The Art manifesto has been a recurrent feature associated with the avant-garde in Modernism. Art manifestos are mostly extreme in their rhetoric and intended for shock value to achieve a revolutionary effect. They often address wider issues, such as the political system. Typical themes are the need for revolution, freedom (of expression) and the implied or overtly stated superiority of the writers over the status quo. The manifesto gives a means of expressing, publicising and recording ideas for the artist or art group— even if only one or two people write the words, it is mostly still attributed to the group name.
Manifestos were introduced with the Futurists in Italy in 1909, and readily taken up by the Vorticists, Dadaists and the Surrealists after them: the period up to World War II created what are still the best known manifestos. Although they never stopped being issued, other media such as the growth of broadcasting tended to sideline such declarations. Due to the internet there has been a resurgence of the form, and many new manifestos are now appearing to a potential worldwide audience. The Stuckists have made particular use of this to start worldwide movement of affiliated groups.
Manifestos typically consist of a number of statements, which are numbered or in bullet points and which do not necessarily follow logically from one to the next. Tristan Tzara’s explanation of the manifesto (Feeble Love & Bitter Love, II) captures the spirit of many:
|“||A manifesto is a communication made to the whole world, whose only pretension is to the discovery of an instant cure for political, astronomical, artistic, parliamentary, agronomical and literary syphilis. It may be pleasant, and good-natured, it's always right, it's strong, vigorous and logical. Apropos of logic, I consider myself very likeable.||”|
The manifesto was previously a political document of state. Indeed the declaration of war in 1914 was embodied in a document titled a “manifesto”. This background is extremely informative when assessing the positioning and impact of the manifesto as adopted by the early artistic users of it, who were subverting, even destroying, the form, as part of an overall challenge to art and society.
Although it might be assumed that an art manifesto's primary purpose is to communicate the aesthetics of the group issuing it, this turns out not to be the case, nor is it an art form in its own right. The norm is a hybrid form that combines a theatrical performance with political declamation.  Artists have not restricted themselves to their own genre, although they have often used their skills in the presentation of the text through graphics and type faces, resulting in a combination of "art, publicity, criticism, and advertising".
Martin Puchner stresses the inescapable connection between the art manifesto and the political manifesto, not least because artists also issued overt political statements and allied themselves with political groups. Marinetti tried to gain a political office and both Italian and Russian Futurists issued political manifestos. Lenin was espoused by the Zurich Dadaists, and Rosa Luxemburg by those in Berlin. In England the Suffragettes were supported by Vorticist Wyndham Lewis, and the Communists by Surrealist Andre Breton in France. However, the attentions of the artists were often not welcomed. Marinetti found himself stymied by Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, and Velimir Khlebnikov by Leon Trotsky, while Breton was an outcast from the French Communist party and Guy Debord resorted to starting an independent group. 
Futurist Manifesto 1909Edit
Vorticist Manifesto 1914Edit
Dada Manifesto 1916Edit
Surrealist Manifesto 1924Edit
White Manifesto 1946Edit
Les Spatialistes Manifesto 1952Edit
Gutai Manifesto 1956Edit
Auto-Destructive Art Manifesto 1959Edit
In 1964 this was given as a lecture to the Architectural Association, which was taken over by students as an artistic "Happening". One of Metzger's Ealing College students was Pete Townshend, who later cited Metzger's concepts as an influence for his famous guitar-smashing during performances of The Who.
by Ferreira Gullar.
- We use the term "neo-concrete" to differentiate ourselves from those committed to non-figurative "geometric" art (neo-plasticism, constructivism, suprematism, the school of Ulm) and particularly the kind of concrete art that is influenced by a dangerously acute rationalism. In the light of their artistic experience, the painters, sculptors, engravers and writers participating in this first Neo-concrete Exhibition came to the conclusion that it was necessary to evaluate the theoretical principles on which concrete art has been founded, none of which offers a rationale for the expressive potential they feel their art contains."
by Guiseppe Pinot-Gallizio, August 1959
The full title is "Manifesto of Industrial Painting: For a unitary applied art". It was originally published in Italian in Notizie Arti Figurative No. 9 (1959). Shortly afterwards it was published in Internationale Situationniste no.3 in a French translation. It was translated into English in 1997 by Molly Klein. It has only 70 points and is written a grand utopian rhetorical manner, with statements such as , "A new, ravenous force of domination will push men toward an unimaginable epic poetry." One of its themes is the reconciliation of industry and nature:
- The return to nature with modern instrumentation will allow man, after thousands of centuries, to return to the places where Paleolithic hunters overcame great fear; modern man will seek to abandon his own, accumulated in the idiocy of progress, on contact with humble things, which nature in her wisdom has conserved as a check on the immense arrogance of the human mind.
