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Animal captivity of elephants, while giving a chance to study them at close quarters, can pose serious challenges to their wellbeing. Thier use in circuses and zoos is controversial.
- Alward, L. (2008). Why circuses are unsuited to elephants. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Garrison, J. (2008). The challenges of meeting the needs of captive elephants. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Hancocks, D. (2008). Most zoos do not deserve elephants. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Hutchins, M., Smith, B., & Keele, M. (2008). Zoos as responsible stewards of elephants. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Kreger, M. D. (2008). Canvas to concrete: Elephants and the circus-zoo relationship. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Kurt, F., Mar, K. U., & Garai, M. E. (2008). Giants in chains: History, biology, and preservation of Asian elephants in captivity. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Lahiri Choudhury, D. K. (2008). Elephants and people in India: Historical patterns of capture and management. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Mellen, J. D., Barber, J. C. E., & Miller, G. W. (2008). Can we assess the needs of elephants in zoos? Can we meet the needs of elephants in zoos? Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Schmitt, D. (2008). View from the big top: Why elephants belong in North American circuses. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Bagley, K. R., Goodwin, T. E., Rasmussen, L. E. L., & Schulte, B. A. (2006). Male African elephants, Loxodonta Africana, can distinguish oestrous status via urinary signals: Animal Behaviour Vol 71(6) Jun 2006, 1439-1445.
- Brockett, R. C., Stoinski, T. S., Black, J., Markowitz, T., & Maple, T. L. (1999). Nocturnal behavior in a group of unchained female African elephants: Zoo Biology Vol 18(2) 1999, 101-109.
- Elzanowski, A., & Sergiel, A. (2006). Stereotypic behavior of a female Asiatic Elephant (Elephas maximus) in a zoo: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science Vol 9(3) 2006, 223-232.
- Friend, T. H. (1999). Behavior of picketed circus elephants: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 62(1) Feb 1999, 73-88.
- Friend, T. H., & Parker, M. L. (1999). The effect of penning versus picketing on stereotypic behavior of circus elephants: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 64(3) Jul 1999, 213-225.
- Gruber, T. M., Friend, T. H., Gardner, J. M., Packard, J. M., Beaver, B., & Bushong, D. (2000). Variation in stereotypic behavior related to restraint in circus elephants: Zoo Biology Vol 19(3) 2000, 209-221.
- Leong, K. M., Burks, K., Rizkalla, C. E., & Savage, A. (2005). Effects of Reproductive and Social Context on Vocal Communication in Captive Female African Elephants (Loxodonta africana): Zoo Biology Vol 24(4) Jul-Aug 2005, 331-347.
- Meller, C. L., Croney, C. C., & Shepherdson, D. (2007). Effects of rubberized flooring on Asian elephant behavior in captivity: Zoo Biology Vol 26(1) Jan-Feb 2007, 51-61.
- Schulte, B. A. (2000). Social structure and helping behavior in captive elephants: Zoo Biology Vol 19(5) 2000, 447-459.
- Taylor, V. J., & Poole, T. B. (1998). Captive breeding and infant mortality in Asian elephants: A comparison between twenty Western zoos and three Eastern elephant centers: Zoo Biology Vol 17(4) 1998, 311-332.
- Wiedenmayer, C. (1998). Food hiding and enrichment in captive Asian elephants: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 56(1) Feb 1998, 77-82.
- Wilson, M. L., Bloomsmith, M. A., & Maple, T. L. (2004). Stereotypic swaying and serum cortisol concentrations in three captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana): Animal Welfare Vol 13(1) Feb 2004, 39-43.