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'''Asonia''' is the impaired ability to distinguish between two [[musical tones]]<ref>Coleman,A F (2006). Oxford Dictionary of Psychology, 2nd ed. Oxford:OUP. </ref>. Nontechnically it is known as '''tone deafness'''
   
   
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The ability of relative pitch, as with other musical abilities, appears to be inherent in healthy functional humans. The [[hearing impairment]] appears to be genetically influenced, though it can also result from brain damage. While someone who is unable to reproduce pitches because of a lack of musical training would not be considered tone deaf in a medical sense, the term might still be used to describe them casually. Someone who cannot reproduce pitches accurately, because of lack of training or tone deafness, is said to be unable to "carry a tune." Tone deafness affects ability to hear pitch changes produced by a [[musical instrument]] and/or the human voice. However, tone deaf people seem to be only disabled when it comes to [[music]], and they can fully interpret the [[Prosody (linguistics)|prosody]] or intonation of human speech. It has been observed that in societies with [[tonal language]]s such as Cantonese and Vietnamese, there are almost no tone deaf people. This might point to it being a learnt skill.
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==Etymology==
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Asonia is from the Latin ''a-'' (away or away from)+ ''sonus'' (a sound)
   
Tone deaf people often lack a sense of musical aesthetics, and much like a [[color blind]] person would not be apt to appreciate colorful visual art, some tone deaf people cannot appreciate music. Tone deafness is also associated with other musical-specific impairments such as inability to keep time with music (the lack of rhythm), or the inability to remember or even recognize a song. These disabilities can appear separately but some research shows that they are more likely to appear in tone deaf people. [http://brain.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/125/2/238]
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==Description==
  +
The ability to hear and reproduce relative pitch, as with other musical abilities, is present in all societies and in most humans. The [[hearing impairment]] appears to be genetically influenced, though it can also result from brain damage. Someone who is unable to reproduce pitches because of a lack of musical training would not be considered tone deaf in a medical sense. Tone deafness affects the ability to hear relative pitch changes produced by a [[musical instrument]].
   
Tone deafness is also known variously as '''amusia''', '''tune deafness''', '''dysmelodia''' and '''dysmusia'''.
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However, tone deaf people seem to be{{Failed verification|Dediu/Ladd is the only citation in this paragraph as of this addition|date=September 2010}} disabled only when it comes to [[music]], as they can fully interpret the [[Prosody (linguistics)|prosody]] or [[Intonation (linguistics)|intonation]] of human speech. Tone deafness has a strong negative [[correlation]] with belonging to societies with [[tonal language]]s. This could be evidence that the ability to reproduce and distinguish between notes may be a learned skill, but may conversely suggest that the genetic predisposition towards accurate pitch discrimination may influence the linguistic development of a population towards tonality. A correlation between [[allele frequencies]] and linguistic typological features has been recently discovered, supporting the latter hypothesis.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Dediu |first=Dan |coauthors=D. Robert Ladd |title=Linguistic tone is related to the population frequency of the adaptive haplogroups of two brain size genes, ASPM and Microcephalin |journal=[[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences]] |volume=104 |issue=26 |pages=10944–9 |year=2007 |month=June |pmid=17537923 |pmc=1904158 |doi=10.1073/pnas.0610848104 |url=http://www.pnas.org/content/104/26/10944 |accessdate=18 July 2008}}</ref>
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Tone deafness is also associated with other musical-specific impairments, such as inability to keep time with music (the lack of [[rhythm]]), or the inability to remember or recognize a [[song]]. These disabilities can appear separately but some research shows that they are more likely to appear in tone-deaf people.<ref>{{Cite journal|first=Julie |last=Ayotte |coauthors=Isabelle Peretz and Krista Hyde |title=Congenital amusia: a group study of adults afflicted with a music-specific disorder |journal=[[Brain (journal)|Brain]] |volume=125 |issue=2 |pages=238–51 |year=2002 |month=February |pmid=11844725 |doi=10.1093/brain/awf028 |url=http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/125/2/238 |accessdate=18 July 2008}}</ref> Experienced musicians, such as [[W. A. Mathieu]], have addressed tone deafness in adults as correctable with training.<ref>{{Cite web|last=Mathieu |first=W. A. |title=Tone-Deaf Choir |url=http://ListeningBookAudio.com/tonedeaf.htm |accessdate=26 February 2009}}</ref>
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==Neurology==
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In nine of ten tone deaf people, the superior [[arcuate fasciculus]] in the right hemisphere could not be detected, suggesting a disconnection between the posterior superior temporal gyrus and the posterior inferior frontal gyrus. Researchers suggested the posterior superior temporal gyrus was the origin of the disorder.<ref>Loui P, Alsop D, Schlaug S. (2009). Tone Deafness: A New Disconnection Syndrome? Journal of Neuroscience, 29(33):10215–10220 {{DOI|10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1701-09.2009}}</ref>
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 
*[[Amusia]], the medical loss of musical ability
 