Manifestos in the 1960s reflected the changing social and political attitudes of the times, the general ferment of "counterculture" revolution to overthrow the existing order and the particular rise of feminism and Black Power, as well as the pioneering of new art forms such as body art and performance art.
The Situationist International was founded at Cosio d’Arroscia April 27, 1957 by eight members, who wanted a revolutionary art with a state of constant transformation, and hence newness, as well as abolishing the gap between art and life. The manifesto espousing this was issued May 17, 1960 and reprinted in Internationale Situationniste number 4 in June 1960. It advocated the "new human force" against technology and the "dissatisfaction of its possible uses in our senseless social life", stating "We will inaugurate what will historically be the last of the crafts. The role of amateur-professional situationist – of anti-specialist – is again a specialization up to the point of economic and mental abundance, when everyone becomes an "artist". Its final sentence is: "Such are our goals, and these will be the future goals of humanity."
by Yves Klein
This manifesto has been copyrighted since 1989 by the Gagosian Gallery. It begins with the prompts for the later statements in the manifesto, the first line being, "Due to the fact that I have painted monochromes for fifteen years". It is a meditation by the artist about his work and life:
- An artist always feels uneasy when called upon to speak of his own work. It should speak for itself, particularly when it is valid.
- What can I do? Stop now?
- No, what I call "the indefinable pictorial sensibility" absolutely escapes this very personal solution.
He appropriates the sky:
- Once, in 1946, while still an adolescent, I was to sign my name on the other side of the sky during a fantastic "realistico-imaginary" journey. That day, as I lay stretched upon the beach of Nice, I began to feel hatred for birds which flew back and forth across my blue, cloudless sky, because they tried to bore holes in my greatest and most beautiful work.
- Birds must be eliminated.
He ends with an affirmation that he is "ready to dive into the void".
This is a short hand-printed document of three paragraphs interspersed with collage elements from dictionary definitions related to "flux". It is written in lower case, with upper case for certain key phrases, some underlined. Its first paragraph is:
- Purge the world of bourgeois sickness, "intellectual", professional and commercialized culture, purge the world of dead art, imitation, artificial art, abstract art, illusionistic art, mathematical art, – purge the world of "Europanism"!
It advocates revolution, "living art, anti–art" and "non art reality to be grasped by all peoples, not only critics, dilettantes and professionals."
S.C.U.M. is an acronym for the "Society for Cutting up Men" and the manifesto was not specifically about art. However, it has become part of art history, because it was published in 1968, the same year that Solanas, who had spent time in Andy Warhol's "Factory", shot and nearly killed him. It also has sections that address art ideas. Solanas spent her last years as a street prostitute and died in 1988.
It is a document of just over 11,000 words. Its tone and basic theme are evident from the title, but it is not quite as clear cut as it seems and some women are admitted to be as bad as men (women artists, for example). SCUM wants to "destroy all useless and harmful objects — cars, store windows, "Great Art", etc." In a section on "'Great Art' and 'Culture'" it states:
- The male 'artist' attempts to solve his dilemma of not being able to live, of not being female, by constructing a highly artificial world in which the male is heroized, that is, displays female traits, and the female is reduced to highly limited, insipid subordinate roles, that is, to being male.
- The male 'artistic' aim being, not to communicate (having nothing inside him he has nothing to say), but to disguise his animalism, he resorts to symbolism and obscurity ('deep' stuff). The vast majority of people, particularly the 'educated' ones, lacking faith in their own judgment, humble, respectful of authority ('Daddy knows best'), are easily conned into believing that obscurity, evasiveness, incomprehensibility, indirectness, ambiguity and boredom are marks of depth and brilliance ...
- Absorbing 'culture' is a desperate, frantic attempt to groove in an ungroovy world, to escape the horror of a sterile, mindless, existence. `Culture' provides a sop to the egos of the incompetent, a means of rationalizing passive spectating; they can pride themselves on their ability to appreciate the `finer' things, to see a jewel where this is only a turd (they want to be admired for admiring).
Maintenance Art Manifesto 1969Edit
The full title of the manifesto is "Maintenance Art—Proposal for an Exhibition"; it is considered a seminal document of feminist art. She was pregnant at the time, and decided to reinterpret household chores by becoming a "maintenance artist", where she would "perform" them. Through this such "maintenance" revealed itself as an important condition for freedom and social functioning and she extended the idea beyond feminism to projects like the 11 month Touch Sanitation, involving 8,500 New York workers. More recently she has addressed a landfill site on Staten Island.
