyst Vol 19(2) Fal 1996, 299-300.
  • Hackenberg, T. D. (1998). Putting skinner in context: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 43 (7), Jul, 1998.
  • Hawkins, R. P. (1990). The life and contributions of Burrhus Frederick Skinner: Education & Treatment of Children Vol 13(3) Aug 1990, 258-263.
  • Hayes, S. C. (1996). Mixing the Language of Freedom and Determinism: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 41 (3), Mar, 1996.
  • Hilgard, E. R. (1948). Skinner's Descriptive Behaviorism. East Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
  • Hineline, P. N. (1990). Getting Skinner Straight: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 35 (3), Mar, 1990.
  • Hineline, P. N. (1992). A self-interpretive behavior analysis: American Psychologist Vol 47(11) Nov 1992, 1274-1286.
  • Holland, J. G. (1992). B. F. Skinner (1904-1990): Obituary: American Psychologist Vol 47(5) May 1992, 665-667.
  • Istvan, H. (2002). Darwin, Skinner, Turing and the mind: Magyar Pszichologiai Szemle Vol 57(4) 2002, 521-528.
  • Iversen, I. H. (1992). Skinner's early research: From reflexology to operant conditioning: American Psychologist Vol 47(11) Nov 1992, 1318-1328.
  • Jensen, R., & Burgess, H. (1997). Mythmaking: How introductory psychology texts present B. F. Skinner's analysis of cognition: Psychological Record Vol 47(2) Spr 1997, 221-232.
  • Jones, D. (1965). View from the Skinner Box: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 10 (1), Jan, 1965.
  • Kanekar, S. (1992). Reflections on the epistemological and ethical implications of Skinner's radical behaviorism: Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs Vol 118(2) May 1992, 133-155.
  • Kangas, B. D., & Harris, M. (2007). Cultural materialism and behavior analysis: An introduction to Harris: Behavior Analyst Vol 30(1) Spr 2007, 37-47.
  • Katz, J. L. (2007). Robert Penn warren and B. F. Skinner on determinism and behavior: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 88(1) Jul 2007, 150-151.
  • Kazdin, A. E. (1980). B. F. Skinner's Career: Responses, Reinforcers, and Recollections: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 25 (1), Jan, 1980.
  • Kihlstrom, J. F. (2003). On B.F. Skinner--who, had his theory been true, wouldn't have been B. F. Skinner: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 10(1) 2003, 48-54.
  • Kimble, G. A. (1969). Skinnerian Tempest in a Teapot Dialogue: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 14 (11), Nov, 1969.
  • Kitchener, R. F. (1996). Skinner's theory of theories. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Knapp, T. J. (1997). Behaviorism and public policy: B. F. Skinner's views on gambling: Behavior and Social Issues Vol 7(2) Fal 1997, 129-139.
  • Koch, S. (1976). More Verbal Behavior From Dr. Skinner: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 21 (7), Jul, 1976.
  • Krechevsky, I. (1939). Review of The Behavior of Organisms: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol 34(3) Jul 1939, 404-407.
  • Labrador, F. J. (2004). Skinner and the Rise of Behavior Modification and Behavior Therapy: The Spanish Journal of Psychology Vol 7(2) Nov 2004, 178-187.
  • Lalumiere, M. L., Quinsey, V. L., Beninger, R. D., Barsetti, I., & Earls, C. M. (1993). B. F. Skinner: About the controversy: Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne Vol 34(4) Oct 1993, 461-465.
  • Lamal, P. A. (1993). The "bogeyman" of technology: American Psychologist Vol 48(5) May 1993, 586-587.
  • Lamal, P. A. (2001). Still relevant, but: Behavior and Social Issues Vol 11(1) Fal 2001, 23.
  • Lana, R. E. (2002). The behavior analytic approach to language and thought: Journal of Mind and Behavior Vol 23(1-2) Win-Spr 2002, 31-49.
  • Lattal, K. A. (1992). B. F. Skinner and psychology: Introduction to the special issue: American Psychologist Vol 47(11) Nov 1992, 1269-1272.
