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Axoplasm is the cytoplasm within the axon of a neuron. Neural processes (axons and dendrites) contain about 99.6% of the cell’s cytoplasm, and 99.7% of that is in the axons (Sabry et al., 1995).
Axoplasm has a different composition of
organelles and other materials than that found in the neuron's cell body or dendrites. For example, axons lack ribosomes and thus rely on axoplasmic transport to bring proteins to areas where they are needed. In axoplasmic transport, materials are carried through the axoplasm to or from the soma.
electrical resistance of the axoplasm, called axoplasmic resistance, is one aspect of a neuron's cable properties, because it affects the rate of travel of an action potential down an axon. If the axoplasm contains many molecules that are not electrically conductive, it will slow the travel of the potential because it will cause more ions to flow across the axolemma (the axon's membrane) than through the axoplasm.
Sabry J., O’Connor T. P., and Kirschner M. W. (1995). Axonal Transport of Tubulin in Ti1 Pioneer Neurons in Situ. Neuron. 14: 1247-1256.
Histology: nervous tissue
Neurons ( gray matter)
soma, axon ( axon hillock, axoplasm, axolemma, neurofibril/neurofilament), dendrite ( Nissl body, dendritic spine, apical dendrite, basal dendrite) types ( bipolar, pseudounipolar, multipolar, pyramidal, Purkinje, granule)
Afferent nerve/ Sensory nerve/ Sensory neuron
GSA, GVA, SSA, SVA, fibers ( Ia, Ib or Golgi, II or Aβ, III or Aδ or fast pain, IV or C or slow pain)
Efferent nerve/ Motor nerve/ Motor neuron
GSE, GVE, SVE, Upper motor neuron, Lower motor neuron ( α motorneuron, γ motorneuron)
neuropil, synaptic vesicle, neuromuscular junction, electrical synapse - Interneuron ( Renshaw)
Free nerve ending, Meissner's corpuscle, Merkel nerve ending, Muscle spindle, Pacinian corpuscle, Ruffini ending, Olfactory receptor neuron, Photoreceptor cell, Hair cell, Taste bud
astrocyte, oligodendrocyte, ependymal cells, microglia, radial glia
Myelination ( white matter)
Schwann cell, oligodendrocyte, nodes of Ranvier, internode, Schmidt-Lanterman incisures, neurolemma
Related connective tissues
epineurium, perineurium, endoneurium, nerve fascicle, meninges