The manifesto was followed by a questionnaire (1973-76) and was concerned with making art of what would normally be seen as routine, mundane chores. She wrote, "After the revolution, who is going to pick up the garbage on Monday morning?". She followed this up with a "Sanitation Manifesto!" (1984) The Maintenance Manifesto stated:
- Maintenance is a drag; it takes all the fucking time (lit.) The mind boggles and chafes at the boredom. The culture confers lousy status on maintenance jobs--minimum wages, housewives — no pay. Clean your desk, wash the dishes, clean the floor, wash your clothes, wash your toes, change the baby's diaper, finish the report, correct the typos, mend the fence, keep the customer happy, throw out the stinking garbage, watch out don't put things in your nose, what shall I wear, I have no sox, pay your bills, don't litter, save string, wash your hair, change the sheets, go to the store, I'm out of perfume, say it again — he doesn't understand, seal it again — it leaks, go to work, this art is dusty, clear the table, call him again, flush the toilet, stay young.
AfriCobra Manifesto 1970Edit
Jeff Donaldson was a cofounder of Afri-Cobra, a black artist collective founded in the late 1960s and based in Chicago. He helped organise international shows of black artists and wrote influential manifestos. AfriCobra is an acronym for "African Commune of Bad Relevant Artists". This was derived from combining the term for Africa with "Cobra", the "Coalition of Black Revolutionary Artists". The manifesto stated the groups objectives to be the development of a new African American art, involving social responsibility, community artistic involvement and promotion of pride in Black identity. There were parallels with African American musical innovations, and the advocacy of a complementary aesthetic involving sublime imagery and high-key colours.
WAR Manifestos early 1970sEdit
WAR is an acronym for "Women Artists in Revolution" of which Nancy Spero was a member. Prior to this in 1966–70 she had created a series of anti-Vietnam War "manifestos" which were images created with water paints and inks on paper. She then attended AWC (Art Workers Coalition) meetings, which had men and women members, and became part of WAR, which was an offshoot. She said, "I loved it. I was so angry at that time about so many things, especially about not being able to get my art out, to get people to look. I thought, "WAR"— that’s it. We started to organize some actions and protests and wrote manifestos. For example, a few of us marched into the Museum of Modern Art and demanded equality for women artists. Then, I joined another, the Ad Hoc Committee of Women Artists. It all went very fast in those days."
Women’s Art: A Manifesto 1972Edit
by Valie Export
Valie Export is a Viennese performance artist who worked with the Actionists and catalogued their events. She did her own confrontational body art, with a philosophy of "Feminist Actionism", inviting people to touch her in the street. She issued "written manifestos predicting with vengeance the future of women's art" and "made important theoretical contributions to communicating a personal feminism in performance. She felt that it was important politically to create art. 'I knew that if I did it naked, I would really change how the (mostly male) audience would look at me.'"
Collectif d'Art Sociologique manifesto 1974Edit
Body Art Manifesto 1975Edit
In 1975 François Pluchart promoted the first Body Art show at the Galerie Stadler in Paris, with work from 21 artists, including Marcel Duchamp, Chris Burden and Katharina Sieverding. The first Body Art manifesto was published.
Punk and cyber 1976–1998Edit
The rise of the punk movement with its basic and aggressive DIY attitude had a significant input into art manifestos, and this is reflected even in the titles. Some of the artists overtly identified with punk through music, publishing or poetry performance. There is also an equivalent "shocking" interpretation of feminism which contradicts the non-objectification advocated in the 1960s. Then the growing presence of the computer age began to assert itself in art proclamations as in society.
This was posted in Maidstone Art College by Charles Thomson, then a student at the college. 21 years later he co-wrote the Stuckist manifestos with Billy Childish. Thomson was also a member of the punk-based The Medway Poets. The manifesto rejects "department store" art and "elitist" gallery art, as well as sophistication and skill which are "easily obtainable ... and are used both industrially and artistically to conceal a poverty of content." The priority is stated to be "the exploration and expression of the human spirit".
Smile Manifestos 1982Edit
by Stewart Home
At this time Stewart Home operated as a one-person movement "Generation Positive", founding a punk band called White Colours and publishing an art fanzine Smile, which mostly contained art manifestos for the "Generation Positive". The rhetoric of these resembled the 1920s Berlin Dadaist manifestos. His idea was that other bands round the world should also call themselves White Colours and other magazines be titled Smile. The first part of the book Neoist Manifestos/The Art Strike Papers featured abriged versions of his manifesto-style writings from Smile.