  • Lecompte, C., & Drouin, M.-S. (1991). B.F. Skinner: Beyond conditioning and freedom: Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne Vol 32(4) Oct 1991, 636-637.
  • Lejeune, H., Richelle, M., & Wearden, J. H. (2006). About Skinner and time: Behavior-analytic contributions to research on animal timing: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 85(1) Jan 2006, 125-142.
  • Lindsley, O. R. (1991). Precision teaching's unique legacy from B. F. Skinner: Journal of Behavioral Education Vol 1(2) Jun 1991, 253-266.
  • Liptzin, B. (1994). B. F. Skinner: An example of adaptive aging: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Vol 27(1) 1994, 35-40.
  • Luciano, C., Valverde, M. R., & Catania, A. C. (2008). Presentation to the series celebrating the 50th anniversary of the book Verbal Behavior, BF Skinner: International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy Vol 8(3) 2008, 275-276.
  • Luciano, M. C. (1991). Skinner and psychological development: Apuntes de Psicologia No 33 Aug 1991, 97-110.
  • Mabry, J. H. (1993). Comments on Skinner's grammar: Analysis of Verbal Behavior Vol 11 1993, 77-88.
  • Machan, T. R. (2003). On Baars' psychologization of Skinnerism: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 10(1) 2003, 54-58.
  • Maher, B. (1997). Two Views of B. F. Skinner: Benign Anarchist: Some Variable Intervals in the Cumulative Record: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 42 (9), Sep, 1997.
  • Mahoney, M. J. (1991). B. F. Skinner: A collective tribute: Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne Vol 32(4) Oct 1991, 628-635.
  • Malone, J. C., Jr., & Cruchon, N. M. (2001). Radical behaviorism and the rest of psychology: A review/precis of Skinner's About Behaviorism: Behavior and Philosophy Vol 29 2001, 31-57.
  • Malott, R. W. (2004). Rambling notes from a roving radical behaviorist: Clinton, Bush, Skinner and social determination: Behavior and Social Issues Vol 13(1) Spr-Sum 2004, 6-12.
  • Marr, M. J. (2003). A still great voice: The golden sovereignty of science and human behavior: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 80(3) Nov 2003, 311-312.
  • Marx, M. H. (1971). Review of Festschrift for B. F. Skinner: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 16 (4), Apr, 1971.
  • Masson, J. (2003). Commentary: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 10(1) 2003, 58-62.
  • Matos, M. A., Machado, L. M., Ferrara, M. L., Silva, M. T., & et al. (1989). B. F. Skinner's model of selection by consequences: Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa Vol 5(2) May-Aug 1989, 137-158.
  • Matson, J. L., & Coe, D. A. (1992). Applied behavior analysis: Its impact on the treatment of mentally retarded emotionally disturbed people: Research in Developmental Disabilities Vol 13(2) 1992, 171-189.
  • Mattaini, M. A. (1995). Teaching cultural design: Shaping new behaviorists: Behavior and Social Issues Vol 5(2) Fal 1995, 21-28.
  • McGuigan, F. J. (1996). Correcting Misapprehensions of Skinner and Behaviorism: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 41 (8), Aug, 1996.
  • Michael, J. (2003). Science and Human Behavior: A tutorial in behavior analysis: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 80(3) Nov 2003, 321-328.
  • Miller, H. L. (1994). Taking hermeneutics to science: Prospects and tactics suggested by the work of B. F. Skinner: Behavior Analyst Vol 17(1) Spr 1994, 35-42.
  • Mills, J. A. (1997). Two Views of B. F. Skinner: Benign Anarchist: An Unquiet Grave: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 42 (9), Sep, 1997.
  • Moore, J. (2005). Some Historical and Conceptual Background to the Development of B.F Skinner's "Radical Behaviorism" -- Part 2: Journal of Mind and Behavior Vol 26(1-2) Win-Spr 2005, 95-124.
  • Moore, J. (2005). Some Historical and Conceptual Background to the Development of B.F. Skinner's "Radical Behaviorism" -- Part 1: Journal of Mind and Behavior Vol 26(1-2) Win-Spr 2005, 65-94.