*[[Amusia]], the medical loss of musical ability
 
*[[Absolute pitch]], the rare ability to name a musical note when played or sung
 
*[[Absolute pitch]], the rare ability to name a musical note when played or sung
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*[[Dysmusia]]
 
*[[Relative pitch]], the normal human ability to accurately discriminate pitch intervals
 
*[[Relative pitch]], the normal human ability to accurately discriminate pitch intervals
 
*[[Deafness]], the inability to hear sound
 
*[[Deafness]], the inability to hear sound
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==References==
 
==References==
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<references/>
   
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
 
* University of Newcastle: [http://www.delosis.com/listening/ Musical Listening Test]
 
* University of Newcastle: [http://www.delosis.com/listening/ Musical Listening Test]
* BBC: [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/4655352.stm Listening Displeasure]
 
 
* NPR: [http://www.npr.org/programs/atc/features/2002/jan/tonedeaf/020116.tonedeaf.html Test for tone deafness] (requires [[RealAudio]] player)
 
* NPR: [http://www.npr.org/programs/atc/features/2002/jan/tonedeaf/020116.tonedeaf.html Test for tone deafness] (requires [[RealAudio]] player)
 
* MedicineNet: [http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=19458 Amusia]
 
* MedicineNet: [http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=19458 Amusia]
 
* Congenital amusia: a group study. [http://brain.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/125/2/238 Abstract.] Full-text available with subscription.
 
* Congenital amusia: a group study. [http://brain.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/125/2/238 Abstract.] Full-text available with subscription.
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* NIH: [http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/tunetest/dtt.asp Distorted Tunes Test]
   
 
[[Category:music]]
 
[[Category:music]]
   
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<!--
 
[[de:Dysmusia]]
 
[[de:Dysmusia]]
 
[[ja:音痴]]
 
[[ja:音痴]]
 
[[no:Tonedøvhet]]
 
[[no:Tonedøvhet]]
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-->
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{{enWP|Tone deafness}}

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Asonia is the impaired ability to distinguish between two musical tones[1]. Nontechnically it is known as tone deafness


A person who is tone deaf lacks relative pitch, the ability to discriminate between musical notes. Being tone deaf is having difficulty or being unable to correctly hear relative differences between notes; however, in common usage, it refers to a person's inability to reproduce them accurately. The latter inability is most often caused by lack of musical training or music education and not actual tone deafness.


EtymologyEdit

Asonia is from the Latin a- (away or away from)+ sonus (a sound)

DescriptionEdit

The ability to hear and reproduce relative pitch, as with other musical abilities, is present in all societies and in most humans. The hearing impairment appears to be genetically influenced, though it can also result from brain damage. Someone who is unable to reproduce pitches because of a lack of musical training would not be considered tone deaf in a medical sense. Tone deafness affects the ability to hear relative pitch changes produced by a musical instrument.

However, tone deaf people seem to beTemplate:Failed verification disabled only when it comes to music, as they can fully interpret the prosody or intonation of human speech. Tone deafness has a strong negative correlation with belonging to societies with tonal languages. This could be evidence that the ability to reproduce and distinguish between notes may be a learned skill, but may conversely suggest that the genetic predisposition towards accurate pitch discrimination may influence the linguistic development of a population towards tonality. A correlation between allele frequencies and linguistic typological features has been recently discovered, supporting the latter hypothesis.[2]

Tone deafness is also associated with other musical-specific impairments, such as inability to keep time with music (the lack of rhythm), or the inability to remember or recognize a song. These disabilities can appear separately but some research shows that they are more likely to appear in tone-deaf people.[3] Experienced musicians, such as W. A. Mathieu, have addressed tone deafness in adults as correctable with training.[4]

NeurologyEdit

In nine of ten tone deaf people, the superior arcuate fasciculus in the right hemisphere could not be detected, suggesting a disconnection between the posterior superior temporal gyrus and the posterior inferior frontal gyrus. Researchers suggested the posterior superior temporal gyrus was the origin of the disorder.[5]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Coleman,A F (2006). Oxford Dictionary of Psychology, 2nd ed. Oxford:OUP.
  2. Dediu, Dan, D. Robert Ladd (June 2007). Linguistic tone is related to the population frequency of the adaptive haplogroups of two brain size genes, ASPM and Microcephalin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (26): 10944–9.
  3. Ayotte, Julie, Isabelle Peretz and Krista Hyde (February 2002). Congenital amusia: a group study of adults afflicted with a music-specific disorder. Brain 125 (2): 238–51.
  4. Mathieu, W. A. Tone-Deaf Choir. URL accessed on 26 February 2009.
  5. Loui P, Alsop D, Schlaug S. (2009). Tone Deafness: A New Disconnection Syndrome? Journal of Neuroscience, 29(33):10215–10220
    1. REDIRECT Template:Doi

External linksEdit


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