The basic tenet of the IAAA is the depiction of space (as in the cosmos) through realist painting. They disassociate themselves from science fiction and fantasy artists: "a firm foundation of knowledge and research is the basis for each painting. Striving to accurately depict scenes which are at present beyond the range of human eyes". The group now has over 120 members representing 20 countries.
by the Bread and Puppet Theater
The whole title is "the Why Cheap Art? manifesto". It is a single sheet, issued by the Bread and Puppet Theater "in direct response to the business of art and its growing appropriation by the corporate sector." There are seventeen statements, most of them beginning "Art is" and ending with an exclamation mark, set out mostly in upper case, sometimes mixed in with lower case, in different typefaces which get bolder through the leaflet till the final statement of a large HURRAH. It starts:
- People have been thinking too long that art is a privilege of the museums & the rich.
- Art is not business!
It stresses the positive nature of art which is beneficial to all and should be available to all, using poetic images such as "Art is like green trees", and urging, "Art fights against war & stupidity! ... Art is cheap!
This has the full title of "A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth-Century." Donna Haraway is a cultural historian. She advocates the deveopment of cyborgs ("cybernetic organisms") as the way forward for a post-gender society. This had a significant effect initially amongst academics. VNS Matrix, a group of Australian women artists and British cultural historian, Sadie Plant, established a cyberfeminist movement in 1994. From 1997, the Old Boys Network (OBN) has organised "Cyberfeminist Internationals".
The manifesto is five paragraphs, each with a subtitle, the first of which is "Art for All", summing up the popularist intent of their manifesto:
- We want Our Art to speak across the barriers of knowledge directly to People about their Life and not about their knowledge of art. The twentieth century has been cursed with an art that cannot be understood. The decadent artists stand for themselves and their chosen few, laughing at and dismissing the normal outsider. We say that puzzling, obscure and form-obsessed art is decadent and a cruel denial of the Life of People.
There is also an intent to change people, but "The art-material must be subservient to the meaning and purpose of the picture." It states:
- We want to learn to respect and honour "the whole". The content of mankind is our subject and our inspiration. We stand each day for good traditions and necessary changes. We want to find and accept all the good and bad in ourselves.
The conclusion is an affirmation of "our life-search for new meanings and purpose to give to life."
The manifesto was signed by Véronica Vera and Candida Royalle (both ex porn stars who had then directed their own porn movies), Annie Sprinkle, who gives explicit sexual one woman shows and performance artist Frank Moore, among other significant artists who use sex in their work. In 7 short points, it founds an art movement, which "celebrates sex as the nourishing, life-giving force. We embrace our genitals as part, not separate, from our spirits", advocates the "attitude of sex-positivism", and wishes to "communicate our ideas and emotions ... to have fun, heal the world and endure."
by VNS Matrix
VNS Matrix was a cyberfeminist art collective founded in Adelaide, Australia, in 1991. Their manifesto, written in 1991, was translated over the years into many languages including Italian, French, Spanish, Russian, Japanese and Finnish. It begins:
- we are the modern cunt
- positive anti reason
- unbounded unleashed unforgiving
- we see art with our cunt we make art with our cunt
In 1996 they wrote the Bitch Mutant Manifesto.
Group Hangman was started by Billy Childish, Tracey Emin and two others in Medway, Kent in 1983 for a short time. Fourteen years later it reformed with more members (nearly all of whom later joined the Stuckists art group), but without Emin. At this point Childish wrote 6 short manifestos, each containing 7 – 12 statements. He says, "they were anarchic and contradictory - my favourite!"Some of the ideas resurfaced in the Stuckist manifestos written two years later. Point 9 of Communication 0001 states:
- Western art has been stupefying its audience into taking the position of an admiring doormat. We, at Group Hangman however, intend to wipe our mud-encrusted boots on the face of conceptual balderdash.