  • Moore, J. (2005). Some historical and conceptual background to the development of B.F. Skinner's "Radical Behaviorism"--Part 3: Journal of Mind and Behavior Vol 26(3) Sum 2005, 137-160.
  • Moraglia, G. (2004). On Facing Death: Views of Some Prominent Psychologists: Journal of Humanistic Psychology Vol 44(3) Sum 2004, 337-357.
  • Morf, M. E. (1998). Sartre, Skinner, and the compatibilist freedom to be authentically: Behavior and Philosophy Vol 26(1-2) Spr-Fal 1998, 29-43.
  • Morris, E. K. (1992). The aim, progress, and evolution of behavior analysis: Behavior Analyst Vol 15(1) Spr 1992, 3-29.
  • Morris, E. K. (1995). Cultivating Skinner in the American Context: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 40 (8), Aug, 1995.
  • Morris, E. K. (2003). B. F. Skinner: A behavior analyst in educational psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Morris, E. K., Lazo, J. F., & Smith, N. G. (2004). Whether, When, and Why Skinner Published on Biological Participation in Behavior: Behavior Analyst Vol 27(2) Fal 2004, 153-169.
  • Morris, E. K., & Smith, N. G. (2003). Bibliographic processes and products, and a bibliography of the published primary-source works of B. F. Skinner: Behavior Analyst Vol 26(1) Spr 2003, 41-67.
  • Morris, E. K., & Smith, N. G. (2004). "Bibliographic processes and products, and a bibliography of the published primary-source works of B. F. Skinner": Errata: Behavior Analyst Vol 27(1) Spr 2004, 42.
  • Morris, E. K., Smith, N. G., & Altus, D. E. (2005). B. F. Skinner's contributions to applied behavior analysis: Behavior Analyst Vol 28(2) Fal 2005, 99-131.
  • Morris, E. K., Smith, N. G., & Lazo, J. F. (2005). Why Morris, Lazo, and Smith (2004) was published in The Behavior Analyst: Behavior Analyst Vol 28(2) Fal 2005, 169-179.
  • Morse, W. H., & Dews, P. B. (2002). Foreward to Schedules of reinforcement: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 77(3) May 2002, 313-317.
  • Moxley, R. A. (1996). The import of Skinner's three-term contingency: Behavior and Philosophy Vol 24(2) Fal 1996, 145-167.
  • Moxley, R. A. (1996). Prediction and control in Loeb's visualization and Skinner's contingencies: Response to Hackenberg: Behavior Analyst Vol 19(2) Fal 1996, 293-297.
  • Moxley, R. A. (1997). Skinner: From determinism to random variation: Behavior and Philosophy Vol 25(1) Spr 1997, 3-28.
  • Moxley, R. A. (1997). Skinner: From essentialist to selectionist meaning: Behavior and Philosophy Vol 25(2) Fal 1997, 95-119.
  • Moxley, R. A. (1998). Why Skinner is difficult: Behavior Analyst Vol 21(1) Spr 1998, 73-91.
  • Moxley, R. A. (1999). H. G. Wells and B. F. Skinner on the superorganism: Behavior Analyst Vol 22(2) Fal 1999, 131-148.
  • Moxley, R. A. (1999). The two Skinners, modern and postmodern: Behavior and Philosophy Vol 27(2) Fal 1999, 97-125.
  • Moxley, R. A. (2001). The selectionist meaning of C. S. Peirce and B. F. Skinner: Analysis of Verbal Behavior Vol 18 2001-2002, 71-91.
  • Moxley, R. A. (2001). Sources for Skinner's pragmatic selectionism in 1945: Behavior Analyst Vol 24(2) Fal 2001, 201-212.
  • Moxley, R. A. (2002). Some more similarities between Peirce and Skinner: Behavior Analyst Vol 25(2) Fal 2002, 201-214.
  • Moxley, R. A. (2003). Some early similarities and later differences between Bertrand Russell and B. F. Skinner: Behavior Analyst Vol 26(1) Spr 2003, 111-130.
