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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) organizes psychopathology using a "multiaxial" system, and describes the axes as "different domains of information" for use in clinical work.
The five DSM axes are:
- Axis I: major mental disorders, clinical disorders
- Axis II: underlying pervasive or personality conditions, developmental disorders and learning disabilities, as well as mental retardation
- Axis III: medical conditions contributing to the disorder
- Axis IV: psychosocial and environmental factors contributing to the disorder
- Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning (on a scale from 100 to 0)
Within Axis II, 12 conditions are distinguished (many are commonly referred to by their acronyms):
- Paranoid Personality Disorder
- Schizoid Personality Disorder
- Schizotypal Personality Disorder
- Antisocial Personality Disorder
- Borderline Personality Disorder
- Histrionic Personality Disorder
- Narcissistic Personality Disorder
- Avoidant Personality Disorder
- Dependent Personality Disorder
- Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
- Personality Disorder Not Otherwise Specified
- Mental Retardation
These conditions are not mutually exclusive; indeed the DSM notes that it is common for a patient to suffer from more than one Axis II condition.
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