Style must be smashed ("Artistic talent is the only obstacle") and the unacceptable must be embraced. The last communication, of only two short sentences, was written in 2000 and recommends, "It is time for art to grow up."
by Natasha Vita-More (formerly Nancie Clark)
This was written on January 1, 1997, and was apparently "onboard the Cassini Huygens spacecraft on its mission to Saturn." Following the statement "We are transhumans", there is the explanation, "Transhumanist Arts reflects an extropic appreciation of aesthetics in a technologically enhanced world." After the manifesto is a "FAQ", which states, "Transhumanist Arts include creative works by scientists, engineers, technicians, philosophers, athletes, educators, mathematicians, etc., who may not be artists in the traditional sense, but whose vision and creativity are integral to transhumanity." The Manifesto is based on a Transhumanist Art Statement written in 1982. Cited as specific influences are "Abstract Art, Performance Art, Kinetic Art, Cubism, Techno Art, science fiction and Communications Art." Some collaborators of Vita-More's are named as Timothy Leary, Bill Viola and Francis Ford Coppola.
World wide web 1999–Edit
Widespread access to the internet has created a new incentive for artists to publish manifestos, with the knowledge that there is an instant potential worldwide audience. Some of the manifestos also appear in print form; others only exist as virtual text. It has also led to a great diversity of approaches, as well as a noticeable trend looking back at earlier traditions of Modernism or the Renaissance to create a present and future paradigm.
The Stuckists have grown in seven years from 13 artists in London to 137 groups in 34 countries, and claim, "Stuckism is the first significant art movement to spread via the Internet" The first 3 points of their numbered eponymous manifesto proclaim "a quest for authenticity", "painting is the medium of self discovery" and "a model of art which is holistic". The 4th point states, "Artists who don't paint aren't artists"; the 5th is, "Art that has to be in a gallery to be art isn’t art." Points are made against conceptual art, Britart, Charles Saatchi, art gimmicks and white wall galleries, while the amateur is hailed. The final point is:
- Stuckism embraces all that it denounces. We only denounce that which stops at the starting point — Stuckism starts at the stopping point!
This manifesto is available on their web site in 7 languages. They have issued at least 8 other manifestos, including the Remodernist Manifesto (2000), which inaugurates "a new spirituality in art" (to replace Postmodernism's "scientific materialism, nihilism and spiritual bankruptcy"), the Turner Prize Manifesto, handed out in their demonstrations at Tate Britain and a Critique of Damien Hirst. Spin-offs by other Stuckists include a Camberwell College of Arts Students for Stuckism manifesto (2000), a rewrite by Terry Reynoldson (2004) and a teenagers' Underage Stuckists Manifesto (2006). There has also been an anti-Stuckist manifesto published in 2005 by the London Surrealist Group.
By Kerry Mitchell
There is an introduction followed by two sections—"Fractal art is" (4 bullet points) and "Fractal art is not" (3 bullet points). Fractal art has been around "15–20 years". It is obviously concerned with computer-generated fractal images, but advanced as art "in many respects similar to photography—another art form which was greeted by skepticism upon its arrival. Fractal images typically are manifested as prints, bringing Fractal Artists into the company of painters, photographers, and printmakers." The need for selection and skill is stressed, as is the need for the practitioner to be "expressive" and "creative". It concludes, "Most of all, Fractal Art is simply that which is created by Fractal Artists: ART."
by Charles Moffat
Charles Alexander Moffat is a Canadian artist and Curator of the Lilith Gallery. The manifesto advocates Neo-Gothism (which started "as part of the punk movement") in 9 Statements, ranging from a paragraph to a short sentence, most of which are about the agenda that "We are social rebels, misfits, a society within a society, ignored to some extent but still there, thriving and becoming more popular than ever", and that "Gothic culture is more than just a bunch of clothes and dark art." He advicates what he says is "an art style that has been around since Francesco Goya in the early Romanticist Period! Cheers to the people, the designers, the writers and the artists who stand up and make a difference! Vive le resistance!"
by Susie Ramsay and Rafael Lozano-Hemmer
This was written tongue-in-cheek, beginning, "'OK art' is an OK idea,—not great, but not bad either." It has the ring of truth when it states in point 4: "Art enthusiasts and cynics alike, leave an OK art exhibition saying 'that was OK'. No one is blown away but they don't feel cheated either."
by Tom 7
This is a short manifesto with four numbered points and two concluding paragraphs, when the numbering runs out. It advocates quick, high volume production of work, disregarding aesthetics, consumption and invention in favour of discovery. It is a democratising inititiative: "The Crap Art movement tries, above all, to avoid the elitism and more-artistic-than-thou attitude which has effectively kept the creation of art solely in the hands of 'artists'. We hope that everyone can make art." However "The name 'crap art' does not mean to indicate that crap art is somehow worthless ... indeed, we believe that it is more worthwhile than most of what is commonly considered 'art'". Furthermore, "it's easy to make crap art: Just sit down and do it!"