  • Moxley, R. A. (2005). Ernst Mach and B. F. Skinner: Their Similarities with Two Traditions for Verbal Behavior: Behavior Analyst Vol 28(1) Spr 2005, 29-48.
  • Moxley, R. A. (2007). Ultimate realities: Deterministic and evolutionary: Behavior Analyst Vol 30(1) Spr 2007, 59-77.
  • Nevin, J. A. (1992). B. F. Skinner: On behalf of the future: Behavior and Social Issues Vol 2(1) Spr-Sum 1992, 83-88.
  • No authorship, i. (1972). Burrhus Frederic Skinner: American Psychological Foundation Gold Medal Award: American Psychologist Vol 27(1) Jan 1972, 71-72.
  • Nye, R. D. (1992). The legacy of B. F. Skinner: Concepts and perspectives, controversies and misunderstandings. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.
  • Nye, R. D. (1996). Three psychologies: Perspectives from Freud, Skinner, and Rogers (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.
  • O'Donohue, W., & Ferguson, K. E. (2001). The psychology of B. F. Skinner. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • O'Donohue, W., & Noll, J. P. (1995). Is behaviorism false because there is no such thing as conditioning? Popper and Skinner on learning: New Ideas in Psychology Vol 13(1) Mar 1995, 29-41.
  • O'Donohue, W., & Szymanski, J. (1996). Skinner on cognifion: Journal of Behavioral Education Vol 6(1) Mar 1996, 35-48.
  • Osborne, J. G. (2003). Beyond Skinner? A review of Relational frame theory: A post-Skinnerian account of human language and cognition: Comment: Analysis of Verbal Behavior Vol 19 2003, 19-27.
  • Overskeid, G. (2007). Looking for Skinner and finding Freud: American Psychologist Vol 62(6) Sep 2007, 590-595.
  • Palmer, D. C. (1998). On Skinner's rejection of S-R psychology: Behavior Analyst Vol 21(1) Spr 1998, 93-96.
  • Palmer, D. C. (2008). On Skinner's definition of Verbal Behavior: International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy Vol 8(3) 2008, 295-307.
  • Pena, R. S. (2003). Skinner's influence on psychology: A study on science and human behavior: Revista de Historia de la Psicologia Vol 24(3-4) 2003, 635-644.
  • Pena, R. S. (2004). Does a Skinnerian tradition exist in behavioral analysis? : Revista de Historia de la Psicologia Vol 25(4) 2004, 271-282.
  • Pena, R. S. (2005). The influence of Skinner in Spanish psychology: Revista de Historia de la Psicologia Vol 26(2-3) 2005, 171-180.
  • Pena, R. S. (2005). Skinner's impact on basic versus applied research in behavioral analysis: Revista de Historia de la Psicologia Vol 26(1) 2005, 57-66.
  • Pennypacker, H. S. (1992). Is behavior analysis undergoing selection by consequences? : American Psychologist Vol 47(11) Nov 1992, 1491-1498.
  • Peterson, G. B. (2004). A day of great Illumination: B. F. Skinner's discovery of shaping: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 82(3) Nov 2004, 317-328.
  • Phelps, B. J. (2007). Why we are still not cognitive psychologists: A review of Why I Am Not a Cognitive Psychologist: A Tribute to B. F. Skinner: Behavior Analyst Vol 30(2) Fal 2007, 217-226.
  • Pilgrim, C. (2003). Science and human behavior at fifty: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 80(3) Nov 2003, 329-340.
  • Plazas, E. A. (2006). B. F. Skinner: The search for order in voluntary behavior: Universitas Psychologica Vol 5(2) May-Aug 2006, 371-383.
  • Pool, A. (2005). Radical Behaviorism or About the New Wine and the Old Wine Skin: Psykhe: Revista de la Escuela de Psicologia Vol 14(1) May 2005, 79-87.
  • Prilleltensky, I. (1994). On the social legacy of B. F. Skinner: Rhetoric of change, philosophy of adjustment: Theory & Psychology Vol 4(1) Feb 1994, 125-137.
  • Rachlin, H. (1992). Teleological behaviorism: American Psychologist Vol 47(11) Nov 1992, 1371-1382.
  • Rakos, R. F. (1992). Achieving the just society in the 21st century: What can Skinner contribute? : American Psychologist Vol 47(11) Nov 1992, 1499-1506.
  • Rakos, R. F. (2001). Comment on Skinner's "The Design of Cultures": Behavior and Social Issues Vol 11(1) Fal 2001, 24-25.
  • Rakos, R. F. (2006). Review of Living Walden Two: B. F. Skinner's Behaviorist Utopia and Experimental Communities: Behavior Analyst Vol 29(1) Spr 2006, 153-157.
  • Ribes Inesta, E. (1991). Skinner and psychology: What he did, what he did not do, and what we must continue to do: Apuntes de Psicologia No 33 Aug 1991, 147-174.
  • Ribes-Inesta, E. (1999). An unpublished interview with B. F. Skinner: Revista Mexicana de Analisis de la Conducta Vol 25(3) Dec 1999, 321-327.
  • Ribes-Inesta, E. (2008). Verbal behavior of B.F. Skinner: A retrospective analysis: International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy Vol 8(3) 2008, 323-334.
  • Richelle, M. (2000). Walden Two at fifty. Reno, NV: Context Press.
  • Richelle, M. N. (1993). B. F. Skinner: A reappraisal. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Ringen, J. (1999). Radical behaviorism: B. F. Skinner's philosophy of science. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
  • Rockwell, W. T. (1994). Beyond determinism and indignity: A reinterpretation of operant conditioning: Behavior and Philosophy Vol 22(1) Spr-Sum 1994, 53-66.
  • Roepstorff, A. (2003). A double dissociation in twentieth century psychology? A commentary on Bernard Baars: The double life of B. F. Skinner: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 10(1) 2003, 62-67.
  • Rohles, F. H. (1992). Orbital bar pressing: A historical note on Skinner and the chimpanzees in space: American Psychologist Vol 47(11) Nov 1992, 1531-1533.
  • Rohles, F. H. (1993). Orbital bar pressing: A historical note on Skinner and the chimpanzees in apace: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 64(6) Jun 1993, 567-569.
  • Roxley, R. A. (2006). Skinner's other positivistic book: Walden Two: Behavior and Philosophy Vol 34 2006, 19-37.
  • Ruiz, M. R. (1995). B. F. Skinner's radical behaviorism: Historical misconstructions and grounds for feminist reconstructions: Behavior and Social Issues Vol 5(2) Fal 1995, 29-44.
  • Rumph, R., & Ninness, C. (2001). The promise of the design of culture: Behavior and Social Issues Vol 11(1) Fal 2001, 25-26.
  • Rumph, R., Ninness, C., McCuller, G., & Ninness, S. K. (2005). Guest editorial: Twenty years later, commentary on Skinner's "Why we are not acting to save the world": Behavior and Social Issues Vol 14(1) Spr-Sum 2005, 1-6.
  • Rutherford, A. (2000). Radical behaviorism and psychology's public: B. F. Skinner in the popular press, 1934-1990: History of Psychology Vol 3(4) Nov 2000, 371-395.
  • Rutherford, A. (2002). Between the science of behavior and the art of living: B. F. skinner and psychology's public in mid-twentieth century America (B. F. Skinner). Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Rutherford, A. (2003). B. F. Skinner and the Auditory Inkblot: The Rise and Fall of the Verbal Summator as a Projective Technique: History of Psychology Vol 6(4) Nov 2003, 362-378.
  • Rutherford, A. (2003). B. F. Skinner's technology of behavior in American life: From consumer culture to counterculture: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences Vol 39(1) Win 2003, 1-23.
  • Rutherford, A. (2007). Review of Living Walden Two: B. F. Skinner's behaviorist utopia and experimental communities: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences Vol 43(2) Spr 2007, 228-229.