by Christopher Fiddes
This British manifesto is signed by over 100 painters and sculptors of professional standing. It opens by stating "the visual arts have reached a point of crisis. The art that has enjoyed critical acclaim in recent decades is shallow, trivial, ill-crafted and bankrupt of ideas." It condemns abstraction, "the same tired formula" of conceptualism, the Turner Prize and the destruction of art school academic training by the Coldstream Committee in the mid-20th century. It advocates technical accomplishment, reverence for the "great art that has been in the past" and a return to tradition while also, ironically, acknowledging:
- The arrival of the internet means it is no longer necessary to exhibit one’s work in the tiny handful of fashionable London galleries, for at the touch of a switch it can be placed before a world wide public.
An organisation with similar aims in America is the Art Renewal Center.
Contemporary art manifestos on the internetEdit
This list is not complete. Date given is that of the manifesto.
- Neomodernism Manifesto (2000), illustrated (2001), text + list
- The Conscious Art Manifesto (2000-01)
- Manifesto of Visionary Art (2001)
- Anti-Stylism Manifesto
- Eco-Art Manifesto (February 12, 2004)
- Manifesto of the Surrealist Group in Ioannina (June 2004)
- Humanitarian art manifesto (September 2004)
- The freestyle art manifesto (November 17, 2004)
- Symbiotic Art Manifesto (2004)
- Derivative Works Art Manifesto (December 18, 2005)
No date, presumed post–2000
- Manifesto 2100
- Industrial Culture Performance Art
- Avant-Pop Manifesto
- A Manifesto and Anti-Manifesto for Outer-Art
- Cass Art is a chain of artshops in London. As part of their promotion they have issued a "manifesto" in the style of an art group. This begins, "Art is freedom. Cass Art believes in art." There are seven points. The sixth begins, "We want to fill this town with artists", which has also been displayed across their shop fronts in a banner. 
- ↑ "Screeching Voices: Avant-Garde Manifestos in the Cabaret", Martin Puchner Retrieved April 4, 2006
- ↑ "Looking at Artists' Manifestos, 1945–1965", Stephen B. Petersen Retrieved April 4, 2006
- ↑ "Poetry of the Revolution. Marx, Manifestos, and the Avant-Gardes" introduction, Martin Puchner Retrieved April 4, 2006
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 “Cronologia degli eventi new media, 1952–1998” Retrieved April 7, 2006
- ↑ "Touch Sanitation", Robert C. Morgan Retrieved April 7, 2006
- ↑ "Learning from Landfill", Daniel Belasco, Jewish Culture News, Spring 2002 Retrieved April 7, 2002 from www2.jewishculture.org
- ↑ "Power and Glory in Sisterhood", Edward M. Gomez, New York Times, October 13, 2002 Retrieved April 7, 2006 from schroederromero.com
- ↑ from Maintenance Art Manifesto Retrieved from artgroove.com April 7, 2006
- ↑ "African American Art", artlex.com Retrieved April 7, 2006
- ↑ "Movements, Groups and Kindred Spirits", asrc.cornell.edu Retrieved April 7, 2006
- ↑ "In conversation: Nancy Spero with Stephanie Buhmann", The Brooklyn Rail, November 2003 Retrieved April 7, 2006
- ↑ "Inducing Knowledge by Enduring Experience: The Function of a Postmodern Pragmatic Aesthetic in Linda Montano's Living Art", Alisa A. Brandenburg, 2004 Retrieved April 7, 2006
- ↑ "Stewart Home", Wikipedia Retrieved April 7, 2006
- ↑ "Social Technologies: Deconstruction, subversion and the utopia of democratic communication", Inke Arns Retrieved April 7, 2006
- ↑ "Beyond the Porno Manifesto", Martin Kreischer, January 2005 Retrieved April 8, 2006
- ↑ "Post Porn, Post Sex, A New Art Movement", Frank Moore, 1989-1993 Retrieved April 7, 2006
- ↑ Billy Childish interview, trakmarx.com Retrieved April 7, 2006
- ↑ "A Stuckist on Stuckism", Charles Thomson, 2004 Retrieved April 7, 2006
- ↑ Cass Art Manifesto Retrieved April 4, 2006
- Poetry of the Revolution: Marx, Manifestos, and the Avant-Gardes
- Index of manifestos
- Art and manifesto in the neo-avant-garde (conference papers, 2002)
- Chapter from Art in Theory 1900–2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas, Second Edition, Edited By: Charles Harrison, Open University, Paul Wood, Open University