  • Rychlak, J. F. (1969). Skinnerian Tempest in a Teapot Dialogue: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 14 (11), Nov, 1969.
  • Salzinger, K. (1992). Cognitive therapy: A misunderstanding of B. F. Skinner: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 23(1) Mar 1992, 3-8.
  • Salzinger, K. (2008). Skinner's Verbal Behavior: International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy Vol 8(3) 2008, 287-294.
  • Sautter, R. A., & LeBlanc, L. A. (2006). Empirical Applications of Skinner's Analysis of Verbal Behavior with Humans: Analysis of Verbal Behavior Vol 22 2006, 35-48.
  • Schaal, D. W. (1998). Skinner may be difficult, but: Behavior Analyst Vol 21(1) Spr 1998, 97-101.
  • Scharff, J. L. (1999). Skinner's reinforcement theory: A Heideggerian assessment of its empirical success and philosophical failure: Behavior and Philosophy Vol 27(1) Spr 1999, 1-17.
  • Schlinger, H. D. (1993). Learned expectancies are not adequate scientific explanations: American Psychologist Vol 48(11) Nov 1993, 1155-1156.
  • Schlinger, H. D. (2008). The long good-bye: Why B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior is alive and well on the 50th anniversary of its publication: Psychological Record Vol 58(3) Sum 2008, 329-337.
  • Schlosberg, H. (1960). Is this a New Messiah? : PsycCRITIQUES Vol 5 (2), Feb, 1960.
  • Schoneberger, T. (1991). Verbal understanding: Integrating the conceptual analyses of Skinner, Ryle, and Wittgenstein: Analysis of Verbal Behavior Vol 9 1991, 145-151.
  • Serio, T. M. d. A. P., Andery, M. A. P. A., & Micheletto, N. (2005). The notion of variability in Skinner's work: Acta Comportamentalia Vol 13(2) Dec 2005, 98-110.
  • Shimp, C. P. (2004). Scientific peer review: A case study from local and global analyses: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 82(1) Jul 2004, 103-116.
  • Siegel, P. F. (1996). The meaning of behaviorism for B. F. Skinner: Psychoanalytic Psychology Vol 13(3) Sum 1996, 343-365.
  • Silverman, W. H. (1972). Growing up with Skinner: Reflections on Beyond freedom and dignity: Professional Psychology Vol 3(4) Fal 1972, 399-400.
  • Smith, L. D. (1992). On prediction and control: B. F. Skinner and the technological ideal of science: American Psychologist Vol 47(2) Feb 1992, 216-223.
  • Smith, L. D. (1993). Natural science and unnatural technology: American Psychologist Vol 48(5) May 1993, 588-589.
  • Smith, L. D. (1995). From a Distance: A Close Analysis of Skinner: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 40 (5), May, 1995.
  • Smith, L. D. (2002). On prediction and control: B. F. Skinner and the technological ideal of science. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Smith, L. D., & Woodward, W. R. (1996). B. F. Skinner and behaviorism in American culture. Bethlehem, PA ; Cranbury, NJ: Lehigh University Press; Associated University Presses.
  • Staddon, J. (2006). Did Skinner miss the point about teaching? : International Journal of Psychology Vol 41(6) Dec 2006, 555-558.
  • Staddon, J. E. (1992). The "superstition" experiment: A reversible figure: Journal of Experimental Psychology: General Vol 121(3) Sep 1992, 270-272.
  • Staddon, J. E. R. (2004). The old behaviorism: A response to William Baum's review of The New Behaviorism: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 82(1) Jul 2004, 79-83.
  • Staddon, J. E. R. (2004). Response to commentators: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 82(1) Jul 2004, 121-124.
  • Stemmer, N. (1990). Skinner's Verbal Behavior, Chomsky's review, and mentalism: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 54(3) Nov 1990, 307-315.
  • Stemmer, N. (1992). Skinner and a solution to the problem of inner events: Behavior Analyst Vol 15(2) Fal 1992, 115-128.
  • Stemmer, N. (1994). On structure-dependent grammars: A reply to Mabry: Analysis of Verbal Behavior Vol 12 1994-1995, 97-99.
  • Stemmer, N. (1994). Physicalism, reductionism, and verbal behavior: A reply to Leigland: Behavior Analyst Vol 17(2) Fal 1994, 371-372.
  • Sturmey, P., Ward-Horner, J., Marroquin, M., & Doran, E. (2007). Structural and functional approaches to psychopathology and case formulation. San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press.
  • Sundberg, M. L. (1991). 301 research topics from Skinner's book Verbal Behavior: Analysis of Verbal Behavior Vol 9 1991, 81-96.
  • Sundberg, M. L. (1998). Realizing the potential of Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior: Analysis of Verbal Behavior Vol 15 1998, 143-147.
  • Sundberg, M. L., & Michael, J. (2001). The benefits of Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior for children with autism: Behavior Modification Vol 25(5) Oct 2001, 698-724.
  • Symonds, P. M. (1954). Review of Science and Human Behavior: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 45(2) Feb 1954, 121-125.
  • Throne, J. M. (1972). Skinner Throws Down the Gauntlet: Professional Psychology Vol 3(4) Fal 1972, 398.
  • Throne, J. M. (1973). Never Mind: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 18 (3), Mar, 1973.
  • Throne, J. M. (1992). Understanding Skinner: American Psychologist Vol 47(12) Dec 1992, 1678.
  • Thyer, B. A. (1991). The enduring intellectual legacy of B. F. Skinner: A citation count from 1966-1989: Behavior Analyst Vol 14(1) Spr 1991, 73-75.
  • Thyer, B. A. (2001). B. F. Skinner's contributions to cultural design and social policy: Behavior and Social Issues Vol 11(1) Fal 2001, 20-22.
  • Thyer, B. A. (2007). On the possible influence of Bertrand Russell on B. F. Skinner's approach to education: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 40(3) Fal 2007, 587.
  • Tierney, K. J. (1992). Hyperselectionism and hyperbehaviorism are unstable strategies: Psychological Record Vol 42(4) Fal 1992, 469-478.
  • Tinker, M. A. (1949). Review of Walden Two: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 40(4) Apr 1949, 250-253.
  • Toates, F. (2004). Skinner's Double Life As Both Perpetrator and Innocent Victim: A Reply to Baars: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 11(9) Sep 2004, 57-63.
  • Todd, J. T., & Morris, E. K. (1995). Modern perspectives on B. F. Skinner and contemporary behaviorism. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press/Greenwood Publishing Group.
  • Todorov, J. C. (2002). The evolution of the concept of operant: Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa Vol 18(2) May-Aug 2002, 123-127.
  • Todorov, J. C. (2003). Science and Human Behavior translated into Portuguese: Ciencia e Comportamento Humano: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 80(3) Nov 2003, 341-343.
  • Todorov, J. C. (2004). From Aplysia to the Constitution: Evolution of Concepts in Behavior Analysis: Psicologia: Reflexao e Critica Vol 17(2) 2004, 151-156.
  • Tonneau, F. (2004). Book Review: Relational frame theory: A post-Skinnerian account of human language and cognition: British Journal of Psychology Vol 95(2) May 2004, 265-268.
  • Ulman, J. D. (1991). Toward a synthesis of Marx and Skinner: Behavior and Social Issues Vol 1(1) Spr-Sum 1991, 57-70.
  • Ulman, J. D. (2001). Comments on Skinner's "The Design of Culture": Behavior and Social Issues Vol 11(1) Fal 2001, 27-28.
  • Vargas, E. A. (1991). Verbal behavior: A four-term contingency relation. New York, NY, England: Praeger Publishers.
  • Vargas, J. S. (1996). From aircrib to "Walden Two": B. F. Skinner and cultural design. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Vargas, J. S. (1998). Contributions of Verbal Behavior to instructional technology: Analysis of Verbal Behavior Vol 15 1998, 153-155.
  • Vargas, J. S. (2001). B. F. Skinner's contribution to therapeutic change: An agency-less contingency analysis. Reno, NV: Context Press.
  • Vargas, J. S. (2003). A commentary on 'The double life of B.F. Skinner' by B. J. Baars: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 10(1) 2003, 68-73.
  • Vargas, J. S. (2004). A Daughter's Retrospective of B. F. Skinner: The Spanish Journal of Psychology Vol 7(2) Nov 2004, 135-140.
  • Vogeltanz, N. D., & Plaud, J. J. (1992). On the goodness of Skinner's system of naturalistic ethics in solving basic value conflicts: Psychological Record Vol 42(4) Fal 1992, 457-468.
  • Watt, D. (2003). Commentary: Journal of Consciousness Studies Vol 10(1) 2003, 74-78.
  • Wiener, D. N. (1992). Contributions to the history of psychology: LXXXVIII: Skinner at 86: An appreciation: Psychological Reports Vol 70(3, Pt 2), Spec Issue Jun 1992, 1023-1026.
  • Wiener, D. N. (1996). B. F. Skinner: Benign anarchist. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
  • Wilson, K. G., & Blackledge, J. T. (2000). Recent developments in the behavioral analysis of language: Making sense of clinical phenomena. Reno, NV: Context Press.
  • Wixted, J. (2008). JEAB and the Skinnerian interpretation of behavior: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 89(1) Jan 2008, 137-139.
  • Wyatt, W. J. (2000). Behavioral science in the crosshairs: The FBI file on B. F. Skinner: Behavior and Social Issues Vol 10(1-2) Spr-Fal 2000, 101-109.
  • Wyatt, W. J. (2001). Some myths about behaviorism that are undone by B. F. Skinner's "The Design of Cultures": Behavior and Social Issues Vol 11(1) Fal 2001, 28-30.
  • Yousef, J. M. (1992). Arabic students' understanding of Skinner's radical behaviorism: Psychological Reports Vol 71(1) Aug 1992, 51-56.
  • Zuriff, G. E. (2003). Science and Human Behavior, dualism, and conceptual modification: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Vol 80(3) Nov 2003, 245-352.



See also Edit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Guardian Newspapers Limited - online
  2. >How free is free will? Salon.com (on Powell Books) by Farhad Manjoo, 28 May 2004. Manjoo continued, 'Slater writes that it was actually an "an upgraded playpen" whose "thermostatically controlled environment" prevented diaper rash and other kiddie ailments, reduced the chance of suffocation by blanket, and allowed the daughter to walk around without any impediments, building a baby of impressive self-confidence.'
  3. Los Horcones: a Walden Two Community

Further readingEdit

BooksEdit

  • Bjork, D. W. (1997). B. F. Skinner: A life. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Bjork, D. W. (1997). Behaviorist at large. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Bjork, D. W. (1997). Between two lives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Bjork, D. W. (1997). Beyond the American tradition. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Bjork, D. W. (1997). The birth of a new science. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Bjork, D. W. (1997). A design for living. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • bjork, D. W. (1997). Educational engineering. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Bjork, D. W. (1997). A hill of dreams. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Bjork, D. W. (1997). Inventive beginnings. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Bjork, D. W. (1997). Master of self-management. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Bjork, D. W. (1997). The social inventor emerges. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Bjork, D. W. (1998). Burrhus Frederick Skinner: The contingencies of a life. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Catania, A. C., & Harnad, S. (1988). The selection of behavior: The operant behaviorism of B. F. Skinner: Comments and consequences. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Demorest, A. (2005). Psychology's grand theorists: How personal experiences shaped professional ideas. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Harnad, S. (1988). What are the scope and limits of radical behaviorist theory? New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Hineline, P. N. (1995). The origins of environment-based psychological theory. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press/Greenwood Publishing Group.
  • Kuhlmann, H. (2005). Living Walden Two: B. F. Skinner's Behaviorist Utopia and Experimental Communities. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.

PapersEdit

External linksEdit

Wikiquote-logo-en
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

http://www.snopes.com/science/skinner.asp more on the urban myth of Skinners daughter


Articles by Skinner:

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki